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SHELLS AND SEA LIFE 

FORMERLY THE OPISTHOBRANCH 



Volume 1 6, Number 5 
Page 49 




Living Guam Bubble Shell (Micromelo undatus) from 8 m off Cape Byron, northern New South Wales, 
Australia. Photograph by R. C. Willan. 



Vol. 16(5): 50 



SHELLSANDSEALIFE 



May1984 



The Guam Bubble Shell Micromelo 
undatus (Brugiere, 1792) in Australia 

by Richard C. Willan 

This attractive shelled opisthobranch is 
recognizable by its smooth, involute shell marked, as if 
by an accurate computer plotter, with a mesh of three 
dark spirals and numerous, wavy, intersecting radial 
lines. The animal's capacious foot, which can reach 23 
mm when fully extended, is margined in subtlest tur- 
quoise and gold and boldly white-spotted. The 
sinuous head shield and infrapallial lobe carry white 
spots too, but their borders are yellow. The beauty of a 
living Micromelo undatus is never to be forgotten; a 
delight that, unfortunately, is seldom experienced by 
Australians because of its uncommoness . Its range ex- 
tends down the eastern coast of that continent to nor- 
thern New South Wales, and it is near their southern 
limit that I have encountered three living specimens in 
four years. 

Actually one could hardly call my first specimen 
"living". The animal was being devoured by a 
predatory mitre shell (Vexillum cadaverosum). 
However, the two specimens that I found subsequently 
were very active and they survived well in the 
laboratory allowing me to observe and photograph 
them (see colored illustration). I found all three 
specimens between 8 and 10 metres on a substrate of 
clean sand and coral rubble supporting a little turfing 
algae. 

The shell's opacity obscures the interesting features 
of its mantle cavity - two raised ciliated ridges (raphes), 
a complex gill and a large rearward extension of the 
mantle cavity (pallial caecum) that extends as a spiral- 
ing tube from the right posterior corner of the cavity to 
the very top of the visceral mass. Rudman (1972a) 
studied the anatomy of Hawaiian Micromelo undatus 
and concluded the species should be located in the 
family Hydatinidae on account of the animal's large, 
non-retractile and brightly-coloured animal, lack of 
operculum, relatively long oral tube, nervous system 
and radular structure. 

Despite the certainty of the familial placement for 
the Guam Bubble, doubt remains over its correct 
generic and specific names. Mr. Robert Burn of 
Geelong, Australia, is currently investigating the 
generic nomenclature. And there is controversy too 
about the specific name because of the shell's shape 
and coloration. Differences in shell shape between 
populations from the Pacific Ocean (presently called 
Micromelo guamensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825)) and 
Atlantic Ocean (Micromelo undatus (Brugiere, 1792)) 
are not significant and the differences in colour of the 
lines on the shell - either red or black - appear to be 
merely intraspecific variation. Some specimens from 
the Atlantic Ocean (where the species is also widely 
distributed) have black-lined shells (Rosewater, 1975) 
but others have red-lined shells (Warmke & Abbott, 



1961; Marcus & Marcus, 1967; Abbott, 1974; Hum- 
frey, 1975). Pacific Ocean specimens display the same 
colour variation: black in Hawaii (Kay, 1979; Bertsch 
& Johnson, 1981); black in the Philippines (Abrea, 
1981 - though the illustration of the animal is grossly 
inaccurate); red in my Australian specimens; red in the 
Solomon Islands (Quayle in Coleman, 1982). Separa- 
tions based on these colour differences appear over- 
exact, as conchological features sometimes are in the 
Cephalaspidea (e.g. Marcus, 1977), because the 
animal shows little variation in either Atlantic or 
Pacific Oceans. Salisbury (1 983) mentioned the colour 
of the animal's foot varied from pale green to 
transparent white. Incidentally, I have a colour slide 
of a living specimen from South Africa, and this time 
the shell's lines are reddish-black. It appears, 
therefore, that the two shell colour morphs are not 
discrete nor geographically clinal in either Atlantic or 
Pacific populations. 

The Guam Bubble must possess a veliger stage 
capable of long-distance transport to account for the 
species' enormously wide distribution across the 
tropical oceans. I suggest Micromelo undatus and M. 
guamensis are conspecific with the one species, which 
by priority should be M. undatus, widespread in the 
Pacific and Atlantic. Rudman (1977b) reached this 
same conclusion for another member of the same 
family, Hydatina physis (Linneaus, 1758). 

REFERENCES 

Abbott, R.T. 1974. American Seashells (2nd ed.) Van- 
Nostrand Reinhold. 663 pp. 

Abrea, N.S. 1981. Description and illustration of 
unknown cephalaspid from northern Mindanao, Philip- 
pine Islands. Hawaiian Shell News 29 (9) : 9. 

Bertsch, H. & S. Johnson 1981. Hawaiian Nudibranchs 
Oriental Publishing Co. 112 pp. 

Humfrey, M. 1975. Sea Shells of the West Indies. Collins. 
351pp. 

Kay, E.A. 1979. Hawaiian Marine Shells. Reef and Shore 
Fauna of Hawaii. Section 4 : Mollusca. Bernice P. Bishop- 
Museum Special Publication 64 (4). 653 pp. 

Marcus, Eveline 1977. On the genus Tornatina and related 
forms. The Journal of Molluscan Studies. Supplement 2. 
35 pp. 

Marcus, Eveline & Ernst Marcus 1967. American 
Opisthobranch Mollusks. Studies in Tropical 
Oceanography, Miami 6. 256 pp. 

Quayle, N. 1982. Photograph of live Micromelo. P. 14, IN: 
Coleman, N. (Ed.) Underwater 2. 

Rosewater, J. 1975. An annotated list of the marine mollusks 
of Ascenson Island, South Atlantic Ocean. Smithsonian 
Contributions to Zoology 189. 41 pp. 

Rudman, W.B. 1977a. Studies on the primitive 
opisthobranch genera Bullina Ferussac and Micromelo 
Pilsbry. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 51(2) : 
105-119. 

Rudman, W.B. 1977b. The anatomy of the opisthobranch 
genus Hydatina and the functioning of the mantle cavity 
and alimentary canal. Zoological Journal of the Linnean 
Society 51(2) : 121-139. 

Salisbury, R. 1983. Photograph of Micromelo shell from 
Guam. Hawaiian Shell News 31 (2) : 7 (page of shell il- 
lustrations). 

Warmke, G.L. & R.T. Abbott 1962. Caribbean Seashells. 
Livingston Publishing Co. 348 pp. 



May 1984 



SHELLS ANDSEA LIFE 



Vol. 16(5): 51 



Editor's Notes: 

Several subscribers have expressed concern with 
the expanded coverage of the Opisthobranch (see 
Jensen "Personal Notes" for example). I hope that 
everyone will gain with the expansion into all areas of 
malacology. I hope to see the journal grow even larger 
than the current 20 pages monthly and see articles on 
every aspect of malacology, shell collecting and related 
areas. All you have to do is write the articles. I am far 
from having problems with too much material. 

I consider myself to be an amateur and believe very 
firmly that amateurs can have a major impact on the 
science of malacology. The data we collect, or in my 
case, the information I collect, can, and often does 
assist formal research. In addition, many of the in- 
stitutions where the professionals learn and work were 
originally founded, and/or are currently funded, by 
amateur malacologists. 

Professional malacologists have always given me so 
very much support and encouragement. They have 
shown time and again their willingness to exchange in- 
formation with me as an amateur. The most "impor- 
tant" malacological professionals have always seemed 
to be the first ones to offer help. They must realize the 
contributions that shell-collectors, students, and 
amateurs make. Why do you think there were 
somewhat over 100 of S. Stillman Berry's "Berry's 
Boys?" (See Jack Brookshire's biographical notes on 
Berry in this issue.) 



Please consider joining and supporting your local 
malacological society or club. R. Tucker Abbott's ap- 
peal in "Personal Notes" has sound reasoning. In addi- 
tion to the "National" shell organizations you should 
also look at the "International," "Regional" and more 
"Local" shell groups. All consider furthering the study 
and enjoyment of mollusks to be their primary pur- 
pose. The Opisthobranch will provide information on 
many of these groups as space permits. 

Concurrent with production of the Opisthobranch, 

I am typesetting and proof-reading the Western Socie- 
ty of Malacologists' Annual Report. The type is 
almost set and will get to a printer as soon as the re- 
maining type can be set and pasted up. 

The publication date for the April issue of the 
Opisthobranch was April 21, 1984. 

Thanks to Mr. and Mrs. Gilbert Davis [Manchester, 
England] for lots of help and encouragement during 
their recent stay in Phoenix. Thanks also to Jonathan 
Bennett and Kristin Long for their assistance with 
mailings. 

Thanks to the many people who make the 
Opisthobranch possible. A very special thanks to 
Eveline Marcus for her support over the years. She is 
our first "Lifetime Subscriber." Thanks to Stu Lillico 
and Hawaiian Shell News for the nice notice on the 
Opisthobranch in their April issue. R. Tucker Abbott 
continues to assist us in so many ways. 



Editorial Review Board 

R.Tucker Abbott 
HansW. Bertsch 
Walter O. Cernohorsky 
Eugene V.Coan 
Michael T.Ghiselin 
George L.Kennedy 
T. E. Thompson 

Monthly Features 

Miscellanea 

Notes from Hans Bertsch 

Classification Notes 



David W. Behrens 

Donald B.Cadien 

Kerry B.Clark 

Malcolm Edmunds 

Terrence Gosliner 

James R. Lance 



Editorial Staff 

Managing Editor . . . 
Assistant Editor 
Contributing Editor 



ISSN 0747-6078 



Steven J. Long 
. .Sally Bennett 
. . Hans Bertsch 



. . Sally Bennett 

. . Hans Bertsch 

KayC.Vaught 



The Opisthobranch is open to articles and notes on any aspect of malacology -- or 
related marine life. Deadlines are the first day of each month. Articles submitted for 
publication are subject to editorial board review and may include color or black and 
white illustrations. 

Short articles containing descriptions of new or repositioned taxa will be given 
priority provided the holotype(s) have been deposited with a recognized public 
museum and the museum numbers are included with the manuscript. We undertake no 
responsibility for unsolicited material sent for possible inclusion in the publication. No 
material will be returned unless accompanied by return postage and packing. The 
author will receive 10 free reprints. Additional reprints will be supplied at cost provid- 
ed they are ordered before printing. 

® Copyright Miranda Enterprises, Inc. 1984 



The Opisthobranch is published 
monthly by Steven J. Long and 
Sally Bennett, 505 E. Pasadena, 
Phoenix, AZ 85012-1518 U.S.A. 
Telephone (602)274-3615. 
Subscriptions are only available by 
calendar year volume (January- 
December). U.S. Bulk Mail 
subscription rates are $15.00 per 
year for individuals or $30.00 per 
year for libraries. U.S. First Class 
mail and Foreign Subscription 
rates are $20.00 per year. Add 
$10.00 for Air Mail postage. All 
back volumes are available. Write 
for details. Rates are subject to 
change without notice. Arizona 
residents must add sales tax. 



Vol. 16(5): 52 



SHELLS ANDSEA LIFE 



May 1984 



Floating docks: unique microcosms 
lie just beneath your feet 

by Sven Donaldson and Sandra Millen 

When you tie your boat up to a floating dock, it is 
unlikely that you ever stop to think that just a few in- 
ches underfoot is a different world — a veritable jungle 
of marine organisms. However, if you lie face down 
on the dock and hang your head over the edge 
(behavior common to kids, but rare in sober adults), 
you can see a wealth of marine life. Float communities 
are often comprised of groupings of plants and 
animals found together nowhere else, not because the 
substrate they live on is man-made, but because the 
physical environment they encounter is unique. 
Floating docks are very shallow subtidal habitats, yet 
ones that are often left relatively undisturbed year 
after year. Like intertidal communities, but unlike 
deeper subtidal communities, the plants and animals 
dwelling on floats are subject to substantial and abrupt 
variations in temperature and salinity. 

Salinity changes in nearshore marine environments 
generally occur because freshwater is less dense than 
seawater and tends to form a floating surface layer. 
Particularly in early summer, when freshets are strong 
and mixing caused by storms is rare, a clear cut line of 
demarcation called a halocine forms between fresh 
surface waters and the salty waters below. Scuba 
divers frequently swim through the halocine — a 
murky-looking, turbulent area — usually found at 
depths of 10 to 15 ft. Because the presence of fresh sur- 
face water is transitory, wharf-dwellers (as well as in- 
tertidal and shallow subtidal organisms) are frequent- 
ly exposed to grueling salinity fluctuations. 



Temperature variations in surface waters come 
about because summer sun warms the surface waters, 
and, at low tide also warms the mud and rocks that an 
incoming tide then covers. Just as salt water becomes 
less dense as it is diluted, its density also decreases 
when it is heated. Unless mechanical mixing occurs, 
the warm water tends to separate into a comfortable 
surface layer atop the remaining much colder water. 
The effect is particularly pronounced in freshwater 
lakes, where you will usually encounter an un- 
mistakable thermocline at a depth of six to eight ft. 
Many marine organisms find the effect of warm water 
considerably less pleasant than we do — in fact, they 
cannot tolerate it for more than a brief time. Those 
that cannot handle the combined effects of high 
temperature and low salinity will, of course, be exclud- 
ed from floating docks. 

Some organisms are excluded from floats by their 
physical isolation from shore. For example, the com- 
mon predatory snails of the genus Thais are intertidal 
animals that can easily tolerate dock conditions. The 
barnacles they eat are common on many floats. 
However, Thais cannot swim and has no planktonic 
larval stage that can drift about and eventually col- 
onize new habitats. As a result, it is never seen except 
in places where pioneering adults can crawl from their 
usual rocky-shore homes. In terms of biological isola- 
tion, floats are essentially little up-side-down islands, 
remote and inaccessible. 

Other intertidal organisms don't make it on floats 
because they cannot stand the biological competition. 
In the intertidal zone, where environmental conditions 
are harshest of all, they may find the space and 
resources they need, but below the tide line — or 




A few float dwellers. 1) Edible Mussel. 2) Anemone, Tealia. 3) Sea Slug, Aeolidea. 4) Anemone, Metridium. 5) Sea Cucumber, 
Eupentacta. 6) Tunicate, Boltenia. 7)Gerbil (not to scale.) 8) Alga, Laminaria. 9) Bryozoan, Membranipora. 10) Hydroid. Obelia. 11) 
Crumb-of-bread Sponge. 1 2) Bryozoan, Dendrobeania. 1 3) Acorn Barnacles. 1 4) Broken-backed Shrimp. 1 5) Scaleworm, Halosyd- 
na. 16) Sponge, Haliclona. 1 7) Tunicate, Corella. 18) Tube Worm, Serpu/a. 19) Hydroid, Tubularia. 20) Sponge, Scypha. 21) Plume 
Worm, Eudistylia. 



May 1984 



SHELLS ANDSEA LIFE 



Vol. 16(5): 53 



beneath a floating dock — other, less hardy species can 
cope more successfully, and will thus crowd them out. 

Finally, there are quite a few intertidal and subtidal 
bottom dwellers that seldom live on floats because 
they are too heavy and awkward — one false step and 
off they fall into oblivion. The longer a creature lives, 
of course, the greater the chance of a clumsy mistake. 
For this reason, one typically finds only young sea ur- 
chins, starfish, and crabs on the underside of floats. 

So what are you likely to see when you peer beneath 
a float? A lot depends on where the dock is, and how 
long it's been in place. Ecologists have studied succes- 
sion (the orderly process of colonization) in terrestrial 
habitats. In many cases it follows a series of predic- 
table stages, each replacing the last in an orderly se- 
quence, until a stable "climax community" is reached. 
Thus, when a field is allowed to grow over, grasses and 
broadleaf shrubs take hold, later to be excluded by 
fast- growing trees which will, in turn, be overshadow- 
ed by the larger, slower-growing trees that comprise 
the mature woodlot. In the marine environment, suc- 
cession also occurs, but seldom in the "classical" pat- 
tern that culminates in a predictable climax communi- 
ty. After a bare surface — such as a new float — is 
submerged, a bacterial film grows to coat it. This first 
stage appears to be necessary before fungi and diatoms 
can settle and grow. Once these first two successional 
waves have "conditioned" the substrate, it is accep- 
table to a wide variety of marine plants and animals. 
However, what comes next is largely a matter of 
chance, depending upon what spores and larvae are 
present in the plankton at the time in that locale. 
Usually at least some of the third-wave colonizers will 
be capable of "putting down roots" and holding the 
ground indefinitely. 

In extremely brackish waters, like False Creek in 
Vancouver, the available space will all go to just a few 
hardy organisms: green filamentous algae (commonly 
called slime), barnacles, and mussels. In more saline 
waters, a wealth of life can potentially inhabit the 
under-surfaces of floats. In addition, secondary in- 
habitants move in to occupy niches created by the 
presence of plants and animals already there, just as a 
field becomes a woodlot. There is too much variety of 
life beneath our local floats to describe in detail, so we 
will mention only a handful of the more prominent 
organisms. The wide-bladed brown alga Laminaria 
saccharina grows to about eight ft. in length, and is the 
largest plant you'll see, but the sharp-eyed observer 
will note many other species. The most conspicuous 
animals are barnacles, mussels, sea anemones, 
tunicates, and large plume worms. Most of these will 
be present in the well-developed communities occupy- 
ing floats in more fertile locations, although barnacles 
are prone to being overgrown and smothered by other 



species. Sabellid tube worms, the last group mention- 
ed, have beautiful feeding appendages resembling 
feather dusters. These are abruptly withdrawn into the 
mouths of their parchment-like tubes if the animals are 
disturbed. Our largest sabellid, Eudistylia van- 
couveri, is named after the B.C. city and bears a plume 
marked with alternating bands of green and maroon. 
Its tubes can be over three feet long, although the 
worm itself is shorter and creeps up and down inside 
with the aid of bristles on its paddle-like legs. 

Close observers may notice areas covered with a 
yellow, crumbly substance attached to the float. This 
is one of many local sponges, the crumb-of-bread 
sponge, Halichondria. If you take a piece and smell it, 
you will be greeted by a foul stench reminiscent of rot- 
ting garlic. This is, in fact, one of the characteristics 
used to identify the species. Another sponge, 
Schypha, forms little light grey "vases" one or two in- 
ches high. 

Many of the fine-textured, branching "plants" 
growing on docks are actually colonial animals, 
hydroids such as Obelia. Hydroids are sedentary 
stages in the life-cycles of hydromedusan jellyfish (PY 
July '81). If you shake either an algal frond or a 
hydroid, you will dislodge a host of little crustaceans: 
shrimp, flattened comma-shaped amphods, isopods 
(marine pillbugs), and tiny copepods, each sporting 
one bright red eye in the center of its head. 

Those lump-like objects that squirt water when you 
touch them are, appropriately enough, called sea 
squirts or tunicates. The glassy sea squirt, Corella, is 
transparent and jelly-like, while Boltenia is firm and 
spiny. Although lacking most sense organs and in- 
capable of locomotion, tunicates belong to the phylum 
Cordata, the same advanced group of animals as the 
vertebrates. 

To take a good look at float dwelling organisms 
without getting wet, there are two approches. One is to 
grab a handful of worm tubes, seaweed and associated 
stuff, tear it off the float, and hold it away from the 
edge of the dock or submerged in a bucket of seawater 
where you can turn them about and examine them in 
strong daylight. This is somewhat analogous to bodily 
uprooting an acre of forest, but will do little harm to 
the marine habitat, provided it is not practiced in- 
discriminately. Another approach is to find an object 
hanging off a float, such as a rope, chain, or old tire, 
that can be pulled up, examined, and reimmersed. Just 
be sure to throw everything back, or you'll leave a 
stinking mess behind. And by the way, most float- 
dwelling organisms can't distinguish between the bot- 
tom of a dock and the bottom of a boat, especially one 
that hasn't been hauled out for quite some time. 
Perhaps the fascinations of a unique fouling com- 
munity are even closer than you think. 



Vol. 16(5): 54 



SHELLSANDSEALIFE 



May 1984 



A Threatened Giant 

Text and photos by Alex Kerstitch 

Hollywood has given the Tridacna clam the unwar- 
ranted reputation of being a killer which has drowned 
hapless divers inadvertently trapped between its giant 
valves. Derived from the Greek 'tridaknos', meaning 
'eaten at three bites', Tridacna is more popularly 
known as the giant clam because some specimens can 
weigh several hundred pounds. The largest species, 
Tridacna gigas Linnaeus, has been reported to grow to 
over 4/2 feet in length and weigh over 550 pounds. 




Tridacna sp. Coral Sea. 



It is not the unusually large size that make some 
tridacnids remarkable (some species only reach six in- 
ches), but their ability to cultivate their own food. The 
colorful mantle which lines the scalloped edges of the 
valves harbors symbiotic algae known as zooxan- 
thellae. The giant clam and the heart cockle are two 
shelled mollusks that symbiotically house algae in 
tissues exposed to sunlight. Tridacnids live in shallow, 
nutrient -impoverished coral reef waters where strong 
sunlight is responsible for the photo-synthetic pro- 
cesses of zooxanthellae. The cultivated algae produce 
large amounts of carbohydrate released into the clam's 
bloodstream and, in turn, obtain nitrogen, 




Tridacna gigas Linnaeus, among 
coral; Coral Sea. 



' . ".-• •' 


■ jE .. 


i -/- m 


■1 - . 


'•^yj^ 


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"'*flH 




Wf^'y. 


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A mi'-' 




Tridacna maxima 


Roedi 


ng; Coral Sea. 



phosphorus and sulfur from the clam's waste material 
to produce protein. The well developed digestive and 
filtration systems of tridacnids permit them to obtain 
ambient phytoplankton and zooplankton. This 
source of food, however, cannot adequately provide 
the nutritive requirements for the growth of the large 
valves. 

Under ideal conditions it may take ten years for a 
giant clam, such as Tridacna gigas, to grow to 18-20 in- 
ches and perhaps 100 years to reach maximum size. 
Unfortunately, commercial Taiwanese poachers 
destroy in a few seconds a clam a century old. It has 
been estimated that since 1960, Taiwanese have been 
poaching up to a million giant clams a year along the 
Great Barrier Reef of Australia. By cutting the large 
adductor muscle to be sold for food, the large valves 
are left to be picked clean by reef fishes and other 
marine organisms. Like tombstones, they become 
mementos in graveyards of empty shells. 




According to a survey by Queensland University, 
there is an estimated population of about 1 5,000 giant 
Tridacna gigas per average size reef. Since the great 
Barrier Reef is made up of approximately 1 140 reefs, 
the population of clams should be roughly 17 million. 



May 1984 



SHELLS ANDSEA LIFE 



Vol. 16(5): 55 



Other parts of the tropical Pacific are experiencing 
similar overexploitation of Thdacna species. For- 
tunately, there is currently an attempt at culturing 
these clams in Micronesia as part of a project funded 
by the U.S. Sea Grant Program aimed at restoring 
dwindling populations in various parts of the world. 



Literature Cited: 

Ehrlich, Paul. Ecoscience Nov/Dec. 1981; Conser- 
vatives and Conservation, pp. 148-149 

Cropp, Ben. Skin Diver; January 1982; Clam poaching 
on the high seas. pp. 35, 98-101 

Kerstitch, Alex. Educational Images; Farming the 
Seas, Spring 1981; Slide Set. 



Alex Kerstitch, 5436 East Bellevue Avenue, Tucson, Arizona 85712. 



Reader Forum 

Eveline Marcus [Caixa Postal 6994, 01051 Sao 
Paulo, Brazil]. The new species of Bosellia 
[Opisthobranch 16 (3): 18] should be compared with 
Bosellia cohellia Marcus, 1978, Bolm. Zool. 3: 1-5, 5 
figs, from the Red Sea, reconstructed from a series of 
34 slides of sections! 

On page 26 1 find the word "lumped" nasty, it should 
be: synonymized! 

I prefer the Cephalaspidea, Anaspidea, Notaspidea, 
Ascoglossa to Bullomorpha, Aplysiomorpha, 
Pleurobranchomorpha and Sacoglossa. When Iher- 
ing gave the name Saco- or Saccoglossa, he published 
that Bergh had the same in manuscript, called 
Ascoglossa; see Supplement 10, Journ. Moll. Stud., 
1982: p. 8, in my: Systematics of the ... Ascoglossa. I 

won't contradict Willan with his one family. 

***** 

Kathe Jensen [Zoologisk Museum, Univer- 
sitetsparken 15, DK2100Kobenhavn, Denmark] Note 
to Dr. Donald Shasky's note on Cephalaspideans (Vol. 
16, p. 26): Marcus (1976) suggests that the 3 species of 
Ascobulla may be synonymous, which is not the same 
as saying that they are. Also, the genus Ascobulla is an 
ascoglossan, whereas the genus Cylindrobulla, with 
the type species C. beaui Fischer, 1856, is a diaphana- 
cean (part of the old cephalaspideans). Only by look- 
ing at radular morphology can the two genera be 
separated, and most likely specific differences are seen 
only in the soft parts - which, unfortunately, shell- 
collectors show little (or no) interest in. Feeding 
biology and reproduction has been investigated in the 
West Atlantic Ascobulla ulla (Jensen, K.R., 1981. J. 
moll. Stud. 47: 190-199; Clark, K.B. and Jensen, 
K.R., 1981. Internat. J. Invert. Reprod. 3: 57-64), 
whereas nothing is known about the biology of the 
Californian or Japanese species. Until these species 
have been studied alive and their soft parts examined, I 
hesitate very much to synonymize them. 



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American Malacologists, Inc. 

Publishers of Distinctive Books on Mollusks 
P.O. Box 2255, Melbourne, FL 32902-2255 

We accept VISA or MASTERCARD orders by mail. Please give date of ex- 
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Of Sea and Shore 



-PUBLICATIONS 



Port Gamble Washington 
98364 



Of Sea and Shore Magazine - $9.50 per volume IA issues to a volume / lots 
of information for the sheller, sample copy, $2.00 postpaid. 
A Catalog of Dealers' Prices for Marine Shells - 7th edition 1 983, 74 pages 
plus supplement on land & freshwater shells $9.50 plus $0.75 postage 
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COLLECTOR & DEALER IN WORLDWIDE ^~*^ 

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FREE PRICE LISTS UPON REQUEST 

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Vol. 16(5): 56 



SHELLSANDSEALIFE 



May1984 



Publication Notes 

American Malacological Bulletin February, 1984. Volume 2: iii + 
125 pp.[Received 9 April, 1984] 

DeFreese, D.E. & K.B. Clark 1983. Analysis of reproductive ener- 
getics of Florida Opisthobranchia (Mollusca: Gastropoda). In- 
ternational Journal of Invertebrate Reproduction, 6 (1): 1-10. 
[#10417]; July, 1983] 

Fretter, Vera 1983. Spawn and Spawn Formation in Prosobranchs 
as compared with Aplysiomorph Opisthobranchs. Errata. The 
Bulletin of the American Malacological Union, Inc., 1981. 5 sep- 
arate pages mailed with the American Malacological Bulletin, 1. 
[July, 1983; #10414] 

Ghilarov, M.S. 1983 [#10413 included in April issue; paper is in 
Russian] 

Rasotto, M. & P. Cardellini 1983. The Chromosomes of Dendro- 
doris grand/flora (Gastropoda, Mollusca). Caryologia, 36 (2): 
175-181. [#10418] 

Schmekel, L. & A. Portmann 1982. Opisthobranchia des Mittel- 
meeres. Nudibranchia und Saccoglossa. Fauna e Flora del 
Golfo di Napoli 40. Monografia della Stazione Zoologica di 
Napoli. Springer- Verlag, Germany, pp. I-X + 1-410; 122 text 
figs.; 36 pis. including 18 color pis. [#10415; German; 107 
nudibranch & 20 sacoglossan species; price approx. $170.00] 

Willan, Richard & John Morton. 1984. Marine Molluscs Part 2, 
Opisthobranchia. University of Auckland, Leigh Marine Lab- 
oratory, Auckland, New Zealand, pp. 1-106, figures. [#10416; 
This part is the second of a series (of four) describing the marine 
mollusks from the Leigh Marine Reserve, North Auckland, New 
Zealand. Essentially it deals with all the mollusks occuring in 
northern New Zealand. Not only are the species named but the 
authors have tried to include a resume of facts about each species' 
biology and ecology as well as a good illustration. The series 
originated from a workshop on the Mollusca held at the Leigh 
Marine Laboratory. Copies of the Opisthobranchia volume are 
available at $12.00 New Zealand, from the Leigh Marine Labor- 
atory (University of Auckland), R.D. Leigh, North Auckland, 
New Zealand. 



Current Events 

The INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON 
MARINE PLANKTON convened by the WESTERN 
SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS, USA and TOKAI 
UNIVERSITY, JAPAN and THE PLANKTON 
SOCIETY OF JAPAN. Will be held July 22 - August 
4, 1984. at Tokai University, Schimizu, Japan. 



Pre-registration for the AMERICAN 
MALACOLOGICAL UNION meeting is available 
until May 31. Send registration forms to Mrs. Wylda 
Stephens, AMU local chairman, 568 Longfellow 
Ave., Virginia Beach, VA 23462. Accomodation 
registration with the Holiday Inn should be made 
separately. 

Pre-registration for the CONCHOLOGISTS of 
AMERICA convention is available until June 7. 
Register by May 28, to ensure accomodations at the 
Don CeSar Beach Resort, convention center. 
Registration forms are available from Donald C. 
Young, 11975 Third Street East, Treasure Island, 
Florida 33706. 



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Vol. 16(5): 57 



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Current Addresses 

Dr. R. Tucker Abbott, P.O. Box 2255, Melbourne, FL 32901 

Manuel Ballesteros Vasquez, Departament de Zoologia, 
Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Barcelona, via Cortez 
Catalanas, 585 Barcelona - 7 Spain. 

Marielle Brandon, Red Hook, Box 48, St. Thomas, U.S. 
Virgin Islands 00802 

Donald B. Cadien, 1006 37th Street, San Pedro, CA 90831 

Dr. Kerry B. Clark, Department of Biological Sciences, 
Florida Institute of Technology, 150 West University 
Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 

Dr. Eugene V. Coan, 891 San Jude Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 
94306 

Dr. M.S. Ghilarov, Institute of Animal Evolution and 
Ecology, Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R., Moscow, 
U.S.S.R. 

J. Carlos Garcia Gomez, Departamento de Zoologia, 
Facultad de Biologia, Apartado 1.095, Reina Mercedes, 6, 
Sevilla - 12, Spain. 

Dr. Terrence Gosliner, Department of Invertebrate 
Zoology, California Academy of Sciences, Golden State 
Park, San Francisco, C A 94118 

Dr. Larry G. Harris, Zoology Building, Department of 
Biological Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, N.S.W. 
2006 Austrailia. Until June, 1984? 

James R. Lance, 746 Agate St., San Diego, CA 92109 

Mary R. Larson, 1200 E. Central, No. 4, Sutherlin, Oregon 
97479. New address effective 1 May, 1984. 

Stuart Lillico, Hawaiian Malacological Society, P.O. Box 
10391, Honolulu, HI 96816 

Drs. Roger and Alison Longley, Friday Harbor 
Laboratories, University of Washington, Friday Harbor, 
WA 98250 

Dr. James H. McLean, Malacology Section, Los Angeles 
County Museum of Natural History, 900 Exposition 
Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90007 

Timothy Pearce, Department of Paleontology, University of 
California, Berkeley, CA 94720-2399 



Richard E. Petit 

-Books- 
Major Library Acquisions 
07P.O. Box 30 North Myrtle Beach, South Carolina 
U.S.A. 29582 
Send for new list 



Vol. 16(5): 58 



SHELLSANDSEALIFE 



May1984 



Dr. S. Stillman Berry 1887-1984 

Dr. S. Stillman Berry was one of the most outstan- 
ding malacologists on this century. Moreover, his 
energy, diligence, and insight were also turned to the 
studies of zoology, botany, taxonomy, petroleum 
geology, and genealogy. Despite the handicaps of frail 
health, semi-deafness, and partial color blindness, he 
achieved international scientific recognition and 
received many honors for his work. 

Samuel Stillman Berry was born in Unity, Maine, on 
March 16th, 1887. His frail mother had returned there 
from the family's Montana ranch to receive better 
medical support. Evelyn Berry had twin boys, but one 
of them died within a few hours and the doctor had lit- 
tle hope for the other. An aunt picked up the remain- 
ing child saying, "We aren't going to lose this one." She 
fashioned a homemade incubator and tended the child 
intensively for several days until he was out of danger. 
Even with care, Stillman Berry's health was fragile, at 
best, throughout his long life. 

The father, Ralph Berry, was also from Unity, 
Maine, but had traveled west. In 1880, he had 
established the 66,000 acre Winnecook Ranch in Mon- 
tana and was a pioneer in sheep raising in the territory. 
Stillman Berry became a member of the board of direc- 
tors of the Winnecook Ranch in 191 1, and was presi- 
dent of the Corporation from 1917 until his death. 

During S. Stillman Berry's early years, the family 
lived in many places. Believing that the Montana en- 
vironment was too harsh for their child, the Berrys 
searched for a climate which would be best for his 
health. In 1897, they settled in Redlands, California. 
In 1913, a move was made to another home in 
Redlands where Stillman Berry lived until his death on 
April 9th, 1984. 

The contents of the Berry home reflect the activities 
of a person who was discriminating, sensitive and 
dedicated. There is an impressive quantity of antique 
furniture and china that his mother had brought from 
Maine. There are also his fabulous libraries. One 
library contains malacological publications from pre- 
linnaean to the present day. Another library has letters 
and first editions of Darwin and a third boasts an ex- 
tensive collection of publications on New England 
genealogy. One can even find a rare 400-year-old 
volume with the colophon of the Florentine Press. 

There is the book of carefully arranged records and 
mementos of activities of JBerry's high school (where he 
founded the yearbook in 1904). There are several full 
volumes that he prepared, depicting the trip Berry and 
his mother made to Europe in 1904. From the earliest 
years, he was clearly a tenacious record keeper and an 




Dr. S. Stillman Berry, May 7th, 1978, at his home in 
Redlands - the flowering vine is Kolkwitzia amabilis (a 
member of the honeysuckle family). Photo by Art 
Miller, Redlands, California. 

orderly collector of facts. In the yard of the Berry 
home are varieties of flowers that he hybridized and a 
towering redwood tree planted by Berry on Armistice 
Day in 1918. 

There is abundant evidence of thorough and exac- 
ting effort in all of Stillman Berry's work. From his 
earliest years as a malacologist, he worked to provide a 
collection of west coast molluscan type specimens on 
the west coast. "Why" said Dr. Berry "should a student 
of molluscs living on the U.S. Pacific coast depend on 
material in the eastern United States to refer to type 
specimens?" Consequently, he made purchase and ex- 
change arrangements to acquire this material, "Often 
beyond my means" he said. He felt that he was treated 
very generously by the eastern institutions. The collec- 
tion of type specimens and also his great collection of 
worldwide mollusca are at the Berry home. 

Because of his impaired hearing, young Stillman 
Berry received most of his grammar school education 
from his mother who had been a teacher. He prevailed 
upon her to let him go to high school despite his han- 
dicap and proved himself a scholar. Since he could 
hear very little he learned to get his education from 



May 1984 



SHELLS ANDSEA LIFE 



Vol. 16(5): 59 



books. After high school Stillman Berry went to Stan- 
ford University where he received his bachelor's degree 
in 1909. His experiences during and after the 1906 San 
Francisco earthquake took and exciting hour to tell. 
While at Stanford he was a member of Phi Beta Kappa 
scholastic and Sigma Chi fraternity. Berry received his 
master's degree from Harvard in 1910 and doctorate at 
Stanford in 191 1 . His doctoral thesis, A Review of the 
Cephalopods of Western North America, was publish- 
ed in the Bulletin of the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries in 
1912. 

Because of his thorough knowledge of the scientific 
literature and background in marine biology, Stillman 
Berry was asked to establish the library for the Scripps 
Institution of Oceanography and become the first 
librarian. Of this period he said, "I found it incredible 
that some of the most desirable volumes could be 
bought in Europe for no more than pennies." He was 
very selective and miserly with the limited Scripps' 
money and many crates of choice reference books were 
sent from Europe to California. "I couldn't resist buy- 
ing some books for myself if I found duplicate copies" 
he said "even if I had to miss lunch sometimes." 

Dr. S. Stillman Berry became the leading expert in 
the study of octopus and squid. Over many additional 
years of study, he also became a recognized expert in 
land snails and chitons. When asked by Frank M. 
McFarland of the California Academy of Sciences to 
take up some work on opisthobranchs he said, "No 
thank you. I have already worked through three of the 
four most difficult groups in the phylum and I will be 
happy to give someone else the honor of doing the 
fourth." 

In 1914, Stillman Berry began hybridizing irises and 
daffodils. He is credited with hybridizing and naming 
2700 varieties of plants. His success at horticulture 
made it possible for him to support the household and 
help pay taxes on the Winnecook Ranch during the 
lean depression years. 

A review of Stillman Berry's published papers shows 
continued industry throughout most of his years. His 
work appeared in scientific journals almost every year 
from 1906 to 1970. His own journal, Leaflets in 
Malacology, was produced through 26 numbers by 
1969. There were several papers on mollusks left un- 
finished at his death. 

He was an expert in petroleum geology and New 
England genealogy and was fluent in several languages 
including French, Greek, Latin, German, Norwegian, 
and Spanish. It was found that since he was deaf, he 
learned languages and spoke them without an accent. 
His ability to concentrate for long periods he at- 
tributed, in part, to his poor hearing. 

Because of his capability in a variety of fields, Berry 
routinely met with and corresponded with royalty, 
heads of state, and scientific organizations all over the 
world. Visitors to his home included the crown prince 



of Japan and the prime minister of Sweden. Scientists 
from around the world traveled to Redlands to visit 
him. 

S. Stillman Berry was named the only Lifetime 
President of the American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science, was a Life Fellow of the San 
Diego Natural History Museum, Research Associate 
of the Smithsonian Institution, Research Associate of 
Stanford University, Life Member of the Con- 
chological Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Life 
Member of the Malacological Society of London, and 
Life Member and Honorary President of the 
American Malacological Union. 

He has had three molluscan genera named for him; 
Berryiteuthis Naef, 1921; Berry idium Grimpa, 1931; 
and Berrya Adam, 1939. More than a score of species 
and subspecies have been described carrying his name. 

Two years ago he purchased the home of one of his 
ancestors in Unity, Maine. The structure has been 
given to the town of Unity where it is being used as a 
historical museum. 

Dr. S. Stillman Berry leaves us his many publica- 
tions on original work, his libraries, his collections, 
new varieties of flowers, his support of many promis- 
ing young men, and the example he set of a man who 
achieved broad scientific eminence despite critical 
handicaps. 

Jack W. Brookshire, 2962 Balboa Ave., Oxnard, CA 
93030 



-^P'fl^f^, 




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PfcW' i'WJ 


SjEjESy vRf 




ANIMAL 


GRAPHICS 


MIKE BYERGO 


1-619-278-5222 


7415 BL1X ST. • S.D., CALIF. 92 1 1 1 



Vol. 16(5): 60 



SHELLSANDSEALIFE 



May 1984 



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May 1984 



SHELLSANDSEALIFE 



Vol. 16(5): 61 




Margarites 
5 mm 




EUCHELUS 
6 mm 



Classification Notes 

Outline of the Classification of Living Mollusca, Part 
4, by Kay C. Vaught. 

Superfamily TROCHACEA 
Family TROCHIDAE 

Subfamily MARGARTINAE 
MARGARITES Gray, 1847 

(Eumargarita Fischer, 1885; 
Margarita Leach 1819 (non Leach, 
1814); 

Valvatella Melvill, 1897) 
Bathymophilia Dall, 1881 
Cantharidoscops Galkin, 1955 
Margarella Thiele, 1893 
(Margaritella Thiele, 1891; 
Promargarita Strebel, 1908; 
Submargarita Strebel, 1908) 
Margaritopsis Thiele, 1906 
Omphalomargarites Habe & Ito, 1965 
Pupillaria Dall, 1909 
(Lirularia Dall, 1909) 
ANTIMARGARITA Powell, 1951 
BATHYBEMBIX Crosse, 1893 
(Bembix Watson, 1879; 
G/neteOtuka, 1942) 
DAN ILIA Brusina, 1865 

(Craspedotus Philippi, 1847; 
Heliciella O.G. Costa, 1861) 
ECHINOGURGES Quinn, 1979 
EUCHELUS Philippi, 1847 
(Aradasia Gray, 1850; 
HuttoniaK.uk, 1882; 
ITaliorbisG. & H. Nevill, 1869) 
Antillachelus Woodring, 1928 
Herpetopoma Pilsbry, 1890 
INevillia H. Adams, 1868 
Vaceuchelus Iredale, 1929 
GRANATA Cotton, 1957 (Stomatella?) 
HYBOCHELUS Pilsbry, 1889 
LISCHEKEIA Fischer, 1879 
Adamsenida Habe, 1957 

(Solariellopsis Schepman, 1908) 
Cidarina Dall, 1909 
Turcicula Dall, 1881 
MIRACHELUS Woodring, 1928 
OLIVIA Cantraine, 1835 
775/1 TROCHUS Nomura, 1940 
TROPIDOMARGA Powell, 1951 
Subfamily PLANITROCHINAE 
PLANITROCHUS Perner, 1903 
.N\ Subfamily MONODONTINAE 

MONODONTA Lamarck, 1799 

(Monodontes Montfort, 1810; 
Trochidon Swainson, 1 840) 
Austrocochlea Fischer, 1885 
Neomonodonta Kuroda & Habe, 1971 
Osilinus Philippi, 1846 
(Trochochlea H. & A. Adams, 1863) 
(? Pseudosilinus) 
BANKIVIA Krauss, 1848 

Leiopyrga H. & A. Adams, 1863 
CANTHARIDUS Montfort, 1810 

(Canthridium Schaufuss, 1869; 
Cantharis Ferussac, 1821; 
El enchus Swainson, 1840) 
Iwakawatrochus Kuroda & Habe, 
Micrelenchus Finlay, 1927 
Phasianotrochus Fischer, 1885 
Plumbelenchus Finlay, 1927 




Diloma 

25 mm 




Tegula 
(30 mm) 



,^N 




/" 
j^- 



Gibbula 
25 mm 



LISCHKEIA 
(50 mm) 




Monodonta 
(30 mm) 




1954 



Cantharidus (8 mm) 



CHRYSOSTOMA Swainson, 1840 
DILOMA Philippi, 1845 

(Zediloma Finlay, 1927) 

Cavodiloma Finlay, 1927 

CMorodiloma Pilsbry, 1889 

Fractarmilla Finlay, 1927 

Melagraphia Gray, 1847 
(Anisodiloma Finlay, 1927) 

Oxystele Philippi, 1847 

Pictodiloma Habe, 1946 
JUJUBINUS Monterosato, 1884 

(Cleiandella Winkworth, 1932) 

Mirulinus Monterosato, 1918 

Strigosella Sacco, 1 896 
( Gravijujubin us, 
Pictojujubinus ?) 
TEGULA Lesson, 1835 

Agathistoma Olsson & Harbison, 1953 

Chlorostoma Swainson, 1840 

Omphalius Philippi, 1847 

Promartynia Dall, 1909 

Stearnsium S.S. Berry, 1958 
THALOTIA Gray, 1847 

A/cyna A. Adams, 1860 

Calthalotia Iredale, 1929 

Odontotrochus Fischer, 1879 

Prothalotia Thiele, 1930 
TURCIA A. Adams, 1854 

(Ptychostylus Gabb, 1865) 

Perrinia H. & A. Adams, 1854 



Subfamily GIBBULINAE 
GIBBULA Risso, 1826 

(Conotrochus Pilsbry, 1889; 
Magulus Monterosato, 1888; 
^l Phorculellus Sacco, 1897; 

t'^ Phorculus Monterosato, 1888; 

Puteolus Monterosato, 1888) 
Adriaria Pallary, 1917 
Calliotrochus Fischer, 1879 
Cantharidella Pilsbry, 1889 
Colliculus Monterosato, 1888 
(Glotnulus Monterosato, 1888; 
Glossulus Pallary, 1938) 
Enida A. Adams, 1860 
Eurytrochus Fischer, 1879 
Forskaiena Iredale, 1924 

(Forskalena H. & A. Adams, 1854) 
Forskaliopsis Coen, 1931 
Hisseyagibbula Kershaw, 1955 
Notogibbula Iredale, 1 924 
Phorcus Risso, 1926 
Steromphala Gray, 1847 

(Gibbulaastra Monterosato, 1 884; 
Gibbuloidella Sacco, 1896; 
Korenia Friele, 1877) 
Tumulus Monterosato, 1888 
CITTARIUM Philippi, 1847 
(Livona Gray, 1847; 
Meleagris Montfort, 1810) 
FOSSARINA Adams & Angas. 1864 
(Minos Hutton, 1884) 
Clydonochilus Fischer, 1890 
Minopa Iredale, 1924 
NANULA Thiele, 1924 
NORRISIA Bayle, 1880 

(Trochiscus Sowerby, 1838 non 
Heyden, 1826 nor Held, 1837) 
PHORCULUS Cossmann, 1888 
TROCHINELLA Iredale, 1937 



V 



Vol. 16(5): 62 



SHELLS ANDSEA LIFE 



May 1984 



Notes from Hans Bertsch 

How Many Species in the Cypraea teres "Complex"? 

There is a group of Indo-Pacific cowrie species that 
share common shell patterns and morphology. For 
years, collectors and professionals have carefully 
distinguished Cypraea teres Gmelin, 1791, C. subteres 
Weinkauff, 1881, and C. rashleighana Melvill, 1888 
(see for instance Burgess, 1962 and 1969, and 
Thorsson & McKinsey, 1979). 

In the last 3 years, Kay and Burgess have each named 
a new species after each other; both these species are 
obviously part of the "teres-complex." Hence, there 
are now 5 species in this group of apparently related 
species: Cypraea alisonae Burgess, 1983, and Cypraea 
burgessi Kay, 1981, plus the 3 already mentioned. 

Most of my own research has centered on shell-less 
mollusks — the opisthobranch gastropods. Hence I 
was particularly intrigued to read that a new sea shell 
proposed "almost entirely on the basis of striking ex- 
ternal anatomical differences," was recognized "while 
comparing photographs of the living animal." This 
meant that to understand these cowrie species, 
millions of shell enthusiasts across the universe had to 
"think slug"! The soft parts of the animal's body and 
the skin color and texture were the significant 
distinguishing characteristics for this new species. The 
shell varied inconsistently and could not be used for 
taxonomic differentiation. 

These species invite some interesting speculation 
and comments on cypraeid taxonomy. But first we 
should make some morphological comparisons bet- 
ween Cypraea teres and the 2 recently named species 

Cypraea burgessi can be separated from C. teres on 
the basis of the shell: it has a columellar callus but no 
labial callus (just the opposite in C. teres), and 
numerous (13-20) small (2-3 mm in diameter) spots (C. 
teres has to 6 or 8 small spots). Kay also detailed 
several anatomical differences: C. burgessi has a thin 
mantle which does not obscure the dorsal pattern, and 
the papillae are dense. Cypraea teres has a thick man- 
tle with much less dense papillae. 

Cypraea alisonae shells tend to be more ovate than 
the more elongate C. teres; C. alisonae has a mid- 
dorsal blotch (absent in C. teres), numerous large 
spots (which are few or absent in C. teres), and a con- 
sistently uninterrupted middle dorsal color band 
(sometimes longitudinally divided in C. teres). The 
anatomical soft part differences were emphasized by 
Burgess: the papillae of C. alisonae are long and 
transversely banded along their length and distally tip- 
ped with dark gray to black (C. teres has white 



papillae), and rise from a lighter spot on the mantle 
(C. teres does not); the foot of C. alisonae extends 
posteriorly one-third to one-half the length of the shell 
(about one-eighth in C. teres). The thin mantle does 
not obscure the shell pattern (it is thick and obscuring 
in C. teres). 

Based on these anatomical and conchological 
characteristics, I believe that the specimens illustrated 
are C. alisonae: central blotch, large spots on shell, 
length of foot, papillar length and coloration, and 
lighter mantle color around the base of the papillae. 
However, the mantle obscures the dorsal pattern (con- 
trary to the original description of C. alisonae). 

The geographic ranges of these species vary. 
Cypraea burgessi and C. rashleighana are endemic to 
the Hawaiian Islands, and C. subteres appears 
endemic to eastern Polynesia. Cypraea teres has been 
reported throughout the Indian and Pacific Oceans: 
from South Africa, Gulf of Aqaba, Fiji, Kwajalein, 
Philippines, the Hawaiian Island chain, and other 
locations in the Indo and west-central Pacific, and 
from Clipperton and Perlas Islands in the eastern 
Pacific. Cypraea alisonae occurs in the Hawaiian 
Islands, and American Samoa; it may be widespread 
throughout the Indo-Pacific: from west Australia, 
Tahiti, Fiji, Okinawa, the Philippines and eastern 
Africa. Specimens of Cypraea teres from the eastern 
Pacific should be examined closely to see if they may 
actually represent C. alisonae. 

Over the years, various other named species have 
been synonymized with Cypraea teres, for example, C. 
latior Melvill, 1888, C. tabescens Dillwyn, 1817, and 
C. punctulata Hidalgo, 1907. These species are con- 
sidered to fall within the range of intraspecific varia- 
tion of C. teres. This species complex includes 5 
presently accepted and very carefully differentiated 
species, and several synonyms. 

A species is a biological entity, not to be erected or 
suppressed at the capricious whim of a taxonomist. 
Theoretically, a taxonomist attempts to understand 
living organisms that vary (variation is, of course, the 
raw material that makes evolution possible). The 
species therefore, should "proclaim" or dictate its 
presence to the investigator. Based on careful study, a 
taxonomist simply states that a particular relationship 
exists (or does not exist) among a group of organisms. 
The assorted currently recognized valid and 
synonymous taxa in this group imply a definite 
understanding on the part of malacologists. Those 
species accepted are distinct evolutionary, ecological 
and morphological units — each interacting reproduc- 
tively among its own members, but isolated from the 
other four. Non-valid taxa represent names that were 
erroneously (mistakenly) given to members of an inter- 
breeding unit that exhibited an individual variation. 



May 1984 



SHELLSANDSEALIFE 



Vol. 16(5): 63 




Figure 1. Cypraea alisonae on 
Kamehameha Beach, Oahu, HI. 


sponge Ft. 




Jk[ mi "" ■ 








9Hui : ' ; k - ' Pi i 






i 



Figure 2. (same as 1) 





Figure 4. Cypraea alisonae, close up of mantle & shell. 
'1 ll* 




Figure 5. Cypraea alisonae, mantle completely ex- 
tended. 




Figure 3. (same as 1). 

All photos by Hans Bertsch. 



Figure 6. Cypraea alisonae, ventral view. 



Vol. 16(5): 64 



SHELLSANDSEALIFE 



May1984 



For many years, cowrie taxonomy has been based 
on shell morphology. Obviously, using other criteria 
(such as radula, reproductive system, and mantle tex- 
ture and color) may well affect our understanding of 
specific organisms and their taxonomic status. Such a 
shift in criteria is obviously necessary because, like all 
living organisms, cowries are evolutionary products of 
adaptive lineages. The significance of the mantle col- 
oration becomes immediately apparent when the 
animal is seen in its natural habitat feeding on its 
orange-red prey sponge (see figures 1 through 3). 
Biologically the color of the mantle may be far more 
important than the color of the shell. 

If new taxonomic criteria are adapted, meaningful 
studies on the living animals should be done to prevent 
the willy-nilly proliferation of additional synonyms. 
There are numerous questions to research: How 
significant a trait is the ontogeny of the group? Since 
maturity is reached at a variable age and size, why and 
how does the animal reach maturity? What are food 
preferences? What are the ranges of intraspecific 
variation for each characteristic used? What are the 
adaptive advantages of mantle colors and textures 
(smooth or with papillae)? 



To understand cowrie taxonomy, cowrie biology 
must be understood. 



ADDITIONAL READING 

Burgess, CM. 1962. A brief comparison of Cypraea 
rashleighana, teres, latior and subteres. Hawaiian Shell 
News 10 (2): 2. 

Burgess, CM. 1969. Discussion of Cypraea rashleighana 
Melvill, C. feres Gmelin, C. latior Melvill and C. subteres 
Weinkauff. Hawaiian Shell News 17 (8) : 4-5. 

Burgess, CM. 1983. Another new Cypraea in the feres com- 
plex (Gastropoda : Cypraeidae). Venus, Japanese Journal 
of Malacology 42 (2) : 183-191. 

Emerson, William K. 1983. New records of prosobranch 
gastropods from Pacific Panama. Nautilus 97 (4) : 
119-123. 

Kay, E. Alison. 1981. A new species of Cypraea from the 
Hawaiian Islandsandadiscussionof theC. feresspecies 
complex. Venus, Japanese Journal of Malacology 40 (3) : 
111-122. 

Thorsson, W., and R. McKinsey. 1979. Separating Cypraea 
teres from C. rashleighana. Hawaiian Shell News 27 (237) 
:4. 



Dr. Hans Bertsch, 4444 W. Pt. Loma Blvd. No. 83, 
San Diego, California 92107. 



Beach Surprises Come in 
Different Packages 

by Stephanie Prince 

There is a group of strangely different crustaceans 
that occur frequently along our California coast on 
shoreline rocks. They are found worldwide. They at- 
tach themselves to rocks, driftwood, boat hulls, 
whales, dead and empty shells, or wharf pilings. 

On the San Clemente Pier pilings I was noticing rock 
barnacles in huge clumps among the California Mussel 
shells [Mytilus californianus]. It was early one 
January afternoon and the waves were quite large. The 
barnacles were so far up on the pilings that when the 
tide is medium or low, these animals must be dry for 
long periods of time. They demonstrated their 
strength by continuing to stick on the pilings despite 
huge waves breaking continuously against them. 

These strange-looking animals resemble a long 
worm with nails on its head. In reality the head or 
crown is made up of 4 large white or grey-white plates, 
2 on each side, and many small finger-nail size plates 
surrounding the large ones. There are curled yellow 
appendages which sweep the water continuously for 
the tiny sea creatures for the barnacle to eat. The 
worm-part or attaching peduncle of the animal is 
brown, red or gray and can be eaten. They differ from 
regular barnacles by having a long, flexible attachment 
peduncle. 



I have some Gooseneck barnacles that have 50 mm 
plates, and I have much smaller ones in which the 
plates are only 4 to 12 mm high. 

In March, 1 983 , 1 was in Coronado, California after 
several severe storms, and several of these barnacles 
had been washed ashore in the rough surf. In fact, one 
medium-sized one measured about 112 mm long and 
looked like the neck had been pulled right off the rock 
with a tremendous surge. The neck was about 18 mm 
wide and a tan-gray in color. (I might add that it was 
also very smelly.) Another specimen I found was quite 
small, 18 mm long, with its neck cut off. 




Figure 1. Pollicipes polymerus Gooseneck barnacle. 

Another crustacean I find while walking the beach is 
the hermit crab. In Southern California there are two 
common hermit crabs in our area. One is the Blue- 
clawed Hermit Crab, Pagurus samuelis. The other is 
the Hairy Hermit Crab, Pagurus harsutiusculus. 



May 1984 



SHELLS ANDSEA LIFE 



Vol. 16(5): 65 




Figure 2. Hermit crab in shell 

Hermit crabs differ from other crabs because of 
their soft, curved abdomen with the hook-like tail. 
This tail is entirely covered by a snail shell. Hermits 
protect their soft parts by hiding in abandoned sea 
shells. The crab usually shows only its legs and head 
which hang out of the aperture of the shell. If one 
holds the shell up, this curious crab will venture out of 
its shell as much as one-half of its body, only the hard 
shelled part, while the soft abdomen remains safely in- 
side. Once in a great while, if the shell is held up long 
enough or out of the water, the crab will give up and 
crawl out. One must be careful as the soft abdomen 
will break of f if the crab is pulled out of the shell quick- 
ly and forcefully. 

I find most hermit crabs prefer Tegula, moon snail 
shells, periwinkles and rock snails; but once in a while I 
find these scavengers in broken worm shells, and they 
don't seem particular as to the shape the shell is in. As 
they grow, the crabs seek out larger empty shells. 
These crabs eat particles along the sand on the beach or 
algae in the water or on rocks. 

The hairy hermit crab has antennae that are about 
the same color as its body, which is an orange-brown 
or tan color. It has white bands that encircle each 
antenna. There are tiny little bristle hairs all over this 
crab's entire body. The blue clawed hermit crab has a 
reddish-orange body with red antennae. 



For protection the crab has two large chelipeds 
which protrude from the shells, one larger than the 
other. These can be used for protection or picking 
food off rocks. 

I have observed hermit crabs fighting several times. 
They seem to have a cantankerous nature when they 
encounter each other. They use the two chelipeds to 
hold each other's legs. I haven't seen any food nearby, 
so I assume they are fighting. 

They are scavengers and seem to eat any tid-bit of- 
fered. They pick algae off shoreline rocks, eat dead or 
decaying fish, or eat dead birds or pieces of snails. 




Figure 3. Hermit crab without shell 

I find these hermit crabs abundant in our local tide 
pools; in fact sometimes when I see many small shells 
moving about, the majority are filled with hermit 
crabs rather than the original home owner. 

These two crustaceans — the gooseneck barnacle 
and the hermit crab — protect themselves by their 
packaging. But how differently each has evolved! The 
astounding features of adaptation are readily visible to 
anyone who takes the time to walk the beach as I do. 

Drawings by Stephanie Prince. 

Stephanie Price, c/o De Portola School, 27031 
Preciados, Mission Viejo, California 92667. 



RICHARD M. 
KURZ. INC. 




House of Quality and Service 

1575 North 118th Street 
Wauwatosa, Wi 53226 U.S.A. 



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The very best shells, at the very best prices 

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Largest Mail Order Seashell Dealer in the U.S.A. 



Vol. 16(5): 66 



SHELLSANDSEALIFE 



May 1984 



Personal Notes 



Gerard Venken [Schoolstraat 21, B-3500 Hasselt; 
Belgium] Writes that he is busy trading Cymatiidae 
around the world. He would be interested in cor- 
responding with anyone interested in the group. 

Sandra Millen Once classes are over (mid-April) we 
are going to Yugoslavia. Sven [Donaldson] has been 
invited to form part of a Canadian team to race in the 
Dalmatia cup - a sailboat race between Split and 
Dubrovnik. 

The 'Opisthobranch' looks sensational and I hope 
you get the subscriptions to afford to keep it up. I 
wonder about the appropriateness of the name since 
you are broadening the scope of the journal. My worry 
is what is going to happen to the references which were 
such a valuable part of the O.N. I would hate to have 
them left out or even combined with general 
malacological references which would make them 

harder to ferret. 

* * * * * 

R. Tucker Abbott [P.O. Box 2255, Melbourne, FL 
32902-2255] Right now our science and hobby of con- 
chology needs your support. If you have not done so 
already, I urge you to join one of our national shell 
societies. Each organization is dedicated to increasing 
the public's awareness of sensible conservation 
measures, and each goes a long way in helping fellow 
conchologists learn more about mollusks. 

Take your choice, but please join one right away: 

1 . The Conchologists of America with a member- 
ship approaching a thousand is mainly for amateurs 
(or professionals who also love mollusks). A well- 
illustrated, exciting bulletin is issued quarterly, and 
soon may grow into a color-filled, popular magazine. 
Annual meetings are fun-filled gatherings of shellers, 
interesting slide lectures, field trips and a famous 
bourse at which dozens of dealers display their latest 
offerings. The dues are a very modest $7.50 (family: 
$10.00). You will be joining the biggest shell club 
membership list in America. Send your check, address 
and shell interests to: CO. A., c/o Phyllis Pipher, 1116 
North Street, Tekamah, NB 86061. 

2. The American Malacological Union, the oldest 
and most professional society, is mainly for scientists, 
biology students and serious amateurs. Its annual 
bulletin carries the latest scientific advancements in 
malacology; and the annual meetings feature scientific 
papers, symposia, workshops and field trips. An an- 
nual prize of $250 is given for the best student paper. 
New members please send their check for $21.50 to 
A.M.U., c/o Constance Boone, 3606 Rice Boulevard, 
Houston, TX 77005. An information-packed 
booklet, "How to Study and Collect Shells," is 
available for an additional $3.00 (post paid). 



Kathe Jensen I have just received the February and 
March issues of the Opisthobranch with somewhat 
mixed feelings. Of course, I am thrilled about the high 
quality of the color photos. Most shell-less mollusks 
need to be seen in full color to be properly identified 
— but much to my disappointment shelled mollusks 
seem to take up an increasing part of the space. There 
are so many publications in the areas of general 
malacology, shell-collecting, marine life, etc., that I 
really don't think we need another one. The old 
Opisthobranch Newsletter was — as far as I know — the 
only publication dealing exclusively with opisthobran- 
chs, and I think that was one of its major justifica- 
tions. Publishing short, popular articles on the natural 
history of various opisthobranchs accompanied by 
color photos is a great idea, and will certainly increase 
the number of potential readers, but I think that the 
"shell-collectors" have so many other well-established 
publications that the Opisthobranch should be limited 
to opisthobranchs — I would like to hear how other 
"old-time" subscribers to ON feel about this. 

My main reason for subscribing to the ON was to 
keep in touch with as many colleagues as possible - one 
letter to the ON was a lot easier than 20-30 individual 
ones. Also, I badly miss the opisthobranch literature 
citations from the ON. Maybe there is not enough 
opisthobranch information for a monthly publica- 
tion, but I would have been satisfied with a "humbler" 
outfit, maybe 4-6 times a year. I have several other 
suggestions of what I think should be included in an 
opisthobranch publication — for example, Opinions, 
Directions, etc. from The International Commission 
of Zoological Nomenclature relating to opisthobran- 
chs. Some conchological publications do this for 
mollusks in general, but again, I think it would be 
helpful to have the opisthobranch matters separately. 
I'll volunteer to edit such a column for as long as I am 
affiliated with an institution where I have access to the 
publications from the ICZN. I hope that future issues 
of the Opisthobranch will bring more opisthobranch 
articles and information. I'm sorry to say that I'm not 
at all interested in another "pretty pictures" shell 
magazine! I hope other opisthobranch enthusiasts will 
express their opinions on the need for a special publica- 
tion on opisthobranchs. 

A bit of good news: I have just been awarded a 
Postdoctoral Fellowship at the University of 
Copenhagen, so now I can concentrate on my research 
for the next 3 years (I shall probably have to teach a 
course or two also, but no worries about next month's 
paycheck for a change.) I hope to go to Florida in the 
fall to do some experimental work on chemoreception 
in Ascoglossa, but otherwise I will be spending most of 
my time here at the Zoological Museum in 
Copenhagen. 

I hope to be able to prepare a short article for the 
Opisthobranch in the near future. I think we need to 
see some Atlantic species in color too. 



May 1984 



SHELLSANDSEALIFE 



Vol. 16(5): 67 



Terry Gosliner [California Academy of Sciences, 
Department of Invertebrate Biology and Paleon- 
tology, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, CA 941 18] 
The Opisthobranch really looks great! I have been in 
the midst of moving and getting organized for my trip 
to Aldabra Atoll in the western Indian Ocean. I will be 
on a Smithsonian expedition there for five weeks and 
then I'm going to stop over in Cape Town [South 
Africa] to visit Gary Williams and do some more field 
work with him. I also hope to resolve the question of 
having my book published there or not. 

I am organizing a symposium on opisthobranchs for 
the Western Society of Malacologists meetings in San- 
ta Cruz [California] (August 16-19, 1984). Anyone in- 
terested in presenting a paper is more than welcome. 
Contact me at the Cal. Academy by June 15. 

Eveline Marcus will be here [Cal. Academy] for a 
visit in mid-July. I will send more information when 
she finalizes her plans. I will also send you a report on 
my Indian Ocean exploits. In the meantime, keep up 
the good work. You really have a great looking 
publication. 

Gary C. Williams [South African Museum, Depart- 
ment of Marine Biology; P.O. Box 61, Cape Town, 
South Africa 8000] I am back in the field of marine in- 
vertebrate research once again after working several 
years for the National Park Service. I am presently 
working at the South African Museum on the 
systematics and biology of southern African oc- 
tocorals (soft corals, gorgonians, and sea pens). I am 
interested in predator / prey relationships of 
opisthobranchs and prosobranchs with alcyonarians. 
The subtidal invertebrate fauna in the region of the 
Cape Peninsula of South Africa is extremely diverse 
and exciting to work on. Many things are undescribed 
and the degree of endemism is very high. 

Terry Gosliner will be here in late May after his trip 
to Aldabra. We will do field collecting in the eastern 
Cape region between Port Elizabeth and East London 

Eveline Marcus The Pleurobranchidae are going to 
print, next month, and hopefully also the Um- 
braculacea, if I can finish the MS with poor material 
and poor bibliography. I am finishing my third paper 
on the Notaspidea. After my trip, (about June to 
August) I will see what I can still do. I am asked to help 

with the opisthos for a Brazilian book. 

***** 

R.C. Willan "Nudibranchs of Australasia" should 
be published by the end of April 

Errata 

In the April issue. Page 37 - Memoriam. Page 40 
-Cypraeidae. Page 47 - Evolutionary. Our apologies to 
everyone. 




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at COA. 



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Note: The Opisthobranch accepts worldwide shell dealers' 
advertising in good faith, assuming that they will deal fairly 
with their customers. Inclusion of advertising in the 
Opisthobranch, however, is not intended to imply endorse- 
ment to the advertiser. If you are in doubt, investigate first. 
Please mention the Opisthobranch when you patronize our 
advertisers. 



Miscellanea 

GLOSSARY 

columella (Latin columen = column): the axial pillar, the central 
pillar of a univalve shell around which the whorls are built, exten- 
ding from the apex to the base; a portion of the columella is seen 
as the aperture of most spiral univalves; columellar: pertaining to 
the columella; columella fold: spiral ridge on the columella pro- 
jecting into the interior of the shell; columellar lip: the inner edge 
of the aperture including that part that covers the last whorl. 
[Arnold, 1965] 

columellar callus a smooth shelly area, extending over the columel- 
lar area, secreated by the mantle. [Keen, 1971] 

labial (Latin labium = the lip): pertaining to the lip of the shell; 
labial area: a flattened surface extending from the inner lip; 
labate: having lip or lip-like parts, lipped. [Arnold, 1965] 

labium (Latin labium = the lip): the inner lip of a univalve shell, the 
innersideofthe aperture or columellar lip extending from the ori- 
gin of the labrum and resting on the columella. [Arnold, 1965] 

labrum (Latin labrum = a lip): the outer lip of a univalve shell, the 
right side of the aperture is formed by the outer lip; labral: per- 
taining to the labrum. [Arnold, 1965] 

operculum (Latin operire = to close or shut): a horny or shelly plate 
serving to close the aperture, wholly or partly, when the animal is 
retracted; a chitinous or calcareous plate present in many groups 
of mollusks. (eg. Turbo, Natica, Fusinus, Astraea, etc.); opercu- 
late having an operculum; operculigenous: producing an opercu- 
lum; operculigerous: having an operculum. [Arnold, 1965] 

pallial pertaining to the mantle. [Keen, 1971] 

pallial sinus In bivalves, an embayment of the pallial line marking 
the attachment of the marginal muscles of the mantle. [Keen, 
1971] 

papillary (Latin papilla = a nipple, pimple): small nipple-like pro- 
cesses, as the papillae of the tongue, minute nodes or bumps; pa- 
pilliform: shaped like a papillae; papillose: covered with an abun- 
dance of little bulgings or pimples; verrucose. [Arnold, 1965]. 

papulous (Latin papula = pimple): covered with small bumps or 
pimples, as the operculum of Nerita versicolor Gmelin: papula: 
an isolated pimple or small bump. [Arnold, 1965]. 

verrucose (Latin verruca = wart): having small knobs or lumps on 
the surface, covered with wart-like or verruciform elevations, 
warty. [Arnold, 1965] 



Vol. 16(5): 68 



SHELLSANDSEALIFE 



May1984 



New Cadlina from Saudi Arabia 

by Jeff Hamann 

I found this nudibranch while night diving in a pro- 
tected inlet in Saudi Arabia. It was relatively soft- 
bodied and had a series of glands around the notum. 
When disturbed, it exuded a milky substance from the 



glands and even an occasional whole gland popped 
out. I have been unable to identify the animal. If 
anyone can identify the nudibranch please send a note 
to the Opisthobranch. 

Jeff Hamann, 8242 Valley High Rd., Lakeside, CA 
92040 




Cadlina sp. J iddah, Saudi Arabia. Collected by Jeff Hamann in 3 m depth, March 26, 1981. Length 17 mm. 
Photo by Jeff Hamann 



SHELLS AND SEA LIFE 

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Phoenix, Arizona 85012-1518 USA 



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SHELLS AND SEA LIFE 

A MONTHLY PUBLICATION ON MOLLUSKS AND MARINE LIFE 



$2.50 JUNE, 1984 



Volume 16, Number 6 



WILLIAM H. DALL 

SECTIONAL LIBRARY 

DIVISION OF MOLLUSKS 




Babelomurex jeanneae D'Attilio & Myers, 
1984 

The shell pictured on the front cover of this issue 
was described as Babelomurex jeanneae by D'Attilio 
and Myers in January, 1984. The original description 
was published in the Transactions of the San Diego 
Society of Natural History, 20(5):81-94; 34 figs. The 
species had previously been figured in Hawaiian Shell 
News July, 1973, 21(7):5 and June, 1977, 25(6):9 (as 
Latiaxis pagodus) by Al Lopez. It is commonly called 
the Chrysanthemum shell because of its flower-like 
appearance when viewed from the spire. The holo- 
type of this beautiful species (figured here) measures 
21.5 mm in length by 25.5 mm in width. It is "creamy 
white stained with pale ochre ..." The type locality is 
Bohol Straits between the islands of Cebu and Bohol 
in the Philippine Islands. The species was named for 
Mrs. Jeanne Pisor of San Diego. — S&SL 

Photos by David K. Mulliner 

Front Cover: Ventral view of Babelomurex jeanneae 
Top Right: Dorsal view of Babelomurex jeanneae 
Bottom Left: Spire view of "Chrysanthemum" 
Bottom Right: Ventral view of Babelomurex jeanneae 






S&SL 16(6):70 



SHELLS AND SEA LIFE 



Editorial Staff 

Managing Editor Steven J. Long 

Assistant Editor Sally Bennett 

Contributing Editor Hans Bertsch 

Editorial Review Board 

R. Tucker Abbott David W. Behrens 

Hans Bertsch Donald B. Cadien 
Walter O . Cernohorsky Kerry B . Clark 

Eugene V. Coan Malcom Edmunds 

Michael T. Ghiselin Terrence Gosliner 

George L. Kennedy James R. Lance 
T. E. Thompson 

Shells and Sea Life was formerly known 
as the Opisthobranch Newsletter. The 

magazine is open to articles and notes on 
any aspect of malacology — or related 
marine life. Articles submitted for 
publication are subject to editorial board 
review and may include color or black & 
white illustrations. Deadlines for articles 
are the first day of each month for the 
following month. Short notes for the 
"Center Section" will normally appear 
within thirty days of submission. 

Short articles containing descriptions of 
new or repositioned taxa will be given 
priority provided the holotype(s) have 
been deposited with a recognized public 
museum and the museum numbers are 
included with the manuscript. We under- 
take no responsibility for unsolicited 
material sent for possible inclusion in the 
publication. No material submitted will 
be returned unless accompanied by 
return postage and packing. Authors will 
receive 10 free reprints. Additional 
reprints will be supplied at cost provided 
they are ordered before printing. 

Shells and Sea Life ISSN 0747-6078 is 
published monthly by Steven J. Long & 
Sally Bennett, 505 E. Pasadena, 
Phoenix, AZ 85012-1518 U.S.A. 
Telephone (602) 274-3615. U.S. sub- 
scription rates are $15.00 per volume for 
individuals or $30.00 per volume for 
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subscription rates are $20.00 per volume. 
Foreign subscribers should add $5.00 for 
First Class mail or $10.00 for Air Mail 
postage. Send change of address 6 weeks 
in advance. Charge to remail issue for 
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available at $15.00 per volume postpaid. 
Sample copies are available for $3.00 
each postpaid. Rates are subject to 
change without notice. Arizona residents 
must add 6% sales tax to all orders. 

(£> Copyright Miranda Enterprises, Inc. 1984 



FEATURES - JUNE 1984 

PAGE 
Babelomurex jeanneae D'Attilio & Myers, 1 984 . 
S&SL 70 

Octopus , the Maligned Mollusk. Alex Kerstitch. 72 

Mitra idae ; California's only Miter Shell. 

Stephanie Prince 74 

Notes from Hans Bertsch: Cyphoma : The Hump 

Shells 85 

CENTER SECTION 
READER FORUM 76 

Cypraea teres : W.O. Cernohorsky, CM. Burgess 
H. Bertsch 

Pyramidellids: R. Robertson 

PERSONAL NOTES 77 

CLASSIFIED ADS 78 

MISCELLANEA 79 

The Apricot Slug. W.M. Farmer 

PUBLICATION NOTES 79 

CURRENT EVENTS 80 

CLASSIFICATION NOTES, Revised: Kay C. Vaught . 81 

Back cover photo by Boris Innocenti: Cyphoma 
signatum , June, 1981, Cayman Islands, 18 m. 

EDITOR'S NOTES 

We have had numerous comments on the name 
change to "Shells and Sea Life," all positive. 
This issue brings more exciting changes for us, 
adding a table of contents to each issue. In 
addition, we are developing the CENTER SECTION of 
the magazine to bring up-to-date information to 
you each month. Short articles and columns will 
go into the center section (MISCELLANEA) , along 
with READER FORUM, PERSONAL NOTES, INFORMATION 
EXCHANGE, PUBLICATION NOTES, CURRENT EVENTS and 
CLASSIFIED ADS. 

The center section will allow more time to 
proof-read each issue's articles and avoid the 
typographical errors which have been bothering us. 
Our apologies for failing to credit "Pacific 
Yachting" magazine with original publication of 
Millen & Donaldson's May article (Floating Docks; 
unique microcosms lie just beneath your feet). 

We need your support! Please send articles and 
notes for the issues and use every opportunity to 
show the magazine to groups. We know you like the 
magazine because you have seen it show your 
friends! 



S&SL 16(6):71 



w 




Top photo: Octopus lanulatus 
Quoy & Gaimard. 
Coral Sea, Australia 

Bottom photo: Octopus 
bimaculatus Verrill, 1883. 
Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico. 




S&SL 16(6):72 



Octopus, The Maligned Mollusk 
Text and photos by Alex Kerstitch 

Since ancient times the much maligned octopus has 
earned the unwarranted reputation of villain of the 
sea. Reports of attacks on sailors lost at sea or the 
engulfing of entire ships by giant octopuses have in- 
creased man's fear and lack of compassion for this 
eight armed mollusk. 

With his pen, French poet and novelist Victor 
Hugo administered the octopus the ultimate insult 
when he wrote: 

The tiger can only devour you, 
the octopus inhales you; 
to be eaten alive is terrible 
to be drunk alive is inexpressible. 

Actually, the octopus is a shy, secretive animal 
which normally retreats from human encounters. If 
molested by divers, it quickly flees without resistance 
under rocks or in crevices. Even large species, such as 
the giants of Puget Sound, Washington, are timid. 
Known to reach over four meters (12 feet) from tip to 
tip, they will retreat deep inside their caves when pro- 
voked. 

All octopods, however, are equipped with parrot- 
like beaks used for biting and tearing captured prey. 
If handled, an octopus, like the Gulf of California 
Octopus bimaculatus Verrill, 1883, can be driven to 
bite. Generally, the wound from a bite is of little con- 
sequence, usually resulting in simple punctures of the 
skin. But all octopods produce a toxic substance, 
cephalotoxin, used to paralyze and kill their prey. The 
toxin is secreted from salivary glands and is released 
during the biting action. Although cephalotoxin can 
kill prey animals, it may not necessarily be dangerous 
to man. Two species of blue-ringed octopuses, Oc- 
topus lanulatus Quoy and Gaimard and Octopus 
maculosa Hoyle, are highly venomous and have been 
responsible for several human fatalities. Octopus 
lanulatus is considered the most venomous of the two 



and is responsible for most human deaths. Some tox- 
icologists believe its toxin is more potent than the 
venom of most dangerous snakes. The fatality rate 
from bites of O. lanulatus and O. maculosa is 
estimated to be as high as 25%, with death among 
some victims occuring in less than 90 minutes. 

The immediate pain from blue-ringed octopus bites 
has been compared to bee stings, although in some 
victims the bite is so subtle it often goes unnoticed. 
The neurotoxin affects the nervous system and vic- 
tims may suffer numbness, blurred vision and other 
systemic symptoms similar to coelenterate envenoma- 
tions, such as the man-of-war. In severe cases, 
muscular paralysis, respiratory distress and death 
may result from bites of even small individuals under 
100mm (about 4 inches). 

There is no effective treatment or antivenin against 
bites from venomous octopods. It has been suggested 
to treat envenomations as one would with snake bites. 

Even though only a few species of octopuses have 
been reported to be venomous to man, all should be 
handled cautiously since they all possess a venom ap- 
paratus. The practice of allowing even small octopods 
to crawl on one's arm, as occasionally seen, is certain- 
ly not recommended. 

ADDITIONAL READING 

Jackson, L. A. July, 1981. An Introduction To The Anatomy 

and Physiology of the Octopus; Aquarium magazine 
Kerstitch, Alex. April, 1980. Poisonous and Venomous 

Marine Animals (slide set) Educational Images. 
Langone, John. August, 1983. A Tentacled Neurology Lab; 

Discover 
Pratt-Johnson, Betty. January, 1978. Everybody loves an 

octopus; Oceans 

Alex Kerstitch, 5436 E. Bellevue Ave., Tucson, AZ 
85712 



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S&SL 16(6):73 





Figure 1. Mitra idae. Drawing by Stephanie Prince. 



Mitra idae: California's Only Miter Shell 

by Stephanie Prince 

Mitra idae Melville, 1893, (common name, Ida's 
Miter) is listed as uncommon in most of my shell 
reference books. I have been collecting shells over 20 
years and have found only four. They were empty 
shells that had been washed in among the rocks and 
tide pools close to shore on the Salt Creek Jetty in 
Laguna Niguel, California. It was a very low tide in 
the late afternoon, Sept. 1973. I wondered if a small 
colony had been disturbed by the unusually rough 
current or perhaps a predator had killed several at one 
time. 

However, in a recent conversation with dr. Bertsch, 
I realized that this species is really very common in its 
proper habitat. He has seen numerous specimens in 
the kelp beds off Pt. Loma, San Diego, in 40 to 75 
feet depths. Beachcombing is not the way to find 
these animals; one must scuba dive! Well, this is a 
little more than I want to do in my quest for mollusks, 
so with enthusiasm I dove into my reference books to 
find out about Mitra idae. 

Mitra idae is the only California member of the 
primarily tropical family Mitridae. Most of the more 
than 500 species of recent miters are found in the 
Indo-West Pacific; 85 are known from Hawaii and 
135 species are reported from Fiji. This is similar to 
the distribution of the tropical cowries and cones. 
They also have only one representative each in the 
cooler temperate waters of California, but an abun- 
dance of species in warm tropical waters. 

Mitra idae ranges from Crescent City, California, 
to Cedros Island, in the middle of the Baja California 
peninsula. Synonyms include M. montereyi Berry, M. 
cataiinae Dall, and M, diegensis Dall. 



Two of my specimens still have a portion of the 
thick, finely striate, black periostracum, and are 
mauve-brown in color on the exterior. The shell 
sculpture consists of fine spiral and axial striations 
which form a precise pitting appearance (Figure 1). 
Large specimens reach 60 mm; the shells vary in 
width, some being broad, others narrower. The aper- 
ture is long and narrow and white within. The col- 
umella has 3 to 4 large pleats at the base. 

The living animal's body is snow white (Figures 2 
and 3), in marked contrast to the dark shell. 

The animal is carnivorous, most likely preying on 
marine worms and some other mollusks as well. They 
use their long and retractable snout in feeding on their 
prey. 

Ida's miters burrow into the sand, keeping their 
siphons extended. An excellent account of the 
reproductive biology of Mitra idae appeared some 
years ago in The Veliger. James Chess and Richard 
Rosenthal observed these animals in the subtidal 
areas off La Jolla and Point Loma (San Diego, 
California). Sexes are separate, and fertilization is in- 
ternal. The male, always smaller than the female, 
grasps the right side or outer whorl of the female's 
shell. She, in turn, firmly holds onto a hard sub- 
stratum. Egg capsules are attached to hard objects, 
often on the sides of rocks. Larger females lay larger 
sized egg capsules. The capsules vary from 2 to 8 mm 
in length, with 77 to 945 eggs per capsule. Hatching of 
free-swimming veligers occurs 26-27 days after 
oviposition. 




Figure 2. Pair of Mitra idae, one with an attached 
Crepidula shell. Photo by Hans Bertsch. 



I haven't found any more Ida's miters here or 
anywhere around here since 1973. I guess they are all 
happily hunting worms out in the kelp beds ! 



S&SL 16(6):74 




Figure 3. Close up of living Mitra idae, showing white foot, 
tentacles, and anterior siphon; a black eye spot is visible. 
Underwater photograph taken at 50 feet, off Pt. Loma, by H. 
Bertsch. 



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ADDITIONAL READING 

Abbott, R. Tucker. 1974. American Seashells. Van Nostrand 
Reinhold Co., New York. 237 pp. 

Cate, Jean N. 1968. Mating behavior in Mitra idae Melvill, 
1893. Veliger 10 (3): 247-252. 

Chess, James R., and Richard J. Rosenthal. 1971. On the re- 
productive biology of Mitra idae (Gastropoda: Mitridae). 
Veliger 14(2): 172-176. 

McLean, James H. 1978. Marine shells of southern Califor- 
nia. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, 
Science Series 24: 104 pp. 

Morris, Percy A. 1966. A field guide to shells of the Pacific 
coast and Hawaii. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, pit. 40, 
p. 99. 



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S&SL 16(6):75 




CENTER SECTION reader forum 

From Walter 0. Cernohorsky [Auckland Institute and Museum, 
Private Bag, Auckland 1, New Zealand]. Hans Bertsch's paper 
is fine as it is, and there is nothing in it to which one 
could take exception to, although the subject itself would 
receive as many opinions as there are malacologists. My 
opinion is as follows: 

Some comparisons between C. alisonae Burgess and C. teres 
Gmelin, as given by Burgess in his original description are 
not quite correct. The shape of teres is as variable as that 
of C. caurica , depending on whether specimens come from quiet 
lagoons or from localities where surf and wave action are 
strong. The presence or absence of a dorsal blotch in C. teres 
is also a variable feature: not ALL teres lack a dorsal 
blotch, and it would be taxonomically irresponsible to suggest 
that all those specimens of C. teres which do have a dorsal 
blotch should automatically be called C. alisonae . 

We know quite a lot about the range of variation in shell- 
morphology, considerably less about variation in radular 
morphology and precious little about variation in living 
animal patterns within a given species. While studying animal 
characters of C. summersi (Schilder) in the Fiji Islands, I 
came across animals which had almost all simple papillae, some 
in which the majority of papillae were branched, and others 
which had simple and branched papillae in about equal numbers 
in the same animal. C. cribaria from Fiji, had a mantle 
colour which ranged from pale orange to a deep red. It soon 
became obvious that variation in animal pattern is just as 
prone to variation as the rest of the species, and such 
variation could be due to environment, food, developmental 
stage, sexual dimorphism or simple individual variation or 
even geographic separation. Sibling species and hybrids have 
always been an enigma in Cypraeidae, open to suppositions but 
very difficult to prove. The taxonomic application of such 
groups is also limited if Museum curators and collectors are 
unable to place their specimens in either the teres or 
alisonae group without detailed knowledge of the living 
animal. 

In the few known cases where shells inseparable on shell- 
characters had two distinct types of radulae (e.g. Pisania 
luctuosa Tapparone-Canefri, in the Buccinidae), sexual 
dimorphism was responsible, and in Cassis cornuta , sexual 
dimorphism is evident in shell-characters. 

From CM. Burgess [2502 Manoa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822] 
Thank you for sending Hans Bertsch's article on cowrie 
anatomy. I believe he presents timely and clearly its 
probable future significance in species determination. There 
is only one statement that I might question. I have noticed 
marked color variation in the entire animal of the same 
species from different geographical areas or even from the 
same reef. 

This color variation was emphasized in "Cowries of the 
World" (in press), and cannot be used to separate species of 

S&SL 16(6):76 



READER FORUM 
(Continued) . . 



cowries. For example the color of the animal of Cypraea 
eglantina Duclos, may vary from slate gray, to light orchid 
and jet black, golden brown or dark red. 

As a further note to Bertsch I have found no "gross" 
variation in the external anatomy of many cowries as it 
develops from the bulla to the fully adult form. Cowries 
closely examined were caputserpentis , moneta, poraria , 
helvola, alisonae, tigris and leviathan . There must be many 
changes in the animal from the hatch to the bulla stage. 



From Hans Bertsch. I suspect that Cypraea alisonae is in 
the Panamic faunal province. The specimens identified as C. 
teres need to be re-examined in light of Burgess's species. 
Obviously, careful comparison of specimens is necessary. That 
both C. teres and C. alisonae are in the Panamic region would 



not be that surprising. 




From Robert Robertson [The Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia, 19th & the Parkway, Logan Square, Philadelphia, 
PA 19103]. I was surprised to read in "Opisthobranch" 
16(3): 26 that the Pyramidellomorpha [Pyramidellidae] are "a 
small semi-extinct group...." Most of the animals are small, 
but the group is not: the Pyramidellidae are probably the 
second most speciose family of gastropods (second only to the 
Turridae), and it seems to me that more Recent than fossil 
species are known. Along with the Architectonicidae and a few 
other families, pyramidellids are transitional between the 
subclasses Prosobranchia and Opisthobranchia. 

Good luck with "Shells and Sea Life"! 



PERSONAL NOTES. 



Winston A. Barney [see "Computers and Shell Collecting," 
July issue] One note in answer to your plea for a volunteer 
to coordinate a column on computers in malacology: Several 
months ago I volunteered to do that very same thing for 
readers of "Hawaiian Shell News." I have received only one 
reply to date. I am forced to believe there is not much in- 
terest there, however, I will be glad to take any information 
you may receive from readers and compile their thoughts for 
you. I am personally convinced that the computer can be of 
great value to the collector. 

I use a data base (Radio Shack's "Profile") to catalog my 
collection. With ease, I can print out all shells in my 
collection from any geographical area, all shells published 
by a particular author, or all species by genus. I also store 
on disks my library references, both books and periodicals, 
for each shell in my collection. Wes Thorsson of Hawaii uses 
his computer to identify shells using a "key." The known 
characteristics of each species are stored in memory and the 
user simply answers a few questions to arrive at the correct 
name. This is really great for turrids and miters. John R. 
Lewis of Lisle, Illinois had several thousand lots of shells 



S&SL 16(6) :77 



in four collections with different numbering systems. He used 
his I.B.M. computer to renumber all the shells in his four 
collections leaving room on each entry for family, genus, 
species, author & date, geographical province, locality & 
habitat, comments, source, date acquired, no. of specimens, 
cost and other remarks such as reference to publications. WOW! 



Personal Notes 
. . . . (Continued) 



Larry Harris [Zoology Department, University of New 
Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824] I have recently seen a new copy 
of the "Opisthobranch" and thought I had better get my sub- 
scription renewed since I will be doing much more nudibranch 
work when I return from sabbatical here in Australia. I am 
based at the University of Sydney and working at One Tree 
Island Field Station to the east of Heron Island. I have been 
looking at how fish affect recruitment of motile invertebrates 
onto coral substrates. I have used pieces of Acropora that 
have either been grazed (no cover) and those with damselfish 
gardens (cover). The key to invertebrate density and 
diversity is cover (shag rug works as well or better than real 
garden) and therefore herbivorous fish really drive the system 
because they remove the cover. The dominant opisthobranchs 
have been a couple of cephalaspideans. Since all experiments 
run for a week or less, I never see the animals more than a 
couple of mm. It is a very dynamic system, but we found that 
it is the same in the Gulf of Maine - panels with Obelia would 
have numerous and breeding Tergipes despectus in two weeks. 

I have found what is probably a new species of Phestilla 
feeding on Goniopora . Specimens reach 60+ mm which is 20 mm 
larger than either P. melanobranchia or P. lugubris . I will 
be describing it along with Dr. Baba who was so helpful to me 
in identifying P_. melanobranchia so many years ago. 

The issue of the "Opisthobranch" that I have seen a copy of 
is January ' 84 and it has an inquiry from Alan Kuzirian about 
the thesis on Aeolidia papulosa and Hermissenda crassicornis . 
There are two that I am aware of: (1) Jack Yarnall's from 
about 1970 out of Stanford; and (2) Thomas Cockburn's out of 
the University of Victoria in 1976. Dr. Robert Reid of the 
Biology Department, University of Victoria was the advisor. 

I am still in Durham [University of New Hampshire] and will 
return there by the middle of August. We will be in Santa 
Barbara [California] from 20 June to 10 August working with 
Al Ebeling and Dave Laur. Keep up the good work and you know 
where to find us if you are back in New England again. 










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25 words or less. 

SHELLS ON STAMPS - Send self addressed stamped envelope for 
current list. WORLD STAMPS, Box 20041, Houston, TX 77225. 

BOOKS FOR SALE - Some of Bill Old's books are for sale: Write: 
Walter Sage, A.M.N.H., Central Park West at 79th St., New 
York, New York, 10024 



S&SL 16(6) :78 



MISCELLANEA 



THE APRICOT SLUG. Wesley M. Farmer, 11061 Lea Terrace Drive, 
Santee, CA 92071 

Opisthobranchs or sea slugs are found in all the oceans and 
seas, even under the Antarctic ice shelf. Their form and 
striking color make them a favorite of photographers. In the 
past 3 years a half dozen books have appeared illustrating the 
awesome color combinations and curious body shapes of 
opisthobranchs . 

The apricot slug (also called the orange blob or the lemon 
pleurobranch) is common in the tropical waters of the Gulf of 
California and the Caribbean. It is often found in pairs 
under rocks (Bertsch and Ghiselin, personal communication). 
It has been collected rarely in southern California. 

The correct species name is still in dispute. It has been 
called Berthellina citrina, B. engeli , and B. engeli ilisima . 

This animal grows to a length of about 60 mm. Its body 
suggests half of an apricot, for it is smooth and orangish- 
red. 

Opisthobranchs have few if any predators. One way to avoid 
being eaten is to evolve defensive acid secreting 
capabilities. This species is particularly offensive in its 
defense. On the dorsal surface are goblet cells which secrete 
sulfuric acid. When tested, the secretion has measured a 
highly acidic pH of 1 . 




Berthellina ( engeli ) ilisima Marcus & Marcus, 1967. Drawing by 
Wesley M. Farmer. 



PUBLICATION NOTES. 



Willan, Richard C. & Neville Coleman. 1984. Nudibranchs of 
Australasia. Australasian Marine Photographic Index, Sydney, 
Australia. 56 pp.; figs. 1-168 + A-F +[17]. [ON10419; 
Softbound; A $25.00; post/pack $3.00; overseas $2.80] About 
170 color photographs in this gorgeous work. The color 
printing and the photography are simply excellent. Each 
species pictured with the name, author, date, short 
description, range, illustrated specimen size collecting 
locality. The only possible complaint about this work is the 
index stock cover, saddle-stapled around the beautiful 
contents. The book deserves a better binding and a lower 
price. The book belongs in every library as the prime 
opisthobranch reference for the Australasian region. - S&SL 

Thompson, T.E. 71984. Biology of Opisthobranch Molluscs. 
Volume II. The Ray Society, London. [Tom has just corrected 
proofs of the volume and is preparing the index. It should be 
published in mid-late July, 1984] 



S&SL 16(6) :79 



CURRENT EVENTS 




%&w 



WESTERN SOCIETY OF MALACOLOGISTS: The seventeenth annual 
meeting will be held on the campus of the University of 
California at Santa Cruz on August 16-19, 1984. For 
information and pre-registration forms write: Mrs. Margaret 
Mulliner, Treasurer, Western Society of Malacologists, 5283 
Vickie Drive, San Diego, CA 92109, (619)488-2701. Persons 
wishing to present a paper at the meeting should contact WSM 
President George L. Kennedy, U.S.G.S., 345 Middlefield Road, 
Menlo Park, CA 94025 (415)323-8111, extension 2634. Deadline 
for receipt is 15 July, 1984. All students wishing to compete 
for the Best Student Paper Award ($100.00 first place, $75.00 
second place, $50.00 third place), should include the 
signature and phone number of their supervising professor. 



We are happy to announce the formation of a new shell club 
in central Pennsylvania: THE CEN PEN. BEACHCOMBERS, initiated 
in October of 1983. They have been organizing and growing 
since then to their present membership of 28. Meetings are 
quarterly, in the homes of members, while a permanent meeting ^'^SM% 
place is found. A quarterly newsletter "The Noble Pen" is W^''-^a 
sent to all members. John J. Brandyberry is President. For V^^^x 
further information contact: Teri Maurer, Secretary, 360 FiA'^S^'* 
Chestnut, Columbia, PA 17512. 



The Conchological Club of Southern California will hold 
their annual shell auction Sunday, August 26th, at 1:00 p.m. 
For additional details contact Kirstie Kaiser, 19545 Sherman 
Way #62, Reseda, CA 91335. 



Schedule of Shows and Conventions 

June 27-30 Conchologists of America, St. Petersburg, Florida 
July 22-27 American Malacological Union, Norfolk, Virginia 
July 22- International Symposium on Marine Plankton, 
August 1 Schimizu, Japan 

July 27-29 Jacksonville Shell Show, Jacksonville Beach, Fla. 
Aug. 6-9 V Congresso National de Malacologia, Vigo, Spain 
Aug. 11-12 Midwest Regional Shell Show, Indianapolis, Indiana 
Aug. 16-19 Western Society of Malacologists, Santa Cruz, Cal. 
Sep. 12-19 Association Conchliologique de New Caledonia, 

Noumea, New Caledonia 
Sep. 22-23 Long Island Shell Show, Freeport, New York 
Oct. 13-14 Tri-State Shell Show, Cincinnati, Ohio 
Oct. 13-14 Santa Barbara Shell Show, Santa Barbara, California 
Oct. 20-21 Philadelphia Shell Show, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 
Dec. 27-30 Western Society of Naturalists, Denver, Colorado 

This list will be updated as information arrives. Thanks 
to Donald Dan [Oak Brook, Illinois] for his assistance in 
compiling the list. - S&SL. 



S&SL 16(6) :80 



GLASS IF ICATICN NOTES: 



AN OUTLINE OF CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING MARINE M3LLUSCA 



As the revision of the 'Outline of Classification" proceeds, we realize that it is 
a tremendously complicated task, incorporating changes and corrections to out of date 
matenalj trying to reconcile the recent systematic revisions of various authors, and 
coping. with my own errors. The outline presented is admittedly incomplete, and has 
many mistakes, which we hope to correct with the help of our readers and advisors. 

Where it is possible, we are sending advance copy of each section to specialists 
in various fields, hoping that they will assist us in making the lists as complete 
correct and current as possible. ' 

.u rl ,T- mos t gra r eful ni° I ? t ' W , alter C e inoh 5rsky for his corrections and additions to 
the Outline thus far. Thanks also. to Dr. William Emerson and Walter Sage of the 
American Museum of Natural History in New York for material on recent changes and for 
continued help and encouragement. 

A corrected revision of the first four sections is printed below. 

Kay C. Vaught - 8646 E. Paraiso Drive - Scottsdale, Arizona 85255 



PHiTJLM MXLU5CA 

Class Monoplacaphora 

Order Trybl idioidea 

TKYBLIDIACEA 

TRYBLIIDAE (Fossils) 

NBOPILINIDAE 
NEOPILINA Lemche, 1957 

LAEVIPILINA McLean, 1979 
VEMA Clark S Menzies, 1959 

Class Gastropoda 

Subclass Prosobrancbia 

Order Archaeogastropoda 

PLEUROICMUUACEA 
PLEUROTCMARIIDAE 
ENTaWOTROCHLB Fischer, 1885 
MIKADOTRCCHLS Lindholm, 1927 
PEROTRCCHUS Fischer, 1885 

SCISSURELLIDAE 
SCISSUREIXA Orbigny, 1824 

Schismope, Jeff reys ,1856; 
Woodwardia Crosse ft 
Fischer ,1861 
ANATCMA Woodward, 1859 

Schizotrochus Monts . , 1 884 
Scissurona Iredale, 1924 
SINE2TNA Finlay, 1927 
SUKASHITRCCHLS Habe ft Kosuge,1964 

HALIOTIDAE 
HALIOTIS Linneus, 1758 

ELHALIOTIS Wenz , 1938 
EUROTIS Habe ft Kosuge, 1964 
EJCHALIOTIS Cotton ft Godfrey, 1933 
MARINAURIS Iredale, 1927 
NORDOTIS Habe ft Kosuge, 1964 
NOTOHALIOTIS Cotton ft Godfrey,1933 
OVINOTIS Cotton, 1943 
PADOLLU5 Montfort , 1810 
Neohaliotis Cotton 

ft Godfrey, 1933 
PAUA Fleming, 1952 
SANHALIOTIS Iredale, 1929 
SCHISvErriS Gray, 1856 
SULCULUS H.S A. Adams, 1854 
U5AHALIOTIS Habe ft Kosuge, 1964 

NEOMPHALACEA 

NECMPHALIDAE 
NECMPHAIXB McLean, 1981 

Pef. J.H.McLean - The Galapagos 
Rift Limpet Neomphalus. 1981 
Malacologia, 21(1-2)291-336 



FISSURELLACEA 

FISSUUILLIDAI3 

EMARGINULINAE 
EMARGINULA Lamarck, 1801 

SEMPERI A Crosse, 1867 
SUBZEIDORA Iredale, 1924 
CLYPIDINA Gray, 1847 
EMARGINELLA Pilsbry, 1891 
HEMITCMA Swainson, 1840 

Siphonella Issel, 1869; 
Subemarginula Gray, 1847 
M3>JTF0RTIA Recluz, 1843 
MJOTORTISTA Iredale, 1929 
LAEVIEMARGINULA Habe in Kuroda, 1953 
NESTA H.Adams, 1870 

LAEVINESTA Pilsbry 

ft McGinty, 1952 
NOTCMELLA Cotton, 1959 
PUNCIURELLA Lowe, 1827 

Cemoria Lowe, 1826; 
Cremoria Gray, 1842; 
Rimulanax Ire. ,1924; 
Sypho Brown, 1827; 
Sipho Brown, 1833 

(non Fabricius,1823); 
Vacerra Iredale, 1924 

(non Godman, 1900) ; 
Vacerrena Iredale, 1958 
CRANOPSIS A.Adams, 1860 
FISSURISEPTA Seguenza, 1863 
KIRA Habe, 1951 
RIXA Iredale, 1924 
RMJLA DeFrance, 1827 

Rimularia Bronn, 1838 
SCUTU5 Montfort, 1810 

Aviscutum Iredale, 1940; 
Parmophorus Blainvil le, 1817; 
Scutum Sowerby, 1842 

(non Schumacher, 1817) 
NANNOSCUILM Iredale, 1937 
TCGALIA Gray in Dief fenbach, 1843 
PARM3PHDR IDEA Wenz, 1938 
TLGALINA Habe in Kuroda, 1953 
ZEIDORA A.Adams, 1860 

"Zidora Fischer, 1885; 
Crepiemarginula 

Seguenza, 1880; 
Legrandia Beddome, 1833 
(non Hanley, 1872) 



Key to "Outline" Format: 

SLPERFAMILY 

FAMILY 

SUBFAMILY 
GENERA 

SUBGENERA 

Synonym 



DICDORINAE 
DICDORA Gray, 1821 

AUSTRCGLYPHIS Cotton ft 

Godfrey, 1934 
ELEGIDICN Iredale, 1924 
FISSURIDEA Swainson, 1840 
MEGATHURA Pilsbry, 1890 
STRCMBOLI Berry, 1953 

FISSURELLINAE 

FISSURELLA Bruguiere, 1789 

BALBOAINA Perez-Farf ante, 1943 
CARCELLESIA Per. -Far., 1952 
CLYPIDELLA Swainson, 1840 
CREMIDES H.K A.Adams, 1854 

AMBLYCHILEPAS Pilsbry, 1890 

Sophismalepas Iredale, 1924 

COSMETALEPAS Iredale, 1924 

FISSURELLIDEA Orbigny, 1841 

PUPILLAEA G.B. Sowerby, 1835 

INCISURA Hedley, 1904 

LEUROLEPAS McLean, 1970 

LUCAPINA Sowerby, 1835 

LUCAPINELLA Pilsbry, 1890 

MACROCHISMA Swainson, 1840 

Macrochasma Dall , 1915; 
Macroschisma Agassiz, 1846 
DOLICHISCHISMA Iredale, 1940 
FOROLEPAS Iredale, 1940 

MEGATEBENNU5 Pilsbry, 1890 

M3*DILEPAS Finlay, 1927 (?) 

MZNTFORTULA Iredale, 1915 

M3rtK)RTULANA Habe , 1961 

PATELLACEA 
PATELLIDAE 

PA11-LLINAE 
PATELLA Linnaeus, 1758 

Costatopatella Pal lary, 1912; 
Laevipatella Pallary,1920 
ANCISTRCMESUS Dall, 1871 
CVMBULA H.a A.Adams, 1854 
OLANA H.S AJ^dams, 1854 
PATELLASTRA Monterosato,1884 
PATELLIDEA Thiele in Troschel ,1891 
PATELLCNA Thiele in Troschel ,1891 
PATINA Leach in Gray, 1847 
PENEPATELLA Iredale, 1929 
SCUTELLASTRA H.a A.Adams, 1854 
Patellanax Iredale, 1924 
HELCICN Montfort, 1810 

ANSATES Sowerby, 183 9 

PATINASTRA Thiele in Troschel , 1891 

NACELLINAE 
NACELLA Schumacher, 1817 

PATINIGERA Dall, 1905 

Patinella Dall, 1871 
CELLANA HAdams, 1869 

Granopatella Pallary,1920 
Helcioniscus Dall, 1871 



S&SL 16(6):81 



PATELLACEA -Cont'd. 



ACMAEIDAE 

AGMAEINAE 
ACMAEA Escholtz, 1833 

ACTINOLEUCA Oliver, 1926 
ASTERACMEA Oliver, 1926 
ATALACMEA Iredale, 1915 
CHI AZACMEA Oliver, 1926 
GCNACMEA Oliver, 1926 
NACCULA Iredale, 1924 
NCMAEOPELTA Berry, 1958 
NOTOACMEA Iredale, 1915 
PARVACMEA Iredale, 1915 
PATELLOIDA Quoy a Gaimard,1834 
RADIACMEA Iredale, 1915 
SUBAGMEA Oliver, 1926 
TECTURA Gray, 1847 

Niveotectura Habe, 1944 
1HALASSAGMEA Oliver, 1926 
COLL I SELLA Dal 1, 1871 

GCNOIDAGMEA Habe, 1944 
KIKDKDZARA Habe, 1944 
LOTTIA Gray, 1833 

Lecania Carpenter, 1866 

(non Macquart ,1839) 
Tecturella Carpenter ,1860 
POTAMACMAEA Peile, 1922 
SCURRIA Gray, 1847 

RH3X1PETALINAE 
RrTDOPETALA Dall, 1921 

PECTINCDCNTINAE 
PECriNdXNTA Dall, 1882 



LEPETIDAE 
LEPETA Gray, 1842 

Cryptoctenidia Dall, 1918 
CRYPTOBRANCHIA Middendorf f , 1851 
IOIHIA Forbes, 1849 (Jothia) 
MAORICRATER Dell, 1956 
NOTOCRATER Finlay, 1927 
PILIDILM Forbes a Hanley, 1849 

(non Mueller, 1846) 
PROPILIDILM Forbes and Hanley,1849 

Rostrisepta Seguenza,1866 
PLNCIOLEPETA Habe, 1958 

BATHYSCIADI IDAE 
BATHySCIADILM Dautzenberg 

a Fischer, 1900 



CCCCU.INACEA 

CCCCULINIDAE 

GOCCOLINA Dall , 1882 

COCCOPYGIA Dall, 1889 

(non Reichenbach, 1862) 
DALLIA Jeffreys, 1883 

(non Bean, 1878) 
PSFXDOGCCCULINA Schepman, 1908 

LEPETELLIDAE 
LEPETELLA Verrill, 1880 
ACDISCNIA Dall, 1882 
GCCaULINELLA Thiele, 1909 
TECTICRATER Dell, 1956 
TECTISLMEN Finlay, 1927 

Note: Powell, 1979, places this 
after Neritacea. 



Ref. J.F. Quinn.Jr. - 1979 
(Revision of MARGARITINAn) 
Malacologia, 1979, 19(1) : 1-62 

21(l-2):291-336 



TKXHACEA 
TRCCHIDAE 

MARGARITINAE 
MARGARITES Gray, 1847 

Eumargarita Fi scher , 1885 ; 
Margarita Leach in Ross, 1819 

(non Leach, 1814) 
Valvatella Melvill,1897 
(non Gray, 1857) 
BATHiMDPHILADall, 1881 
CANTHARIDOSCOPS Galkin, 1955 
MARGARELLA Thiele, 1893 
Margaritella Thiele 

in Troschel ,1891 
(non Meek a Hayden, 1860) ; 
Promargarita Strebel , 1908; 
Submargarita Strebel, 1908 
MARGARITOPSIS Thiele, 1906 
CMPHALCMARGARITES Habe a Ito 1965 
PUPILLARIA Dall, 1909 

Lirularia Dall, 1909 
ANnMARGARITA Powell, 1951 
BATHYBEMBIX Crosse, 1892 

Bembix Watson, 1879 

(non Koninck, 1844) ; 
Ginebis Otuka, 1942 
CALLIOrROPIS Seguenza, 1903 

Solaricida Dall, 1919 
DANILIA Brusina, 1865 

Craspedotus Phi 1 ippi , 1847 
(non Schonherr ,1844) 
Heliciella O.G.Costa, 1861 
ECHINOGLRGES Quinn, 19 79 
ELCHELLB Philippi, 1847 

Aradasia Gray, 1850; 
Huttonia Kirk, 1882 
(non Pickard 
Cambridge, 1880) 
Tallorbis G.a H.Ncvil 1 , 1869) 
ANTILLACHELLB Woodring, 1928 
HERPETOPCMA Pilsbry, 1890 
NEVILLIA H. Adams, 1868 
VACELCHELUS Iredale, 1929 
GRANATA Cotton, 1957 
HYBOCHELUS Pilsbry, 1889 
LISCHKEIA Fischer in Keiner 

a Fischer ,1880 
ADAMSENIDA Habe, 1957 

Solariellopsis Schepman, 1908 
(non Gregorio,1886) 
CIDARINA Dall, 1909 
TLRCICULA Dall, 1881 
MIRACHELLB Woodring, 1928 
OLIVIA Cantraine, 1835, 

(non Bertolini ,1810) 
TIBATROCUB Nomura, 1940 
TROPnXMARGA Powell, 1951 

PLANITROCHINAE 
PLANITROCHLS Perner in Bar rande , 1903 

M3CDCNTINAE 
MCNCDCNTA Lamarck, 1799 

Labio Oken,1815; 
Monodontes Montfort, 1810; 
Odontis Sowerby, 1825; 
Pimpellies Gistl , 1848; 
Trochidon Swainson, 1840 
AUSTRCCCCHLEA Fischer, 1885 
NECMlvlCDCNTA Kuroda a Habe 19 71 
OSILINLS Philippi, 1847 

Caragolus Monterosato , 1884; 
Trochocochlea Moerch,1852 
BANKIVIA Beck in Krauss, 1849 

LEIOPYRGA H.a A.Adams, 1863 
CANTHARHXB Montfort, 1810 

Cantharidium Schaufuss , 1869; 
Cantharis Ferussac, 1821 
(non Linnaeus, 1758) ; 
Elenchus Swainson, 1840 
(non Curtis, 1831) 
rWAKAWATRCCHLB Kuroda a Habe 1954 
MICRELENCHLB Finlay, 1927 
PHASIAN0TR0CHL5 Fischer, 1885 
PLLMBELENCHLB Finlav 1927 



M3CDONTINAE -Cont'd. 

CHRYSOSTCMA Swainson, 1840 
DILCMA Philippi, 1845 

Zediloma Finlay, 1927 
CAKDILCMA Finlay, 1927 
CHLORCOILCMA Pilsbry, 1889 
Latona Hutton, 1884 

(non Schumacher ,1817) 
FRACTARMILLA Finlay, 1927 
MELAGRAPHIA Gray, 1847 

Anisodiloma Finlay, 1927; 
Neodiloma Fischer, 1885 
OX YSTE LE Philippi, 1847 
PICICDILCMA Habe, 1946 
JUJTJBINLB Monterosato, 1884 

Clelandella Winkworth,1932 
MIRULINLB Monterosato, 1917 
STRIGOSELLA Sacco, 1896 
TEGULA Lesson, 1835 

AGATHISTCMA Olsson 

a Harbison, 1953 
CHLOROSTCMA Swainson, 1840 
CMPHALILB Philippi, 1847 

Neomphalius Fischer, 1885 
PRCMARTYNIA Dal 1 , 1909 
STEARNSILM S.S. Berry, 1958 
THALOTIA Gray, 1840 

ALCYNA A.Adams, 1860 
CALTHALOTIA Iredale, 1929 
CIXNIOTROGHUB Fischer in Kiener 

S Fischer, 1880 
PROIHALOTIA Thiele, 1930 
TURCICA H.a A.Adams, 1854 

Ptychostylis Gabb, 1866 
PERRINIA H.a A.Adams, 1854 

GIBBULINAE 
GIBBULA Risso, 1826 

Conotrochus Pilsbry, 1889 
(non Seguenza, 1864); 
Magulus Monterosato, 1888; 
Phorculellus Sacco, 1896; 
Phorculus Monterosato, 1888 

(non Cossmann, 1888) ; 
Puteolus Monterosato, 1888 
ADRIARIA Pallary, 1917 
CALLIOTRCCHL5 Fischer in Kiener 

a Fischer, 1880 
CANTHARIDELLA Pilsbry, 1889 
COLLICULLB Monterosato, 1888 
Glomulus Monts.,1888; 
Glossulus Pallary, 1938 
ENIDA A.Adams, 1860 
ELRYTFOCUB Fischer in Kiener 
a Fischer, 1880 
FORSKALENA Iredale, 1918 

Forskalia H.a A. Adams, 1854 
(non Koelliken,1853) 
FORSKALIOPSIS Coen, 1931 

(non Haeckel , 1888) 
HISSEYAGIBBULA Kershaw, 1955 
NOTOGIBBULA Iredale, 1924 
PHORCUS Risso, 1826 
STERCMPHALA Gray, 1847 

Gibbulastra Monts.,1884; 
Gibbuloidella Sacco, 1896; 
Korenia Friele, 1877 
TLMULUS Monterosato, 1888 
CITTARILM Philippi, 1847 

Livona Gray, 1847; 
Meleagris Montfort, 1810 
(non Linnaeus, 1758) 
FOSSARINA A.Adams aAngas, 1864 
Minos Hutton, 1884 
CLYDCNCCHILL5 Fischer, 1890 
MINOPA Iredale, 1924 
NANULA Thiele, 1924 
NORRISIA Bayle, 1880 

Trochiscus Sowerby, 1838 
(non Heyden.1826, 
nor Held, 1837) 
PH3RCULLB Cossmann, 1888 
TROCHINELLA Iredale, 1937 



S&SL 16(6):82 




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9 7""*i 



Figure 1. Living Cyphoma emarginatum on Muricea; under- 
water photograph of 20 mm long specimen in Bahfa de los 
Angeles, Baja California, Mexico. Mantle retracted. 




Figure 3. Living Cyphoma signatum showing mantle and 
siphon coloration; collected on gorgonian at Galeta Reef, 
Panama (Caribbean coast), (see also photo, back page.) 





Figure 2. Cyphoma emarginatum, mantle extended. Same 
specimen as Figure 1. 




Figure 4. Gorgonia ventalina, Salmadina Reef, Panama. 
Underwater view of Cyphoma gibbosum habitat. 




Figure 5. Cyphoma gibbosum juvenile, Galeta Reef, 
Panama. 

All photos this page by Hans Bertsch 



Figure 6. Cyphoma gibbosum adult on Gorgonia. Note scar 
above right of snail where it has been feeding. Galeta Reef, 
Panama. 



S&SL 16(6):85 



Notes from Hans Bertsch 

Cyphoma: The Hump Shells 

Belonging to a distinctive tropical American genus 
of mesogastropods, species of Cyphoma Roding, 
1798, are characteristically gorgonian feeders. They 
are members of the family Ovulidae Fleming, 1822. 
This family of cypraeaceans is represented by four 
subfamilies in American waters (Abbott, 1974): 

1. Eocypraeinae Schilder, 1927, with the genera 
Jenneria Jousseaume, 1884, (see Bertsch, 
1984), and Pseudocypraea Schilder, 1927; 

2. Pediculariinae Gray, 1853, with the genus 
Pedicularia Swainson, 1840; 

3. Ovulinae Fleming, 1822, containing the genus 
Primovula Thiele, 1925; and 

4. Simniiae Schilder, 1927, which encompasses 
the genera Simnia Risso, 1826, Cyphoma, and 
PseudocyphomaQz.it, 1973. 

It should be noted that Keen (1971) does not use Sim- 
niinae, referring those genera to Ovulinae. 

Shells of Cyphoma are fairly large, elongate, and 
often heavily calloused (with a smooth, inrolled, 
thick outer lip). They have broad terminal ends, with 
a characteristic transverse angular dorsal ridge. The 
word cyphoma is from the Greek, meaning hump 
(Emerson & Jacobson, 1976), chosen in obvious ref- 
erence to this ridge. The coloration of shells in this 
group is similar. It is usually a delicate shade that 
almost defies description: cinnammon buff, pinkish- 
white flesh color, cartridge buff, tints of lilac, pale 
orange-beige, etc. Their artistic hues defy precise ver- 
bal description, but once seen they are unmistakable 
and immediately recognizable. 

When found alive in their natural habitat, the 
delicate pastels of the shell are blatantly hidden under 
an encircling mantle of yellowish complexion on 
which are boldly emblazoned black or brown circles, 
streaks, spots, or "contorted graffiti marks resem- 
bling histological cross-sections" (Abbott, 1974: 
153). 

Extant species of Cyphoma are Caribiphilic in their 
distribution. With the closure of the Panamic seaway 
by the uplifting of the Central American moun- 
tainous land mass, evolutionary processes resulted in 
greater speciation in the Caribbean than in the 
Pacific. 

There are eight nominate species that belong to this 
group. They have been divided into two genera by 
Cate (1973), or treated as members of subgenera by 
Abbott (1974). They fall clearly into two groups: 
those with a distinct transverse dorsal ridge and those 
without it. Abbott separated these, but Cate mixed 
the forms among the genera. Because of the obvious 
distinctness of the prominent ridge, I recommend 
following Abbott's clear separation of the species, 
but at the generic level. Hence, the classification of 
this group would read: 



Cyphoma gibbosum Linnaeus, 1758) 
C. macgintyi Pilsbry, 1939 
C. alleneae Cate, 1973 
C. signatum Pilsbry & McGinty, 1939 
C. emarginatum (Sowerby, 1830) 
Pseudocyphoma aureocinctum (Dall, 1899) 
P. intermedium (Sowerby, 1828) 
P. kathiewayae Cate, 1973 

Pseudocyphoma kathiewayae is known from only 
one specimen, partly fossilized, collected off San 
Sebastian, NE Spain. It is the only species not 
reported from the American tropics. However, this 
species may not be extant; more research is necessary 
to determine the validity, biology, and distribution of 
this species. 

Pseudocyphoma aureocinctum has been dredged 
from deep water (123 to 128 m) off Cuba and 
the West Indies, living on a white gorgonian. 
Pseudocyphoma intermedium is known from Ber- 
muda, Florida, the West Indies, and Brazil. Its col- 
umellar lip has a prominent, oblique, funicular plait. 
These species respectively are about 20 mm and more 
than 30 mm long. 

Cyphoma emarginatum occurs in the eastern 
Pacific, from the northern Gulf of California to 
Ecuador (Keen, 1971: 496). I have found it in Bahia 
de los Angeles (central Baja California), feeding on 
the gorgonian Muricea (see Figures 1 and 2). The shell 
is about 15-20 mm long, whitish to pink-flesh col- 
ored, with sharply defined, protuberant, almost bum- 
py margins. The mantle is varying shades of golden 
orange brown with darker transverse striations. It is 
the only Cyphoma presently known from the eastern 
Pacific. All the other species of Cyphoma are Carib- 
bean and tropical west Atlantic in distribution. 

Cyphoma alleneae is a rare species, reported from 
corals (not gorgonians) in the Florida Keys. The mantle 
is its most distinctive feature: the design is of con- 
voluted lobes with anastomosing or separate vacuole- 
like hollows inside. This has been termed the "graf- 
fiti" design, the 20-30 mm long shell appears 
intermediate in shape between C. gibbosum and C. 
macgintyi. 

Cyphoma macgintyi is known from Bermuda, the 
Bahamas, and the southern Atlantic U.S. coast 
(North Carolina to Texas) (Abbott, 1974). Cate 
(1973) reports it only from Florida. The shell has a 
very high median ridge, sloping evenly outward from 
the ends of the shell. It varies from about 25 to 35 mm 
in length. The mantle is covered with small, circular, 
brownish spots. 

Recent reports of the distribution of Cyphoma 
signatum have been conflicting. Cate (1973) restricts 
it to the Florida Keys, whereas Abbott (1974) cites in 
addition "Bermuda (rare); Bahamas to Brazil." Since 
I have collected this species in Panama, Abbott's 
stated distribution seems the more reasonable; C. 



S&SL 16(6):86 



signatum apparently ranges throughout the Carib- 
bean, from Florida to Brazil. This species tends to be 
more elongate than C. gibbosum; shells 35 and 38.7 
mm long were 15 and 17.1 mm wide. By comparison, 
a C. gibbosum 37.3 mm long was 18.2 mm wide. 
Again, the mantle (see Figure 3) is its distinctive 
characteristic. The enveloping skin surface is cream 
yellow with numerous thin, closely-spaced, black 
transverse lines. The specimen I collected in Panama 
was feeding on a small gorgonian. 

The best known and most studied of these animals 
is Cyphoma gibbosum. In next month's "Notes," I 
will discuss the feeding and reproductive behavior of 
C. gibbosum, and include previously unpublished 
scanning electron micrographs of the radula. 



LITERATURE CITED 

Abbott, R. Tucker. 1974. American Seashells. Van Nostrand 
Reinhold Co., New York. 663 pp. 

Bertsch, Hans. 1984. Jenneria pustulata, the pustulate 
"cowrie." Opisthobranch 16 (2): 10 

Cate, Crawford Neil. 1973. A systematic revision of the re- 
cent cypraeid family Ovulidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda). 
Veliger 15(Suppl.): 1-116 

Emerson, William K., and Morris K. Jacobson. 1976. The 
American Museum of Natural History Guide to Shells, 
land, freshwater, and marine, from Nova Scotia to Florida. 
Alfred A. Knopf, New York, xviii + 482 pp. 

Keen, A. Myra. 1971. Sea shells of tropical west America. 
Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, xiv + 1064 
pp. 

Photos (pg. 85) by Hans Bertsch 

Dr. Hans Bertsch, 4444 W. Pt. Loma Blvd., San 
Diego, CA 92107 



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FEATURES - JULY 1984 

PAGE 
Notes on Haliotis squamosa Gray, 1827 

Katherine Stewart 92 

Donax variabilis ; Pete Carmichael 95 

Oliva porphyria Linnaeus, 1758. 

David K. Mulliner 103 

Xenophoridae Part I: Xenophora granulosa 

and Xenophora tenuis . Kate St. Jean 104 

Mollusks: A Look at Their Ecological 

Importance. David W. Behrens 106 

CENTER SECTION 

PERSONAL NOTES 96 

INFORMATION EXCHANGE 97 

PUBLICATION NOTES 97 

MISCELLANEA 97 

Computers & Shell Collections: W.A. Barney 

Cocos Island Treasure: D.R. Shasky 

Field Trip Notes: G.C. Williams 

Classification Notes, Revised: K.C. Vaught 
NOTES FROM HANS BERTSCH: Cyphoma : Part II. .. 100 



Front cover photo by Boris Innocenti: Cyphoma 

gibbosum , April 1974, Roatan Island off Honduras 
coast, 10-13 m depth. 

Back cover photo by David W. Behrens: see pg. 106 

mi 

EDITOR'S NOTES 

I have wanted to get the magazine out earlier 
in each month since the January issue but color 
printing and typesetting schedules just didn't 
seem to allow me to catch up. Hope that you enjoy 
my answer - doing two complete issues at once. 
With any luck, the August issue will appear very 
early in August. 

Computers are a great help with shell 
collections (see W.A. Barney, June and this issue) 
and even more help with general correspondence and 
setting up articles. They do come complete with 
problems and expense. Head crashes in June, on 
three separate hard disk systems, required both 
the June and July issues of S&SL to be typed into 
the computer two times when the entire data file 
was lost. 



S&SL 16(7):91 



Notes on Haliotis squamosa Gray 1827 
by Katharine Stewart 

Haliotis squamosa Gray 1 827 is a rare haliotid, little 
known in collections and incorrectly figured and 
described in publications since 1890, when it was last 
correctly described and figured in Pilsbry's Manual 
of Conchology. This paper attempts to trace H. 
squamosa historically, and to note those descriptions 
and figures which do not correspond to the examples 
of this species studied by the author, two in the British 
Museum of Natural History and two in a private 
collection. 

The original description, appearing in the Appen- 
dix to "Narrative of a Survey of the Intertropical and 
Western Coasts of Australia, performed between 
1818 and 1822", by Philip King, does not give locality 
data. Perhaps because the specimen was collected on 
this voyage, Reeve, 1846, attributed its habitat to 
Australia, citing King. Authors since Reeve have 
followed his example. However, the presence of H. 
squamosa in Australia has never been confirmed. 
There are none in the extensive Haliotis collection in 
the Australian Museum in Sydney, and it is not men- 
tioned in Australian literature as a species native to 
their coasts. 

Examination of the two specimens in the British 
Museum of Natural History, one approximately 87 
mm by 41 mm, marked "Type?", and a second ap- 
proximately 87 mm by 59 mm, showed them to be 
ovate, dull brownish red, raised spiral ribs strong and 
rounded, with deep interstices between them. New 
ribs intercalating between established ones remain 
smaller. These ribs, overlaid by incremental growth 
lines, enlarge irregularly into tubercules. Occassional- 
ly, when regular growth has been interrupted and a 
strong incremental line forms, the succeeding growth 
does not altogether match the contours of the older 
section and a sharp edge is produced on the rib, which 
resembles a short, blunt tile. On the interior the ribs 
are matched by deep furrows. The edge of the lip is 
denticulate. These unique spiral ribs distinguish H. 
squamosa from all other haliotids. 

Several terms are used in the literature to describe 
the dorsal sculpture of this species, "tiled ribs," "tile- 
like scales," "sheath-shaped scales," etc. Two 
separate characters are being described in these 
publications: 1. the incremental growth lines and 2. 
the nature of the spiral ribs when they are crossed by a 
strong growth line. 

Incremental growth lines in Haliotis may be very 
fine as in H. cracherodii, moderate as in H. 
kamtschatkana, or strong as in H. midae, H. roei, 
and H. squamosa. At the point where they cross 
spiral ribs they may look like fine concentric threads 
(H. elegans), or heavier threads leaning away from 
the growing edge (H. roei), or heavier threads leaning 
toward the growing edge (H. squamosa). These in- 
cremental lines form the "scales" in H. squamosa. 
When shell growth has slowed or forward growth 
temporarily stopped, the shell edge thickens and an 
unusually heavy line is formed. When a strong spiral 



rib is crossed by a heavy growth line a blunt projec- 
tion may be formed at a tubercule. These are the 
"tiles." 

Haliotis squamosa can first be traced to Martini 
and Chemnitz "Conch ylien-Cabinet," 1769, in which 
a specimen called "Das grunbunte schuppichte 
Meerohr" is described as having six open holes, 
marbled white and green, with distinctly tiled ribs. 
Martini says, "I don't recall ever having found any 
information written about this Meerohr anywhere. 
All the more pleasure it is for me to relay an accurate 
description of it to our devotees from a specimen 
which is in the extensive Feldmann collection. You 
will find on the outer surface which is gently rippled, 
greenish in color and marked with reddish rays, rows 
of flat but somewhat broader ribbing formed by two 
bands running parallel to each other, as observed in 
the preceeding illustration. The difference is primari- 
ly in the convex tile-like scales with which these rib- 
like formations are often covered. These same ribs 
form corresponding concave furrows on the shiny in- 
ner surface." 

The figure (Tab. XV, fig. 143) while sketchy, does 
show tubercular ribs, though neither scales nor tile- 
like projections are clear. The shell is greenish with 
brown rays emanating from the spire. 

In "Einleitung in die Conchylienkenntnis nach 
Linne," 1783-1786, under the heading "Races and 
Mutations which are Missing in Linne," Schroeter 
described the green-mottled sea ear of Martini as hav- 
ing ribs formed by paired parallel channels, distinc- 
tive because of "crucible-shaped scales with which 
the ribs are copiously set. These ribs are likewise evi- 
dent on the inner, shining side as concave grooves; 
and the channels are indented on the inside as they are 
high on the outside. This mutation is exceedingly 
rare." 

In "Systema Naturae," 13th edition, 1791, Gmelin 
named H. bistriata, variety Beta, citing the figure in 
Martini, and gave this description: "Shell ovate, 
greenish stained with brown, transverse stria ele- 
vated, doubled. Rare in African Ocean. Interior sil- 
very, exterior near the spire colored weak red-brown 
from which rays of the same color cross the dorsum; 
right edge with sharp folds, six open holes." 

Haliotis roedingii, first cited by Menke in 1 844 as 
H. roedingii Chemnitz, appears to be the same 
species. "Haliotis with shell elliptical-obovate, con- 
vex, outside golden red, concolored, transversely 
roughened with pressed together overlapping tiles; six 
round holes, medium sized, elevated; spire subter- 
minal, short; lip rather broad, flat, externally rather 
prominant, inside slightly depressed in the middle, 
gradually reduced toward the front; aperature spiral- 
ly sulcate within, obsoletely transversely rugose, 
silvery. Length 2 poll. 9 lin. ( =71.94 mm), breadth 2 
poll. ( = 52.32 mm), elevation 9.5 lin. ( = 20.71 mm). 
Habitat: Mauritius. 

"The somewhat regularly arched shell is clearly rib- 
bed outward from the posterior end of the lip margin 
to the row of holes on the dorsum by perhaps 32 ribs, 



S&SL 16(7):92 



and from the latter to the columellar margin (on the 
side area) by perhaps 7 spiral ribs, between which 
there exists deep furrows; in the opposite direction 
they are finely transversely lined and especially back 
of the lip margin, lengthwise, set off by separate, 
deep growth lines (antiquata). The transverse ribs, 
especially of the dorsal area, are alternately larger 
and smaller; the larger ones are elevated, strong, 
rounded, finely transversely wrinkled, covered by 
roof-tile-like, overlapping, short, blunt, sheath 
shaped scales, and the smaller ones at the same time 
irregularly interrupted by the growth lines and cut 
through to the base. The segments of the transverse 
ribs between the growth lines display for the most 
part, tile-shaped, in part vaulted, protuberances, 
from which the entire surface of the last whorl ap- 
pears rough and uneven. The spire clearly shows three 
whorls, of which the lower ones bear granular ribs; 
the apex is eroded, pearl colored, shining like mother 
of pearl. The lip is rounded, obscurely notched 
around the margin. Posteriorly, near the spire, the 
columellar lip is 2.7 lines, near the middle 2 lines 
wide, nearly rounded off toward the outside." 

"This species is chiefly allied with Haliotis 
scabricosta, m. Moll. N. Holl., and also seems to be 
related to H. dentata Jonas, in Zeitschr. f. Malak. S. 
31.1 saw it in the spring 1827, under the name given 
above bestowed by Chemnitz, at that time already 36 
years earlier, in the collection which Peter Friederich 
Roeding . . . had received from a ship's doctor from 
Mauritius. The above diagnosis and description are 
derived from the specimen in the Roeding 
collection." 

Haliotis scabricosta is a synonym for H. roei Gray, 
a south Australian species. It can easily be separated 
from H. squamosa by its rounded outline, the place- 
ment of the spire which lies approximately l A of the 
distance from the posterior end in the lengthwise 
measurement, its lack of tile-like protuberances and 
its more numerous and smaller holes. 

Haliotis dentata Jonas is a synonym for H. mariae 
Gray, a species which ranges from the Gulf of Oman 
to northern India. It differs from H. squamosa in the 
character of the ribs which are flatter, with wide in- 
terspaces between and no intercalation of new ribs, 
the established ribs broadening and at times dividing 
by fission as the shell enlarges. It has no tile-like pro- 
tuberances and few tubercules. Rarely, when an in- 
cremental growth line has become heavy, a ledge is 
formed upon the suceeding growth. The nature of 
these ribs and interspaces is so different from those of 
H. squamosa that it is easily separated from that 
species. 

In 1846 Reeve described and figured in excellent 
detail a specimen of//, squamosa from the Cuming col- 
lection. "Shell oblong-ovate, transversally wrinkled, 
spirally tubercularly ribbed, tubercules scale-like, ribs 
sometimes close, sometimes with a fine ridge running 
between them; perforations rather large, seven open; 
exterior spotted and variegated with yellow and 
orange-brown, interior whitish, irridescent. An ex- 



tremely interesting species, well characterized by its 
close ribs of scale-like tubercules, ranging across the 
shell in oblique waves; in the middle portion of the 
shell there is a fine ridge running between the ribs; the 
color is also peculiar, a kind of burnt umber-stained 
orange. Dr. Jonas, of Hamburgh, informs me there is 
another specimen in the collection of Dr. Roeding of 
that city." Reeve adds "Hab. Australia: King," and 
puts Haliotis roedingii, Philippi as a synonym. There 
is no record to show that Philippi named this species. 

The next reference to H. squamosa appears in 
1858, when H. and A. Adams include it in a list of the 
Haliotidae. In 1859 Dr. J. C. Chenu published a 
figure of a shell under the name H. squamosa which 
differs markedly in the character of the ribs, which 
are pictured as narrower, more numerous, more 
closely crowded, with many more scaly protuber- 
ances and with little indication of their tubercular 
nature. There is no written description. 

In 1883, in the second edition of "Systematisches 
Conchylien-Cabinet von Martini und Chemnitz," 
edited by Kuster, H. C. Weinkauff describes H. 
squamosa and uses Martini's figure. He says, "This 
species was incorrectly designated by Gmelin and 
although his otherwise infallible example was correct- 
ly interpreted by Schroeter, it was placed as H. 
bistriata, variety Beta because Schroeter described 
the sculpture as similar to bistriata. 

"Dr. Kuster has designated in the table of contents 
Fig. 1 and 2 of Taf. 3 as H. bistriata, thereby follow- 
ing Gmelin's example without any criticism. The 
specimen I have in front of me of Mr. Paetel matches 
so perfectly Martini's figure and Schroeter's descrip- 
tion as if it were their original; aside from a shorter 
length and less lively coloring, it also fits in complete- 
ly satisfactorily with H. squamosa Gray as shown and 
figured by Reeve. I don't know whether Gray in nam- 
ing his species had already thought of the one given 
by Schroeter, but even if not it is a good coincidence 
that the correct description was arrived at in two such 
different occasions. In fact H. squamosa, the scaly 
one, is the best name that one can find for this 
species." 

G. B. Sowerby, in 1887, described and figured //. 
squamosa as a low ovate shell, variegated red and 
brown, large spiral cords squamose and nodose, in- 
terstices deeply sculptured, inner lip narrow, external 
edge denticulate. 

In 1890 Pilsbry used Reeve's description and figure 
with no additional information. In the "Catalog of 
Exotic Shells," published in 1916 by the Museu de 
Zoologia da Universade de Coimbra, three specimens 
of H. squamosa are listed, with Australia given as 
their habitat. In Maxwell Smith's "Universal Shells," 
1961, Chenu's figure of the shell was used, as it was 
again in three editions of Wagner and Abbott's 
"Standard Catalog of Shells." 

This description appears in the "Card Catalogue of 
World-wide Shells," pack #28, Kaicher, 1981. 
"Variegated yellowish and orange brown; nacre 
whitish, irridescent; six slightly raised perforations; 



S&SL 16(7):93 





Top photos by Jack Smith: Haliotis squamosa Gray, 1827, Indian Ocean. 




Bottom photo by Pete Carmichael: Donax variabilis Say, 1822. 



S&SL 16(7):94 



ribs finely scaled; to approx. 62 mm." The accompany- 
ing photograph is of a shell entirely lacking the tuber- 
cular and scaly spiral ribs as well as the deep in- 
terstices between that are typical of H. squamosa. 
Abbott and Dance, "Compendium of Seashells," 
1982, use the same photograph with this additional 
data, "Western Australia. Subtidal rocks; common." 
This is not the H. squamosa of Gray, nor has its 
presence in Australia been confirmed. 

The whereabouts of the holotype is unknown. It 
was not included in Gray's list of specimens from 
King's voyage presented to the British Museum of 
Natural History, according to Ms. Kathie Way of the 
Mollusca Section. The two specimens in their collec- 
tion are from Mr. Cuming. The habitat of H. 
squamosa appears to be the Indian Ocean. The first 
mention of Australia as its origin is in Reeve's "Con- 
chologia Iconica," where he cites King. It has not 
been found in Australia. However, a log of King's 
ship "Bathurst" shows that it made a stop at several 
Indian Ocean islands, including Mauritius. Gray's 
specimen may have been collected there. Its presence 
in the Indian Ocean is also known from two speci- 
mens collected on a Madagascar beach after a severe 
storm and now in a private collection in California, 
two in a Marine Station in Tulear, Madagascar (letter 
from the late Robert Talmadge, 1975) and one in the 
Natal Museum, Natal, South Africa from Port Blair, 
Andaman Islands (letter from Dr. R. N. Kilburn, 
1984). 

I wish to thank Dr. Peter Rodda for his encourage- 
ment, and Dr. Barry Roth for his support and help 



with translations. Commodore E. C. Armstrong 
helped with research on King's voyage, Gertrude Beer 
and Nizza Nedeff helped with translations, for which 
I am very grateful. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Adams, Henry & Arthur Adams 1858. The Genera of Recent 

Mollusca. Vol. 1, p. 442. 
Chenu, J. C. 1859. Manuel de conchyliologie et de paleon- 

tologie conchyliologique. Paris, Vol. "I :l— VI I, 1-508, text 

figs. 1-3707. [p. 367, fig. 2735] 
King, Philip 1827. Narrative of a Survey of the Intertropical 

and Western Coasts of Australia, performed between 

1818 and 1822. Vol. 2, Appendix, pp. 494-495. 
Linne, Caroli A. 1791. Systems Naturae. 13th ed. revised by 

Gmelin, p. 3689. 
Martini & Chemitz 1769. Neues SystematischesConchylien- 

Cabinet. Nuremberg, Vol. 1, pp. 182-183, pit. 15, fig. 143. 
Menke, Karl Theodor 1844. Zeitschrift fur Malakozoologie 

fur 1844, pp. 97-98. 
Museu de Zoologia da Universadade de Coimbra 1916. 

Catalogo das Conchas Exoticas. Vol. 1 
Pilsbry, Henry A. & George W. Tryon, Jr. 1890. Manual of 

Conchology. Vol. 12, p. 113, pit. 20, fig. 14. 
Reeve, Lovell A. 1846. Conchologia iconica: or, illustrations 

of the shells of molluscous animals. London, pit. 7, figs. 

20. 
Schroeter,Johan Samuel 1783-1786. Einleitung in dieConchy- 

lienkenntniss nach Linne. p. 385. 
Smith, Maxwell 1961. Universal Shells, p. 14, fig. 5. 
Sowerby, G. B., Jr. 1887. Thesaurus Concyliorum. Vol 5, p. 

27, pit. 8, fig. 52. 
Weinkauff, H. C. 1883. Die Gattung Haliotis. in Sys- 

tematisches Conchylien-Cabinet von Martini und Chem- 
nitz. Nurenberg, ser. 2 6 (1b), pp. 22-23, fig. 2, pit. 3. 

Katherine Stewart, 19 La Rancheria, Carmel Valley, 
CA 93924. 



Donax variabilis Say, 1822 
Text and Photo by Pete Carmichael 

Donax variabilis. Probably no other mollusk in the 
world has such remarkable individual variety of shell 
color. The name variabilis was indeed well chosen. In 
the summertime, "Coquinas" can be found by the 
millions on gently-sloping, sandy beaches from New 
York to Florida and Texas. Tumbling along in the 
shallowest surf, it's "now you see them, now you 
don't." 

Incoming waves dislodge Coquinas from the sand 
and roll them shoreward. As the wave's thrust sub- 
sides, the stranded Coquinas are visible momentarily, 
often in huge masses. But, quickly, they seem to 
disappear. 

The little animals extend their fleshy pseudopods 
from the narrow tips of their slightly-opened valves 
and push these flexible "feet" down into the sand. 
Once anchored, the pseudopod pulls the whole shelled 
creature below the sand's surface. 

Nestled in the sand, the Coquina extends its two 
siphons up into the turbulent surf. The inhalant 
siphon sucks in plankton-laden water and passes it 



over sticky gills. The exhalant siphon expels water 
and waste from the animal's body. 

Coquinas are very sensitive to pollution and serve 
as an excellent index. Where they are found, we may 
assume the water is clean. 



SEASHELLS '85 

—A 15-Month Calendar— 

by 

Pete Carmichael 

• 17 color photos of worldwide shells 

• ample space for writing appointments 

• $6.95 plus $1.00 for postage 

• Check or M.O. in advance to: 

Nature Photographies 
P.O. Box 5004 
Sarasota, Florida 33579 

($1.00 each for our new shell note cards 
with envelopes — 8 designs) 



S&SL 16(7):95 



CENTER SECTION 



.PERSONAL NOTES 



Albert J. Hrdlicka [2605 160th St., Redondo Beach, CA 
90278] I agree with the mass that "Opisthobranch" is a poor 
name for a publication for everyone . I am sure when you 
received complaints on the name, all like myself looked up the 
word in the dictionary and were "leary" as to what they might 
receive. Anyway, I like the new name and am looking forward 
to receiving "Shells and Sea Life." Till then my best wishes 
and good luck. 

Jeff Hamann [8242 Valley High Rd., Lakeside, CA 92040] re- 
turned in June from 2 weeks in the southwest of Puerto Rico, 
starting at Bahfa de Bocar<5n and Ponce. He visited Mr. 
Cutrer at the La Pacaera Marine Station who provided much 
assistance. He collected 18 species of opisthobranchs, of 
which two were new to him. He got one Okenia off Zoobotryon 
in a little bay near Parguera which was interesting. He 
collected Dondice occidentalis off Cassiopaea in Parguera 
which was also interesting. Everything was found in less than 
2 m depth water. Murex spectrum (Reeve, 1846) was one inter- 
esting shell found. All specimens were collected by turning 
rocks at low tide or free diving. 



S.S. Forrest, Jr. [3117 19th St., Lubbock, TX 79410] 
Congratulations on your name change. Your new magazine should 
appeal to many more people, in its present form. The 
articles, and pictures are getting more interesting to me: now 
that the magazine covers more varied subjects on sea life. 

From James H. McLean [Malacology Section, Los Angeles 
County Museum of Natural History, 900 Exposition Blvd., Los 
Angeles, CA 90007] This year I have had my share of field 
work relatively early. In March I accompanied LACM volunteers 
Edith Abbott and Joan Sherman on a shelling tour to Sri Lanka 
and the Maldives (Joel Greene Tours) and in May I took part in 
an LACM expedition to the northernmost islands of the 
Galapagos. The latter trip required scientific collecting 
permits and was primarily for fish collecting. This gave me 
the opportunity to collect mollusks, diving every day. 
Although both trips were to regions close to the equator, 
these places are on opposite sides of the world. Sri Lanka 
and the Maldives have a rich, warm water Indo-Pacific fauna 
and the GalSpagos Islands have a somewhat depauperate fauna 
under the influence of a cold current. Wet suits are a must 
for diving in the Galapagos! 




From Casto L. Fernandez-Ovies [Covadonga 3 1o, Salinas 
Asturias, SPAIN] I have in preparation three papers (one on 
the anatomy of Philine catena , a second on a new Bosellid from 
the Canary Islands - with J. A. Ortea, and a third on the 
anatomy and systematics of the aeolid genus Riosellolis - 
with J. A. Ortea & J.M. P6rez Sanchez). I am interested 
to know the author of the drawing of Bosellia sp. from Malta 
("Opisthobranch" 16(3) :18) and his address. [Antonio Perrone, 
via Duca degli Abruzzi 15, 74100 Taranto, ITALY - S&SL] 



S&SL 16(7):96 



INFORMATION 
EXCHANGE 



From T.E. Thompson [Department of Zoology, University of 
Bristol, Bristol, England, BS8 1UG] Please: can any reader 
help me - I want to know what happened to Simeon Mileikovsky 
of the Moscow Institute of Oceanology. He published exten- 
sively on Mollusca, especially reproductive biology. I would 
appreciate a current address if avaiable, and news of his 
health. 



We want to purchase or exchange worldwide cephalaspids, 
particularly " Acteocina ," Tornatina , etc. Paula M. & Paul S. 
Mikkelson, Harbor Branch Foundation, Inc., R.R. 1, Box 1 96 , 
Ft. Pierce, FL 33450, U.S.A. 



PUBLICATION NOTES. 



MISCELLANEA. 



Marine Mollusks series, Leigh Marine Laboratory, [see S&SL 
16(5) :56] Parts 1 & 2 are published. Parts 3 & 4 probably 
will not be available prior to 1985. 



FIELD TRIP NOTE. Gary C. Williams, Department of Marine 
Biology, South African Museum, P.O. Box 61, Cape Town 8000, 
South Africa 

Terry Gosliner of the California Academy of Sciences and 
Gary Williams from the South African Museum have just 
completed a two week field trip to the eastern Cape Province 
of South Africa during May of 1984. Subtidal collecting by 
means of SCUBA and small dredge was conducted at Algoa Bay 
near Port Elizabeth. Intertidal collecting was done at 
Knysna, Plettenberg Bay, and the Gonubie region north of East 
London. Of the 48 species of opisthobranchs collected, 
approximately 25 are undescribed. Of these, perhaps 15 are 
new to science. One new record to the Indian Ocean and 18 
other new distributional records were also cataloged. 

In addition, 15 species of octocoral cnidarians were 
collected, all of which are probably endemic to southern 
Africa. 

Gosliner and Williams were aided by W.R. Liltved of the 
South African Museum, Philip Coetzee of the University of Port 
Elizabeth, and Brian Hayes of Port Elizabeth. 

All in all, a most rewarding trip! 




COMPUTERS AND SHELL COLLECTIONS. Winston A. Barney, 2801 
Clary, Fort Worth, TX 76111. 

It is widely known that most collectors are list-makers. 
Have you ever stopped to think how many lists YOU have made? 
Well, the computer is the master list maker, and in the hands 
of a dedicated collector it will bring many hours of pleasure. 
The novice computer user will want to investigate two types 
of software; the first being a WORD PROCESSING program. Such 



S&SL 16(7) :97 



MISCELLANEA 
. (Continued) 



a program will file all your lists in the form of "documents." 
When you want to see the list you call for that document by 
name. You may want to have one long list or several shorter 
lists. For example, I collect five major families extensively 
and many other families on a lesser basis. So I have 
documents named "STROMBUS," "CONUS," "OLIVA," "CYPRAEA" and 
"HALIOTIS" for my major lists. Then I have "SHELL A-L," 
"SHELL M-Z," "BIVALVES," "CHITONS" and "MISC." 

What do I do with all this? I print a list of my complete 
shell collection periodically. As I acquire new shells I 
pencil in their names in the correct place on the list. When 
the list begins to look shabby I load the program and call for 
each document that needs ammending, insert the new names in 
the document (one can also delete from a document), then run a 
new list on the printer. With a word processor one can go to 
any point in the document and add or delete as many words as 
needed. I simply list the species alphabetically by genus and 
within this listing, alphabetically by species and form. I 
also include geographical information with each shell listing. 
In my STROMBUS document a sample listing looks like this: 
maculatus/Shark's Cove, Oahu 
maculatus/Sand Island, Midway 
maculatus (albino) /Anaa, Tahiti 
maculatus ( orange)/ Shark ' s Cove, Oahu 
maculatus depauperatus/Easter Island 
Now that I have this wonderful list, what do I do with it? 
Well, what do you do with ANY list? You use 
what ' s missing from your list. Right? 

The second kind of program is called 
the cat's meow in list-making because it 
"specialized" lists from all the data 
information you feed it is stored in "fields." For example, 
you might want to designate as fields the genus, author, 
geographical data and location in your collection. After 
entering all the information on each shell you can then call 
for a "search." The program will then list all shells in a 
particular genus or all shells named by a certain author. 
Maybe you would like a list of all shells from one 
geographical area or all shells at one location in your 
collection. You can even have the program list all shells of 
one species and their geographical areas, provided you entered 
"species" as a separate field. 

You may want to include other data such as major book 
references and page #'s, catalog #"s, date acquired, cost or 
source. Each entry will have a "record number." You will 
want to be sure to include this number on your printout (you 
will design your own printout format) because you'll use that 
number to gain access to the file if you need to change or add 
any data. The data base is a dream-come-true for managing a 
large collection. 

More experienced computer users may want to write their own 
programs, probably in "BASIC" language. With a little work 
one could teach the computer to identify a taxon by checking 



it to decide 



a DATA BASE. It is 

will make several 

you give it. The 




S&SL 16(7) *-98 



MISCELLANEA 
(Continued) . 



off the elements of a master I.D. "key." The biggest problem 
would probably be the key and not the program. You must 
remember that the computer can only work with yes/no or 
black/white answers so any key to a taxon would require much 
planning and research. This is an area where amateur shell 
collectors can be very helpful by spending the necessary time 
developing useful keys. A programmer/shell enthusiast might 
also want to design educational quizes or study programs for 
learning shell taxa and terms. The computer is great at 
multiple choice questions or true/false tests. 

Finally, there are a few side benefits apart from shell 
collection activities. A mailing list or correspondence list, 
for example, is easily filed on the computer and you can run 
off address labels too. You may also want to use your word 
processor to write letters of all kinds, and if you need extra 
copies for filing - no problem. In short, you'll find many 
happy hours with your collection and your computer especially 
if you live hundreds of miles from the ocean. I am not a 
computer "expert." The only computer I am really familiar 
with is my own TRS-80. But I am anxious to help others 
discover this great addition to our common hobby. If you have 
programs written or just planned I'd like to hear about them. 
I would like to know how you use your computer to expand your 
shell hobby. If you care to correspond please address your 
letters to me. 



COCOS ISLAND TREASURE. 
Redlands, CA 92373 



Donald R. Shasky, 834 W. Highland Ave., 




Cocos Island, Costa Rica, is supposedly a treasure house 
for swag buried by pirates in ages past. Presumably, most of 
it remains to be found. 

The malacological treasures of Cocos Island, are also 
largely undiscovered. Up until now, less than 130 species of 
marine mollusks have been reported from there. 

I was able to spend 6-1/2 days SCUBA diving at Cocos 
Island, in April, 1983, and another 8 days in March of this 
year. Dr. Michel Montoya, of Managua, Nicaragua, was there in 
June of last year and both he and Capt. Gene Everson, of Ft. 
Lauderhill, Florida, were there with me in March. 

Numerous Indo-Pacific species are present and many 
undescribed species have been found. I suspect that when the 
paper that Dr. Montoya and I are preparing is complete we will 
add another 175-200 species previously unknown from this 
remote area. Our next trip to Cocos Island, is in May of next 
year. We did a small amount of dredging on this past trip as 
well as utilizing a tangle net. Our 1985 trip will include 
considerably more dredging and tangle net trapping. 



S&SL 16(7) :99 



NOTES FROM 
.HANS BERTSCH 



THE FEEDING, ANATOMY AND REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF CYPHOMA 
GIBOSSUM . Hans Bertsch, 4444 W. Pt. Loma Blvd. #83, San Diego, 
CA 92107 

In last month's "Notes" I discussed the subfamilial and 
generic level classification of the family Ovulidae in 
American waters, and the various species of Cyphoma and 
Pseudocyphoma . My column for this month describes the natural 
history of Cyphoma gibbosum (Linnaeus, 1758) [see front cover 
photo this issue and several photos in S&SL June]. Most of 
the information that I will present is based on observations 
of two colleagues (Drs. Michael T. Ghiselin and Charles 
Birkeland) and ray own field work. 

But first, some short biographical notes on these students 
of Cyphoma may well be in order. Mike Ghiselin is well known 
as a Darwin scholar and evolutionary biologist. He studied 
Cyphoma in Puerto Rico, while holding a post-doctoral position 
(under Ernst Mayr) at Harvard University 's Museum of 
Comparative Zoology. It was there I met him, and he 
subsequently directed my Ph.D. dissertation. He is presently 
a research associate at California Academy of Sciences, and is 
collaborating with Dr. Terrence Gosliner and myself on various 
aspects of opisthobranch anatomy, zoogeography, and phylogeny. 

My first recollections of Chuck Birkeland are of the 
hundreds of coral pieces he was nurturing in running sea water 
aquaria for transplant experiments. He is an experimental 
marine ecologist, and at that time was working with the 
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute's Galeta Marine 
Laboratory in Panama. Also at the laboratory were Dr. Gordon 
Hendler and Dr. David and Kaniaulono Meyer. I spent the 
summer of 1974 with this group (on a Smithsonian Fellowship) 
living in the Panamanian city of Colo'n, traipsing after 
two-toed sloths in the humid jungle, watching columns of leaf- 
cutter ants, and researching organisms in the intertidal and 
subtidal zones of both coasts of Panama. We have all ended up 
at far distant locations: Dr. Birkeland is presently 
associated with the marine laboratory of the University of 
Guam, Dave and Kani are at the University of Cincinnati, and 
Gordon is in Washington, D.C., at the Smithsonian 
Oceanographic Sorting Center. 

One might wonder why such illustrious marine biologists 
devoted significant research efforts to a seemingly 
insignificant snail. Their papers explained that Cyphoma 
gibbosum is an interesting animal — first because it allowed 
examination of foraging strategy, and second because it gave 
information on the functional anatomy of the reproductive 
system of cypraceans that was important for comparative 
evolutionary (phylogenetic) studies. Let me use these 
emphases for the major topics in my discussion of Cyphoma 
gibbosum . 

The foraging behavior of Cyphoma gibbosum was studied by 
Birkeland and Gregory (1975). They used data obtained from the 
Tektite program at Lameshur Bay, St. John, Virgin Islands, and 
from the Galeta Reef area, on the Caribbean coast of Panama. 



S&SL 16(7): 100 



HANS BERTSCH 
(Continued) . . 



Cyphoma gibbosum feeds on various gorgonacean species, but 
prefers the purple sea fan, Gorgonia ventalina . ( Gorgonia 
ventalina may be synonymous with G . flabellum . ) Feeding 
preference is easily documented by comparing the relative 
abundances of prey items in an area with their relative 
abundance in the diet of the predator. If the abundance eaten 
is greater than their occurrence, it indicated a preferred 
food item; the opposite indicates avoiding a possible prey. 
Hence : 



Prey species 


No. /44m 
square 


% I 


!fo. in diet 


% 


Gorgonia 


17 


6.0 


89 


71.8 


Eunicea sp. A 


2 


0.7 


5 


4.0 


Pseudopterogorgia 


17 


6.0 


16 


12.9 


Briareum 


43 


16.2 


6 


4.8 


Eunicea sp. B 


12 


4.2 


1 


0.8 


Plexaura sp. A 


15 


5.0 


1 


0.8 


Pseudoplexaura 


71 


25.1 


5 


4.0 


Plexaura sp. B 


30 


10.0 


1 


0.8 


8 other species 


76 


26.8 





0.0 



These data from Birkeland and Gregory indicate that the first 
species is disproportionately chosen; the bottom species are 
disproportionately avoided. 

How much does Cyphoma eat daily? How does it affect their 
prey? Browsing by C. gibbosum removes 8.6 cm square of 
Gorgonia tissue per diem. The Cyphoma population removes 
62.3$ of the annual tissue growth of the sea fan, but was a 
direct cause for mortality in only 4? of the population. It 
eats a lot of tissue grown, but does not kill its prey. It is 
a prudent predator. Cyphoma often moves from one prey 
individual to another. During the three weeks of the Tektite 
mission, 36$ of the Cyphoma switched prey. It often leaves a 
prey colony with little damage, leaving a sufficient amount of 
the colony to regenerate tissue. Their feeding usually is not 
great enough to kill the prey. Mortality of Gorgonia is due 
to toppling of colonies by wave action or surge, or by 
weakening of the substratum by boring organisms. 

Next month's notes will discuss the radula and other 
internal anatomy. SEM's of the radula and drawings of other 
parts will be included in the August issue. 

REFERENCES 

Birkeland, Charles & Brian Gregory. 1975. Foraging behavior 
and rates of feeding of the gastropod, Cyphoma gibbosum 
(Linnaeus). Bulletin Natural History Museum Los Angeles 
County, No. 20:57-67. 

Ghiselin, Michael T. & Barry R. Wilson. 1966. On the anatomy 
natural history, and reproduction of Cyphoma , a marine 
prosobranch gastropod. Bulletin of Marine Science, 16(1): 
132-141. 



S&SL 16(7): 101 



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S&SL 16(7):102 




Oliva porphyria 96 mm, found at 21 m, Escondido Bay, Baja, Mexico. Aquarium photo by David K. Mulliner. 



Oliva porphyria Linnaeus, 1758 
Text and photo by David K. Mulliner 

Oliva with their porcellanous shells, numerous col- 
or phases, and varied color patterns, rank among the 
most beautiful of the molluscan shells. They were 
highly prized specimens in the earlier European col- 
lections. Oliva porphyria is one of the few west 
American shells to be named by Linnaeus. These gas- 
tropods are distributed in warm seas, living mostly in 
the shore region. They spend the day hidden under 
the sand and become active at night, moving about 
just beneath the surface of the sand. 

Olives are carnivorus, preying on certain live 
mollusks, usually small bivalves. They are also 
scavengers and feed on dead fish and crustaceans. 
They emerge from the sand at night and track in 
search of food. When a clam or a morsel of food is 
found, it is seized with the forepart of the foot and 
pushed to the rear where the posterior part of the foot 
forms a pouch. The Olive then heads downward into 
the sand. The prey is then surrounded by a thick 
mucus which smothers the animal. Later, the prey is 
released from the pouch and eaten. The radular rib- 
bon is narrow and long with about 100 rows of teeth. 
Each row has three teeth, a tricuspid rhachidian, with 
a strongly cusped lateral tooth on each side. 



The Oliva porphyria pictured here was found alive 
at Escondido Bay, Baja California, Mexico, in April, 
1984. Two animals were located by following partial- 
ly covered trails at 21 m depth. The sand trails were 
probably from the previous night's foraging and 
could soon have been obliterated by the water action. 

Both live animals were taken to San Diego, Califor- 
nia, and maintained in an aquarium on a diet of fish. 
The larger (96 mm) of the two is still alive (June, 
1984) and well. After several weeks, the smaller (94 
mm) specimen was frozen for later anatomical 
studies. The 96 mm specimen has been photographed 
several times in the aquarium and at the beach (Mis- 
sion Bay, San Diego). A sheet of plexiglass, buried in 
the sand, was used for ocean photographs. This 
prevented the animal burrowing out of sight. 

REFERENCES 

Fretter, V. & A. Graham. 1962. British prosobranch molluscs. 

Ray Society: London. 755 pp. [pp. 75, 165] 
Keen, A. M. 1971. Sea shells of tropical west America; 

marine mollusks from Baja California to Peru, 2nd ed. 

Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, Calif, xiv + 1064 pp.; illus. 

[pp. 623-624] 
Zeigler, R. F. & H. C. Porreca. 1969. Olive shells of the world. 

Zeigler & Porreca: New York. 96 pp. [pp. 4-22, 32] 

David K. Mulliner, 5283 Vickie Drive, San Diego, 
California 92109, U.S.A. 



S&SL 16(7): 103 



Xenophoridae Part I: Xenophora granulosa 
and Xenophora tenuis 
by Kate St. Jean 

Photos by George St. Jean 




Xenophora granulosa Ponder, 1983, dorsal view. 

The Xenophoridae have a long evolutionary history 
beginning with the lowermost Upper Cretaceous 
135,000,000 years ago. Dr. Winston Ponder, in his 
1983 Monograph on the Xenophoridae, lists 114 
fossil species. He states, "The genus diversified dur- 
ing the Paleogene when it probably gave rise to most 
of the forms existing today." Twenty-five recent 
species are recognized, 16 of which have a fossil 
record, while 9 species have no known fossil record. 

The most recently named species of the Xenophora 
is Xenophora granulosa Ponder, 1983. Dr. Ponder 
described this new species on pages 36-37 of his 
Monograph. 

The shell is moderately elevated (spire angle be- 
tween 75 to 90°) with a narrow peripheral flange. It 
has rather solid convex whorls, and an umbilicus nar- 
rowly open in mature specimens. Attached foreign 
objects are usually small, with at least the lower half 
of the whorls exposed. Often almost % of the dorsal 
surface is exposed. The dorsal sculpture is coarse, 
wavy opistocline rugae and riblets. The base is flat to 
slightly concave in the median region, but markedly 
depressed in the umbilical region. The narrow um- 
bilicus is almost hidden by a reflected inner lip in the 
adult. The peripheral flange is narrow, forming a 
wavy, down-turned rim at the outer edge of the base. 
The base is sculptured with fine regular ribs crossed 
by spiral striae. The aperture is simple, and the basal 
lip is very strongly concave, but weakly and uniform- 
ly thickened in mature specimens. The color is 
yellowish-white to pale yellow brown dorsally. Its 
base is white, sometimes with a zone of pale, brown- 
ish yellow spots just inside the peripheral flange and 



around the umbilical region. The holotype is in the 
National Museum of Natural History, Paris, France. 
It has a completely white base, and is 32 mm high and 
50 mm in diameter. 

The Xenophora have perfected the art of agglutina- 
tion. This species (X. granulosa) has symmetrical, 
precisely spaced attachments that were chosen for 
uniformity of size. However, the smaller the shell the 
smaller the space between the attachments. On the 
smallest shells, the attachments were almost stacked 
on top of each other. 

Xenophora granulosa ranges from Mauritius, In- 
dian Ocean, South China Sea, to New Britain and 
New Caledonia. 

The four Xenophora granulosa that were studied 
from my collection ranged in diameter from 70 to 40 
mm and in height from 40 to 20 mm. The attachments 
are broken pieces of shell, coral, and rocks. Practical- 
ly unrecognizable, they are coated with what looks 
like hardened sand grains, probably mixed with mud 
from the substrate. 

The shell pictured was found by Mr. Richard 
Thomas of Morro Bay in a pile of rubble in a 
backyard, in the Phillipines. At that time he had no 
idea which species it was, nor did any of us. In a reply 
to my query, Dr. Ponder stated that it was a new 
Xenophora which he would be naming; it was subse- 
quently described as X. granulosa. 

The pictured Xenophora granulosa is 70 mm in 
diameter and 50 mm in height, with an open umbo of 
1 mm. Circling ridges coming from the umbo to the 
periphery of the shell are in shades of white and 
yellow. The shell is completely covered with 1 mm 
opistocline rugae following the curving lines of the 
shell. All are perfect and extend about 1 mm below 
the periphery to form a very small flange. The shell is 
white with occasional yellow. The attachments are 
beige or light brown. 




Xenophora granulosa Ponder, 1983, ventral view. 



r= 



S&SL 16(7):104 




Xenophora tenuis Fulton, 1938. 

This species resembles Xenophora tenuis Fulton, 
1938, in many ways. The basal coloration and dorsal 
features are similar. However, the base is more 
strongly sculptured in X. granulosa and has a distinct 
umbilicus in the mature specimens. Dr. Ponder stated 
that, "It is possible that X. tenuis and X. granulosa 
should be regarded as subspecific but until the animal 
of the X. tenuis is known, close relationship cannot 
be firmly established." 

The original description of Xenophora tenuis is 
brief: "Shell conical, somewhat thin, imperforate, 
cream colored above, lighter below, obliquely and 



rather widely corrugated above, lighter below, 
numerous small stones and shells are attached below 
the suture which together with the edge of the whorl is 
largely coronated. Base with fine granular arcuate 
striae. Height 29 mm; diameter 45 mm. Habitat, Kii, 
Japan." 

Two specimens of Xenophora tenuis are il- 
lustrated. Shell number 1 is 25 mm high, 35 mm in 
diameter. Shell number 2 is 29 mm high, with a 42 mm 
base. The base has been broken and repaired by the 
animal. Attachments of Shell 1 are smaller and brown 
in color, while those on Shell 2 are larger and grey. 
The method of attachment closely resembles that 
used by X. granulosa. Moreover, the opistocline 
rugae on the shell are similar between the two species. 

REFERENCES 

Fulton, H. C. 1938. Descriptions and figures of new 
Japanese marine shells. Proc. Malac. Soc. London 
23(1):55-56 

Kira, Tetsuaki. 1962. Shells of the Western Pacific in color. 
Vol. 1. Hoikusha Publishing Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan. 224 

PP- 
Ponder, W. F. 1983. Xenophoridae of the world. The 
Australian Museum Memoir 17. 

[Editor: W. F. Ponder writes that T. Habe described 
the same species as X. granulosa in a paper in 
Venus last year. Habe's name becomes a synonym 
of X. granulosa.] 

Kate St. Jean, 1639 23rd Avenue, Longview, WA 
98632 



1WW 



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of information for the sheller, sample copy, $2.00 postpaid. 
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— Books- 


P.O. 


Major Library Aquisitions 
Box 30 North Myrtle Beach, South Carolina 
U.S.A. 29582 




Send for new list 



Collectible Shells 

of Southeastern U.S., Bahamas 

& Caribbean by R. Tucker Abbott, Ph.D. 
A 'Take it to the Beach' Field Guide 
WATERPROOF - TEARPROOF 
105 beautiful color photos of living animals and 
their shells. 64 pages of color. 300 species il- 
lustrated. How to clean shells. Where to find 
them. Includes fossils, pond and tree snails, as 
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Collectible Shells stresses conservation, but 
also has helpful hints about collecting and 
cleaning shells. The book introduces the tourist 
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unique world of tree and pond mollusks. 

Printed on a washable, tearproof plastic 'paper.' 
Drop it in the ocean, use it in the rain, or let your 
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American Malacologists, Inc. 

Publishers of Distinctive Books on Mollusks 
P.O. Box 2255, Melbourne, FL 32902-2255 

We accept VISA or MASTERCARD orders by mail. Please give date of ex- 
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registered mail 



S&SL 16(7): 105 



Mollusks: A Look at Their Ecological 

Importance 

By David W. Behrens 

As malacologists and conchologists I would im- 
agine that very few of us have taken the time to ex- 
amine groups of molluscan species from a community 
standpoint, rather than each species as an individual. 
By this I mean thinking about the species as a member 
of a community, interacting with other species as you 
or I interact with each other, our neighbors and fellow 
employees, needing and providing services to one 
another in order to survive. An analogy would be to 
think about the family cat and what it needs from 
you, and what it provides you, even its relationship 
with the neighbor's dog or the mice in the field next 
door. 

I have recently become aware of how incredibly 
complex at least one molluscan community is, while 
studing the infaunal associations and interrelation- 
ships found in four species of intertidal turf building 
algae. Most importantly I have learned the popula- 
tion status of molluscan species as a group. 

The study, conducted in central California centered 
on four species of algae: two occurring in the lower 
intertidal, one in the mid tidal region and one in the 
upper (Kelly and Behrens, 1981). All, because of their 
highly articulated morphology create habitat, by pro- 
viding space, for small invertebrate species and 
juvenile intertidal fish. The findings of this study, 
while extremely difficult to evaluate, have been quite 
informative. 

First a few words about how the study was carried 
out. Samples of algae were collected quarterly to 
reveal seasonal differences in the invertebrate infauna 
living within the algal micro forest. Eight replicate 
samples of each alga were collected during each 
quarterly survey at five stations along about 2 miles 
of coastline. A single sample was a 10x10 cm scrape 
of a pure stand of each algal species. The sample was 
sorted into: algae, entrapped sediment and inverte- 
brate species, fractions. The algae and sediment were 
weighed and the invertebrates identified and counted. 



In mere numbers, this study represents the collection 
and processing of 640 samples per year. We now have 
three years data. 

To describe all the findings of the first years efforts 
would require far more space than is available here. I 
will report those findings concerning mollusks, which 
in several instances were the most significant finds of 
the study. 

First an evaluation of the physical habitat provided 
by the algae. The high intertidal algal species sampled 
was Endocladia muricata. Although it had a lower 
mean weight per 10 cm square scrape, it supported the 
greatest number of individual infauna. The lower 
tidal zone species studied, Gastroclonium coulteri 
and Gigartina canaliculata while moderate in average 
weight per scrape, supported the greatest number of 
infaunal species. Gastroclonium because of its bulky 
twisted morphology also trapped the greatest quanti- 
ty of sediment, thus providing additional habitat for 
infauna. The mid tidal zone species sampled was 
Corallina vancouveriensis. This species differed from 
the other algae in that its branches are thin and 
relatively tightly packed. 

Invertebrate densities were analyzed by algal 
habitat species, by station, by season and by major in- 
vertebrate taxon (eg: arthropoda, annelida, echino- 
dermata, mollusca etc.). As one might expect major 
differences in faunal composition were found bet- 
ween habitat forming algae species, the lower inter- 
tidal alga having higher diversities. If any, faunal 
similarities were shared by algal habitats of similar 
tidal elevation. Stations demonstrated differences 
which were later attributed to environmental stress, 
such as wave shock, wind and solar exposure. 
Seasonal differences were most dramatic with wide 
fluctuations in algal canopy and subsequent presence 
and abundance of infaunal species. 

Of most interest to all of us was the numerical 
dominance of molluscan species both in species diver- 
sity and individual species abundances. In a phylo- 
genetic breakdown (see Table), mollusks dominated 
all four algal habitats at all five stations both in 



* 


PHYLOGENETIC BREAKDOWN OF 
ASSOCIATED SPECIES 
(Percent Composition) 






Corallina 
vancouveriensis 


Endocladia 
muricata 


Gastroclonium 
coulteri 


TOTAL MOLLUSCA 
Gastropoda 
Bivalvia 


11 
61 
16 


59 
10 
49 


45 
44 

1 


ARTHROPODA 


18 


39 


38 


ENCHINODERMATA 


1 





2 


ANNELIDA 


3 


1 


12 


OTHER PHYLA 


1 


1 


3 




100 


100 


100 



S&SL 16(7): 106 



number of species present and in overall number of 
individuals of each species, compared to all other in- 
vertebrate groups. An additional observation was 
that gastropods preferred the lower intertidal habitats 
while bivalves were most common in the upper inter- 
tidal algal species, Endocladia. 

Numerically the statistics speak for themselves. In 
the algae Corallina, of 100 species of invertebrate in- 
fauna, (incl. arthropods, echinoderms and worms) 77 
were mollusks. In this intertidal micro-habitat the 
dominant mollusk is the gastropod, Barleeia, fol- 
lowed by the bivalve, Lasaea. During some surveys, 
Barleeia counts numbered several hundred animals 
per 10x10 cm scrape. The algal habitat formed by the 
high intertidal species Endocladia was inhabitated 
primarily by the mussel, Musculus which composed 
44 percent of the invertebrate infauna. Here again 
several hundred individuals were frequently found in 
a single sample. The third most numerous species in- 
habiting this algae was Barleeia. 

The lower intertidal habitat formers, Gastro- 
clonium and Gigartina were also dominated by 
molluscan species. In greatest abundance was the 
dove shell, Alia (=Mitrella) carinata followed in 
third place by Bittium spp. 

Seasonally, although shifts were observed in 
species status, molluscan species dominated. In 
Gastroclonium and Gigartina the gastropod Ticolia 
replaced Alia in the fall. A similar shift in abundance 
was seen in the algal habitat of Corallina where 
Tricolia increased from 3 to 25% of the associated in- 
fauna while the bivalve Lasaea decreased from 14 to 
0.1 % from summer to fall. 

One interesting, although unexplainable, observa- 
tion was that during the summer 6% of the bivalve 
Lasaea were found to occur in the algae Corallina 
while in the fall 96% were found in Endocladia. No 
such habitat shift was observed in the other sympatric 
species. 



Previous scientific reports document an increase in 
species diversity with lower intertidal elevation 
(chronicled in Ricketts et al. 1968). Reports also 
document species differences associated with wave 
and swell exposure (Lubchenco & Menge, 1978; 
Dommasnes, 1969). Few report the dominance of 
molluscan species in intertidal habitats (Glynn, 1955; 
Jones 1972). 

Our analysis has just begun, the evidence is over- 
whelming that molluscan species maintain a position 
of ecological significance in temporate intertidal 
habitats because of their numerical dominance in 
species tallied and mere individual numbers com- 
pared with other co-occurring invertebrate species. 
With this knowledge we will proceed to investigate 
the more subtle relationships of the community 
organization to include resource partitioning and 
communal coexistence. 

REFERENCES 

Dommasnes, A. 1969. On the fauna of Corallina officinalis 
L. in western Norway. Sarsia 38: 71-86. 

Glynn, P. W. 1965. Community composition, structure, and 
inter-relationships in the marine intertidal Endocladia 
muricatai—Balanus glandula association in Monterey 
Bay. Beaufortia. Zoological Museum, Amsterdam. No. 
148, Vol. 12. 198 pp. 

Jones, D. J. 1972. Changes in the ecological balance of in- 
vertebrate communities in kelp holdfast habitats of some 
polluted North Sea Waters. Helgolander Wiss. Meere- 
sunters. 23(2): 248-260. 

Kelly, James L. and David W. Behrens. 1982. Intertidal Algal 
Faunal Associations Study— A progress report. Chpt 13 
in Environmental Investigations at Diablo Canyon, 1981. 
Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Dept. of Engineering 
Research. 47 pp. 

Lubchenco, J. and B. A. Menge. 1978. Community develop- 
ment and persistence in a lower rocky intertidal zone. 
Ecol. Monog. 59:67-94. 

David W. Behrens, P.G. & E. Bioassay Lab, P.O. Box 
117, Avila Beach, California 93424. 



Back cover photo by David W. Behrens: Large chiton, 
Cyanoplax hartwegii; a few Collisella pelta limpets; isopod 
Idothea wosnesenskii on sandstone rock with alga Pelvetia 
fastigata and other members of the community. 



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S&SL 16(7): 107 




S&SL 16(7): 108 



II, 



SHELLS AND SEA LIFE 

A MONTHLY PUBLICATION ON MOLLUSKS AND MARINE LIFE 



$2.50 AUGUST, 1984 



Volume 16, Number 8 




Tritons: 

the Trumpet Shells 

by David K. Mulliner 



Triton shells are named after Triton of Greek 
mythology, the son of Poseidon and Amphitrite. He 
had the head and trunk of a man and the tail of a fish. 
He was often depicted holding a large shell to his 
mouth and using it as a trumpet. The booming of this 
trumpet, to which he gave his name, is said to have 
heralded his arrival from his deep sea home. Coins 
minted in Sicily in 400 B.C. show Triton blowing into 
a shell trumpet. As religions developed, the trumpet 
shell became one of the most important instruments 
in the rituals of temple worship and tribal cere- 
monies. The shell trumpet was used in Crete during 
the Minoan civilization of the second millenium B.C. 

Triton shells belong to the family CYMATIIDAE, 
consisting of four genera: Cymatium, Austrotriton, 
Charonia and Distorsio. They are found worldwide in 
both warm and temperate seas, some species occur- 
ring in two or more oceans. The shells are recognized 
by their fusiform-ovate shape, prominent varices, 
and elaborate spiral and axial sculpture. The adult 
shells are sturdy and porcelaneous. Many have a 
beautiful fiberous or hairy periostracum covering a 
very brightly colored shell. The operculum is horny, 
ovate, with the nucleus near the anterior end of the 
aperature. 

Tritons are found on rocky and sand substrates or 
are dredged from deep water. They lay their eggs 
under rocks. The free swimming larval stage has a 
long planktonic existance, for instance Cymatium 
nicobaricum in the Atlantic has a planktonic stage of 



about 300 days. The ocean currents can distribute 
these larval animals over large areas. These pre- 
metamorphic veligers are often decorated with spines. 
Tritons are carnivorous, feeding on other mollusks 
and echinoderms. They paralyze their prey with an 
acid secreted from large salivary glands (Houbrick & 
Fretter, 1969). The large Triton Charonia tritonis 
feeds on the crown of thorns starfish that is destroy- 
ing the coral reefs. Overcollecting of this shell is one 
of the reasons for the increase in the number of these 
starfish. 

Front Cover Photo: 

Cymatium (Septa) pileare (Linnaeus, 1758). This 
shell is 66 mm long and was found in Vava'u, Tonga 
in May 1963. The shell is fusiform, turreted, the spire 
is equal to the length of the aperature and the 
siphonal canal. It has granular spiral cords with two 
prominent varices per whorl. It has red brown bands 
alternating with white. The aperature is ovate and 
orange brown with white denticles on the thickened 
outer lip. There are numerous irregular narrow folds 
on the columella and parietal wall. 



REFERENCES 

Houbrick, J.R., V. Fretter 1969. Some Aspects of the Func- 
tional Anatomy and Biology of Cymatium and Bursa. 
Proc. Malacological Soc. London 38:415-429. 

Kay, E. Alison 1979. Hawaiian Marine Shells, Reef and 
Shore Fauna of Hawaii, Section 4: Mollusca, Bernice P. 
Bishop Museum Special Publication 64(4). p 214-223. 

Sheets, Elva D. 1974. The Fascinating World of the Sea, 
Crown Publishers, Inc. p 159-161. 

Solem, Alan Ph.D. 1974. The Shell Makers Introducing 
Mollusks, John Wiley & Sons, New York, p 104. 

David K. Mulliner, 5283 Vickie Drive, San Diego, CA 
92109. 




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S&SL 16(8): 110 



SHELLS AND SEA LIFE 

A MONTHLY PUBLICATION ON MOLLUSKS AND MARINE LIFE 



Editorial Staff 

Managing Editor Steven J. Long 

Assistant Editor Sally Bennett 

Contributing Editor Hans Bertsch 

Photographic Editor . David K. Mulliner 

Editorial Review Board 

R. Tucker Abbott David W. Behrens 

Hans Bertsch Donald B. Cadien 
Walter O. Cernohorsky Kerry B. Clark 

Eugene V. Coan Malcom Edmunds 

Michael T. Ghiselin Terrence Gosliner 

George L. Kennedy James R. Lance 
T. E. Thompson 

Shells and Sea Life was formerly known 
as the Opisthobranch Newsletter. The 
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any aspect of malacology — or related 
marine life. Articles submitted for 
publication are subject to editorial board 
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white illustrations. Deadlines for articles 
are the first day of each month for the 
following month. Short notes for the 
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Short articles containing descriptions of 
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priority provided the holotype(s) have 
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Shells and Sea Life ISSN 0747-6078 is 
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© Copyright Miranda Enterprises, Inc. 1984 



Features— August 1984 

Page 

"nitons: the Trumpet Shells. 

David K. Mulliner \\q 

Hiding the Shell: an old Twist on the old 

Shell Game. David Behrens & Hans Bertsch 112 

A Redescription of Olivafoxi Stingley, 

1984. Donald R. Shasky 128 

Partnerships in the Sea. Alex Kerstitch 130 

CENTER SECTION 

EDITOR'S NOTES H6 

INMEMORIAMDr. Z. A. Filatova 118 

NOTES FROM HANS BERTSCH: The Anatomy and 

Reproductive Biology of Cyphoma gibbosum 119 

PERSONAL NOTES 122 

READER FORUM 123 

YOUR COLLECTION— A HOW-TO COLUMN 

S. Hewitt 124 

CURRENT EVENTS 125 

PUBLICATION NOTES 126 

Front cover photo: Cymatium (Septa) pileare, by David K. Mulliner: 
see article on page 110. 

Back cover photos by Alex Kerstitch: see article beginning on 
page 130. 




15-9" x 12" exquisite color photographs of Nudibranchs from around the world. 

Identifications and points of interest with each months feature (15 months). 

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S&SL 16(8):111 



Hiding the Shell: 

an old Twist on the old 

Shell Game 

Text by David W. Behrens and Hans Bertsch 
Photos by David W. Behrens 




Figure 1. Erato vitellina Hinds, 1844. 



We have often heard that the shell of a snail func- 
tions as an impenetrable housing that protects the 
resident from the voracious appetite of a wanton 
predator. Although an exterior calcified shell, with its 
diverse arborescent protuberances and varices, is 
characteristic of the mollusks, many members of the 
phylum have hidden or "tossed away" the shell. This 
is not evolutionary suicide — the animals function 
quite well with alternative methods of insuring their 
safety and the prosperous longevity of their off- 
spring. It is not at all incongrous that the seemingly 
defenseless, shell-less sea slug or octopus survives just 
as well as the heavily armored Astraea or Haliotis or 
Bursa. The evolutionary advantages of acid secre- 
tions, skilled swimming capabilities, camouflage, and 
subcutaneous armorment of siliceous spicules more 
than make up for the loss or reduction of the shell. In 
fact, there are so many predators that can crush or 
bore through shells (see the numerous papers by 
Vermeij, cited in his 1978 book), that life without a 
confining shell may be more felicitous! Moreover, 
some animals with well-developed shells depend on 
other means for their defense: the swimming of 
Pecten or the opercular pole-vaulting of some 
Strombus species to escape predators are well- 
documented instances. 



Even clams, so remarkably well-adjusted to life in- 
side the two-valved shell, have groups that hide their 
shell. Most famous is Chlamydoconcha orcutti Dall, 
1884, a member of the family Galeomattidea. Within 
this leptonacean family, there is a series of evolu- 
tionary changes (including reduction of shell, and 
bending of the middle mantle fold over the shell and 
its asumption of the defensive role) that culminate in 
the morphology and biology of Chlamydoconcha (see 
Bertsch, 1984a, for a discussion of this group). 

Among the prosobranch gastropods there is a 
similar method of shell hiding or reducing that has 
evolved independently in several different lineages. 
Many have sought to conceal themselves by imitating 
or mimicking their surroundings, usually their food 
or prey item. Hence the snail is provided cryptic pro- 
tection from adversaries and is able to feed and carry 
out his or her procreative responsibilities. 

Most have modified their appearance to closely 
match a prey item by producing a fleshy disguise to 
cover their flamboyantly- visible calcareous dwelling. 
This fleshy overcoat is a lateral expansion of the man- 
tle that can be extended to cover the shell. In some 
species it is still retractile into the shell, while in others 
it permanently surrounds the shell. Usually this tissue 
has developed a striking resemblance both in texture 
and coloration to the host or model substrate (see the 
pictures of the orange-mantled Cypraea alisonae 
Burgess, 1983, on its orange prey sponge, in Bertsch, 
1984b). 




Figure 2. Trivia californiana (Gray, 1827). 



The temperate coastal waters of California support 
several examples of "shell-hiding" snails. Represen- 
tatives of these animals occur in all the major tax- 
onomic categories of marine prosobranchs — Arch- 
aeogastropoda, Mesogastropoda, Neogastropoda, 
and Opisthobranchia. In this article, we will not 
discuss those animals that have completely lost the 
shell, but just those with a reduced or hidden shell. 



S&SL 16(8): 112 



The most primitive gastropods to test the camou- 
flaging capabilities of the fleshy mantle are the 
keyhole limpets (family Fissurellidae). The pro- 
sobranchs with the greatest number of examples are 
the mesogastropods; in this group are found the 
cowries (Cypraea), the Erato, the ovulids (Simnia), 
the triviids (Trivia), and the lamellariids. The 
neogastropod Marginellidae have small, glossy shells 
covered by a camouflaging mantle. Finally, among 
the marine gastropod shell-hiders, are species of the 
opisthobranch orders Cephalaspidea, Anaspidea, 
and Notaspidea. 




Figure 3. Megathura crenulata (Sowerby, 1825). 

Among the members of the Fissurellidae (a family 
of primitive archaeogastropods) is seen a trend 
toward shell reduction and loss. The two common 
Californian species of keyhole limpet are Megathura 
crenulata (Sowerby, 1825) and Fissurellidea 
bimaculata Dall, 1871. The latter species has been 
known as Megatebennus bimaculatus for some time, 
but Dr. James H. McLean of the Los Angeles County 
Museum of Natural History has recently shown that 
Megatebennus Pilsbry, 1890, is a junior synonym of 
the older generic name Fissurellidea Orbigny, 1841. 
In both of these Californian species, the mantle tissue 
extends up the slope of the volcano-shaped shell, 
leaving exposed just the apical respiratory opening 
and a portion of the volcano-shaped shell. The man- 
tle cannot be retracted in either of these genera. In 
Megathura the color of the mantle varies from jet 
black to mottled yellow and green. In Fissurellidea 
the color of the mantle tissue closely matches the col- 
or and texture of its tunicate prey item. Aiding in this 
camouflage is the often negatively phototropic 
behavior of its prey. The limpet, then, often occurs in 
areas of lowered light or reduced visibility, under 
rocks and boulders or in caves and crevices. 

Fissurellidea has abandoned the habitat and 
defense methods of the related protectively-shelled 
limpet species. It is a clear example of convergent 
evolution, approaching the body shapes and life 
styles of lamellariids and nudibranchs. McLean 
(1984: 23 and 32) succinctly explains: "All species of 
the Fissurellidea group occur on rocky bottoms in low 



intertidal and sublittoral zones. They occur on under- 
sides of rocks or beneath projecting ledges where 
there is a thick growth of such encrusting organisms 
as sponges and compound ascidians. None of the 
species can strongly adhere to the rock substratum; 
all may easily be detached when the animals are ex- 
posed at low tide .... One advantage of the limpet 
form is that of protection by means of clamping 
against the substratum. The loss of such capacity is a 
necessary consequence of shell reduction. All large- 
bodied fissurellids are unable to tightly adhere and 
are restricted to low-energy environments, where 
their prey organisms, sponges and tunicates, flourish. 
Here the fissurellids have a cryptic form, resembling 
their prey organisms. Indeed, their habits are more 
like those of the dorid nudibranchs, which they 
resemble, than like other limpets." 

The at-times hidden shells of the cypraeid and 
ovulid mesogastropods are among the most favored 
by chonchologists. These seemingly "bashful shells" 
have elaborate mantles that can be filled with water 
and body fluids and slowly expanded out covering the 
surface of the shell. Retraction is a rapid muscular 
movement that suddenly flashes the shell at the 
disturbing or curious offender that touched the 
animal. 

In the cool temperate waters of California occurs 
only one species of the predominantly tropical 
cowries: Cypraea spadicea Swainson, 1823. It is 
found subtidally to depths of about 30 meters, and 
grows to about 65 mm in total length. The shiny shell 
is smooth and glossy, a dirty white color with a rich 
chestnut swath on the dorsal surface. The mantle 
hiding the shell is a tuberculate robe of brown and 
white mottling. Under sponge-covered and organism- 
encrusted ledges Cypraea spadicea blends in well with 
the patchy, multivariegate background. 




Figure 4. Cypraea spadicea Swainson, 1823. 



Unfairly called Trivia, the small coffee bean shells 
have an interesting shell architecture. Not exceeding 
20 mm in length, the snail's maroon-colored shell is 



S&SL 16(8): 113 



laterally crossed with raised ridges. In Trivia calif or- 
niana (Gray, 1827) this radial sculpture is cloaked 
with a delicate warty mantle that varies from orange 
to dark brown. Scattered over this cover are dark 
spots and flecks of white. Its foot, siphon, and sen- 
sory tentacles are adorned with white flecks. This 
elegant little snail has eluded the eyes of scientists so 
well that little is known about its natural habits. At 
North Cove in central California, beachcombers can 
collect Trivia shells by the dozens, yet biological 
studies offshore from this beach have found only one 
living specimen in several years of study. 

The larger Trivia solandri (Sowerby, 1832) has well- 
spaced ridges that terminate dorsally in prominent, 
white nodes. It is more common to the south of 
California. We have seen it feeding on sponges in the 
subtidal regions off San Diego. This species has been 
reported from Palos Verdes, California, to Panama. 

Trivia ritteri Raymond, 1903, is a deep water 
triviid, reported from Monterey, California, to mid- 
way down the Baja California peninsula. Bertsch & 
Myers (1982) state that it is most commonly collected 
from depths of 5 1 to 90 meters; they also illustrate the 
radula and the ontogeny of the shell's morphology. 

Two species of Erato occur along the California 
coast — Erato vitellina Hinds, 1844, and E. col- 
umbella Menke, 1847. The larger of the two, E. 
vitellina, is called the Appleseed Erato. Its glossy 
shell, shaped like an upside-down pear, is hidden 
under a decorative arborescent shawl which makes it 
totally invisible when crawling in benthic algal turf. 
Delicate greenish-tan tufts of tissue branch upwards 
from a black background, giving this species a 
remarkably cryptic appearance. 

Special favorites of ours are the Simnias. These 
delicate fusiform-shaped snails have evolved par- 
ticularly astute protective resemblances to the polyp- 
covered gorgonian species on which they abide. Liv- 
ing at depths of from 10 to 30 meters in southern 
California and northern Baja California, these 
species resist detection from their enemies through 





Figure 5. Simnia vidleri (Sowerby, 1881) 



Figure 6. Lamellaria diegoensis Dall, 1885 

the deceptive color and texture of their highly 
papillated, fleshy mantle covering the shell. The 
background color of the snail's mantle resembles that 
of the gorgonian on which it lives, while the papula- 
tions mimic the hue of the polyps. 

Simnia vidleri (Sowerby, 1881), found primarily on 
the California golden gorgonian, Muricea, boasts a 
mantle with large red spots clearing periodicaly for a 
tall golden yellow papilla. When living on darker 
gorgonian species, the Simnia are darker in mantle 
color. 

Simnia loebbeckeana (Weinkauff, 1881) is usually 
found preying upon sea pens or sea fans in deep 
water. It has a light colored red mantle with diffuse 
red specks. 

A group of creatures providing a story all their own 
are the lamellariids. These fascinating sea snails are 
the only mesogastropods whose shell has become 
wholly enclosed in a non-retractible mantle. The 
members of the family Lamellariidae, comprised 
solely of tunicate predators, number six species in the 
northeastern Pacific (see article and photographs by 
Behrens, 1984). This group so closely resembles its 
encrusting food that finding them requires collecting 
the tunicate species upon which they. live. Several 
members of the family have cultivated the capability 
of acid secretion from their pelt to further dissuade 
the sharp-eyed intruder that has cracked the snails' 
exceptional disguise. One species, Marsenina stearnsii 
(Dall, 1871) lives solely and invisibly on the white en- 
crusting tunicate Trididemnum opacum (Ritter, 
1907). Marseniopsis sharonae (Willett, 1939), shaped 
not unlike a candy jujube, is a quiet water species 
known to live in bays and estuaries on the orange col- 
onial tunicate Botrylloides. Although its fleshy man- 
tle varies in color from white to deep purple, its 
presence on the undulating surface of its host is given 
away only by the pattern of six raised ribs forming the 
tetrahedral shape of its mantle. All members of the 
family share not only this highly-developed host- 
specific mimicry, but also the similar habits of eating 
their host and laying their egg capsules in the tunic of 
the encrusting colonial host. 



S&SL 16(8): 114 



A common intertidal neogastropod "shell-hider" 
is the California Marginella, Volvarina taeniolata 
Morch, 1860. Along with some half-dozen other 
small, cryptic species, these are the cool water north- 
east Pacific representatives of a primarily tropical 
group. The yellow-orange shell of V. taeniolata usual- 
ly has three brown bands; its mantle is tan, with a 
dark border and dark spots. As is the norm among 
the Neogastropoda, the marginellids are probably 
carnivorous. 

The final examples of the parallel evolutionary 
trends among gastropods towards loss of the shell 
and complete reliance on the mantle are the opistho- 
branchs. Within this subclass we can distinguish those 
still retaining at least a vestigial shell, and those 
opisthobranchs which have totally lost the shell. Both 
of these groups rely on a shell during the early micro- 
scopic planktonic veliger larva stage in their life cycles. 
This continued use of a shell by the nudibranchs and 
sacoglossans during at least a short period of their life 
cycle, gives a clue to their recent evolutionary separa- 
tion from the shell. 




Figure 7. Navanax inermis (Cooper, 1863) 

Wide variation of shell reduction exists among the 
shelled species. The size, shape, weight, and 
submergence of the shell form various parallel series 
from the heavy prosobranch-like shell of the barrel 
shell, Rictaxis punctocaelatus (Carpenter, 1864) to 
the barely identifiable relic of an internal shell of 
Navanax inermis (Cooper, 1863). Intermediately are 
the bubble shells, such as Bulla gouldiana Pilsbry, 
1893, and Haminoea vesicula (Gould, 1855), which 
still carry externally a thin, almost transparent, great- 
ly inflated shell, and the notaspideans which bear 
reduced, wholly internal transparent shells shaped 
like a greatly flattened abalone. 

Evolution has worked in anthropomorphically 
curious ways. While the main evolutionary thrust of 
the mollusks has been the elaboration, development 
and adaptive radiation of shell structures, there are 
non-related lineages that exhibit recurring shell- 
hiding or reduction. Many such rebellious departures 
probably have led to evolutinary failure. There is 



nothing "wrong" with extinction (as long as it is not 
accelerated nor imposed by man). But some of these 
"shell-hiders" play their game well. The many that 
continue to be successful demonstrate the remarkable 
diversity, plasticity, and adaptability of the molluscan 
forms evolving in our oceans. 



REFERENCES 

Behrens, David W. 1984. Lamellariids: masters of disguise. 

Opisthobranch 16(4): 42-44. 
Bertsch, Hans. 1984a. The inside-out clam: Chlamydoconcha. 

Opisthobranch 16(1): 7-8. 
Bertsch, Hans. 1984b. How many species in the Cypraea 

teres "complex"? Shells and Sea Life 16(5): 62-64. 
Bertsch, Hans, and Barbara Myers. 1982. Comments on the 

eastern Pacific Trivia ritteri (Gastropoda: Triviidae). The 

Nautilus 96(3): 96-99. 
McLean, James H. 1984. Shell reduction and loss in 

fissurellids: a review of genera and species in the 

Fissurellidea group. American Malacological Union, 

Bulletin 2: 21-34. 
Vermeij, Geerat J. 1978. Biogeography and adaptation: pat- 
terns of marine life. Cambridge, Harvard University Press. 

332 pp. 



David W. Behrens, P.G. & E. Bioassay Lab, P.O. Box 
117, Avila Beach, CA 93424. 

Dr. Hans Bertsch, 4444 W. Pt. Loma Blvd., San 
Diego, CA 92107. 



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S&SL 16(8): 115 



CENTER SECTION 



EDITOR'S NOTES 

We need your support! Please pass the word to people about S&SL at every 
opportunity. We correspond with the clubs and everyone who writes but there 
are still many people who haven't seen S&SL. Pass on a subscription blank to a 
friend. We know YOU like the magazine — now, please tell your friends! 

Gary McDonald and Dave Behrens have provided many of the citations which are 
included in the PUBLICATION NOTES section. We hope that others will take the 
time to send citations for other mollusk groups. We will list them as space 
permits. We always appreciate reprints of articles and papers for reference 
for S&SL articles. 

With the bibliography up to date and all features of the "Opisthobranch 
Newsletter" included each month — bigger than ever, no one should complain 
about S&SL appealing to general malacology and even general marine life. Give 
us a break — we print what you send. If you want more opisthobranch articles 
— write them! 

David K. Mulliner has agreed to be our Photo Editor. Dave has contributed 
much to the quality of our magazine. Colormasters, Inc., does our color 
separations. Arrowhead Press, Inc. does our printing. Both are doing an 
excellent job as you can see from the June and July issues and this issue. 



Tucker Abbott is recovering well from his recent automobile accident. He 
still has (July 1) some problems with double vision. He and Cecilia were very 
kind to us [Steve & Sally] at the recent COA convention in Florida. They were 
very generous with their knowledge of publications. 

Dr. Eveline DuBois-Reymond Marcus (Sao Paulo, 
Brazil) sent me the photo at left. It was 
taken especially for the Newsletter around 
September, 1983. The silver broach was made by 
Dr. M. Patricia Morse, and is Miesea evelinae 
(named after Eveline, naturally). The big 
silver buttons are Indian work, a present from 
Libbie Hyman, after she had visited Eveline 
for three weeks in 1956. The silver necklace 
was a present from Ernst Marcus, a short time 
after they were married, about 1926. 

Eveline Marcus was in San Diego, California 
between about June 28 and July 10, 1984. She 
stayed with Hazel Cheatam and visited with Dave 
Mulliner, Steve Long, Jim Lance, Hans Bertsch, 
Wes Farmer, and others. Eveline went on to 
visit Terry Gosliner for about a week and then 
will travel on to Germany. 




Eveline DuBois-Reymond Marcus 



S&SL 16(8) s 1 16 



Jim Lance hosted gatherings for conversation and slide shows during 
Eveline's visit. Jim, along with Jerry Jacobs, has recently completed a one 
year survey of the branchs around San Diego. He has promised the resulting 
data tables for an upcoming S&SL issue. Recently, most of Jim's time has been 
spent working on the Panamic opisthobranch book for Sea Challengers. Jim says 
it will be ready to go for typesetting on or about 1 August. 

Larry Wilson had his beautiful set of hand made knives on display at Jim's 
house. They were returning from winning first place at the county fair. 

Terry Gosliner talked to me about 17 June (as he left for Baja, California, 
Mexico, with Hans Bertsch and Michael Ghiselin) . Terry had discussions with 
his South African publisher while he was there (See S&SL 16(7): 97) and 
discovered that his book on South African opisthobranchs would not go to press 
for at least 4 more months. At this point, Terry has no control over the 
publication date. He has promised a note for S&SL regarding the book soon. 

Russ Jensen is still at the Delaware Museum of Natural History and will 
probably remain there for some time to come. 

The COA meeting in St. Petersburg, Florida, was great. We met many new 
people and renewed many friendships. The entire convention was very well run 
and attended. We are planning to do most of the October issue of S&SL on the 
three major conventions (COA, AMU, and WSM) . Please send snapshots and notes 
for possible inclusion in that issue before September 1st. 

Michael Ghiselin was on his way back to San Francisco July 9th or so. He 
has been to Vienna, Austria, recently and promised a note for S&SL. 

Jeff Hamann, Steve Long, and Hans Bertsch got together for a short 
afternoon's work on calendars and articles. Dave & Peg Mulliner took great 
care of me while I was in San Diego. 

Sally & Steve were back in San Diego from 17-19 July. Fay Wolf son (Sea 
World & Hubbs Research Institute) provided a very nice day for us together with 
some good help on S&SL. Dave & Peg Mulliner were our gracious hosts for most 
of our visit. The San Diego Shell Club meeting, with guest speaker Ron McPeak, 
provided a great program on Escondido Bay shelling & diving (Baja, Mexico). 

Jim McLean and Joel Greene have been assisting Marjorie Wing as she puts 
together an article on Sri Lanka shelling for (we hope) the September issue of 
S&SL. 

Joel Greene called my attention to a nice shelling article with photos in 
the August issue of "Islands" magazine. I have not yet seen the magazine but 
Joel says it is published in Santa Barbara, California. Please send the 
editors copies of articles like this when you see them so that we may call 
everyone's attention to them. 

Don Cadien must be busy as usual since I haven't heard from him in several 
weeks. He was due to do some submersible work off Point Conception, California 
this summer and may well be there. Don has promised an article on some of the 
small California shelled opisthobranchs when he can find time to write it. 



S&SL 16(8) : 1 17 



IN MEMORIAM 



DR. ZINAIDA A. FILATOVA 1905-1984 



Dr. Zinaida A. Filatova, born 8 October, 1905, Simferopol, died 11 June, 
1984, Moscow, aged 78. All her life was characterized by deep devotion to 
science. She was one of the leading authorities in the sphere of marine 
biology in the USSR. Her scientific interests covered a broad spectrum. A 
perfect taxonomist of mollusks, geographer, oceanologist; she was the author of 
more than 120 scientific publications that include such diverse subjects as the 
fundamental investigation of our northern seas bottom fauna; quantitative 
distribution of deep-sea bottom fauna; Bivalvia and gastropods from northern 
seas of the USSR (with identification keys); the structure and phylogeny of 
deep sea Bivalvia; global problems of the origin and antiquity of the deep-sea 
fauna; new findings of Monoplacophora; and taxonomic revision of Tardigrada. 



Dr. Filatova had been the nearest 
disciple and assistant of the late 
Professor L.H. Zenkevich, his co- 
author, the successor of his fund of 
oceanological investigations. After 
his death Dr. Filatova became the head 
of his laboratory — Laboratory of 
Benthos in the P.P. Shirshov Institute 
of Oceanology (1972) and headed it up 
until her retirement in 1979- Dr. 
Filatova continued to work in the 
laboratory right up to the day before 
her sudden death. 

Dr. Z.A. Filatova participated in 
many Soviet marine scientific 
expeditions. She was active in a number 
of International Congresses in 
Australia, Bulgaria, England, Denmark, 
Norway, USA, France, Scotland, etc. 
She was a member of the editorial board 
of "Malacologia." 

Dr. Filatova was a sociable, nice 
person, considerate towards people; she 
had many friends and disciples. She 
was a connoisseur of literature, 
poetry, art and took a great interest 
She was a gifted artist and executed many excellent drawings 
She was a good mother of a son, affectionate and considerate 
grandmother of twin grand-daughters and adoring great-grandmother of a great- 
grandson. She will be always missed by those who were acquainted with her. 




in photography, 
for her papers . 



P.S. Being a good photographer herself, Dr. Z.A. Filatova didn't like to be 
photographed. So I couldn't find a good picture of hers and am sending you 
only this one, I took November 26, 1981. 

I.S. Roginskaya, Academician, Petrovsky str. 3, Apt. 46, Moscow, 117419 USSR. 



S&SL 16(8) : 118 



NOTES FROM HANS BERTSCH 
THE ANATOMY AND REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF CYPHOMA GIBBOSUM. 



In the past two columns I have been describing various aspects of the 
taxonomy and biology of Cyphoma . In June's "Notes," I discussed the three 
species of Pseudocyphoma and 4 species of Cyphoma (C. macgintyi , C. alleneae , 
C. signatum, and C. emarginatum ) . Last month I illustrated living specimens of 
C. gibbosum and their gorgonian prey, and discussed Dr. Charles Birkeland"s 
studies on the foraging behavior of C. gibbosum . In this final segment on C. 
gibbosum , I will describe the internal anatomy of this snail, based on my 
previously unpublished radular studies and the published dissections of Dr. 
Michael T. Ghiselin and Barry Wilson. 

The shell and mantle are well known; the color illustrations published in 
the July issue of "Shells and Sea Life" show a Cyphoma on its prey Gorgonia , 
with the mantle covering the cream shell. The black rings are characteristic 
of the species. 

The radula is illustrated (Figures 
1-3) in my three scanning electron 
micrographs; to my knowledge, this is 
the first time that SEMs of the radula 
of this species have been published. 
The scythe-like laterals flank a 
prominent central rasping rachidian. 
The middle tooth has a major medial 
cusp, with 2 smaller cusps on each 
side. One micrograph documents tooth 
damage — the cusps can be chipped or 
broken off with usage. 



Figure 1 . 230x magnification 






Figure 2. 800x magnification 



Figure 3. 1000x magnification 



Figures 1-3. Scanning electron micrographs of the radula of Cyphoma gibbosum . 
Magnifications approximate. Microscopy by Hans Bertsch. 



S&SL 16(8) : 1 19 




The mantle cavity (Figure 4) is 
elongate and shallow. When the animal 
is extended, the respiratory currents 
flow in a nearly straight path from the 
incurrent siphon, across the 
osphradium, over the ctenidium and 
hypobranchial gland, and out the rear 
of the cavity. The tripartite 
osphradium characterizes Cyphoma 
gibbosum as a cypracean (distinguished 
from Lamellar iacea) . 

Figure 4. Structure of the mantle 
cavity of Cyphoma gibbosum ; from 
Ghiselin & Wilson, 1966. 



Key to the anatomical features 
an - anus; eg - coelomic gonoduct; ct - ctenidium; dc - dorsal channel; dd - 
dorsal diverticulum; di- distal lobe; ge - genital opening; hy - hypobranchial 
gland; os - osphradium; ov - ovary; pe - penis; pr - proximal lobe; rs - 
receptaculum seminis; sg - seminal groove; si - incurrent siphon; vc - ventral 
channel 

These animals are gonochoristic (separate sexes); their reproductive 
structures are illustrated in Figures 5 and 6. Ghiselin & Wilson (1966) 
discuss in detail the functioning of these parts in Cyphoma , and their 
homologies among the Cypraea , Trivia , Lamellaria , Littorina and the 
opisthobranchs . 





Figure 5. Diagram of female repro- 
ductive organs, Cyphoma gibbosum ; from 
Ghiselin & Wilson, 1966. 



Figure 6. External male genitalia 
of Cyphoma gibbosum ; from Ghiselin 
& Wilson, 1966. 



Ghiselin & Wilson (1966:135) also describe the reproductive behavior of 
Cyphoma signatum : "Of the three specimens of C. signatum which we collected, 
two were found together, and later these copulated in the laboratory. No 
preliminary "rituals" were observed. The male approached the female from the 
rear, crawled onto her dorsal surface, and inserted his penis into the mantle 
cavity. The pair remained in copulation for 3-1/2 hours, during which time 
there was little movement, except for occasional action by the buccal mass of 
the female." 



S&SL 16(8): 120 



AUTHOR'S NOTE: After eight months of columns, it is perhaps time for some 
comments on the goals of my monthly column, and how I wish to serve you, the 
reader. When your editor, Steve Long, first approached me to be a Contributing 
Editor, we toyed with the idea of an "Animal of the Month Column." However, we 
decided "Notes From..." was a better title; it would allow me greater diversity 
of topics to explore. Although I will maintain my thrust of writing mainly on 
shelled mollusks and their biology and anatomy, in future months I will be 
expanding the concept of my column to discuss other invertebrates (especially 
those ecologically related to mollusks as predators or prey); interesting 
marine habitats, locations, research projects, or resources (how to survive in 
Baja California, Oahu's Haleiwa Trench, museum facilities, etc.); responses to 
reader inquiries, comments, or suggestions; archaeological significance of 
mollusks; possibly a guest columnist once in a while (announced in advance; it 
would not be just because I missed the deadline); biographical or anecdotal 
features; or whatever might strike my fancy! Some columns may well be 
controversial (reader feedback is always encouraged and will be acknowledged). 
Disagreement requires supporting data, and that is how scientific ideas are 
modified and our knowledge of the world around us is shaped. My guiding 
concept is that I want this column to be accurate, interesting and informative. 
It is intended for you. 

REFERENCES 

Birkeland, Charles & Brian Gregory. 1975. Foraging behavior and rates of 
feeding of the gastropod, Cyphoma gibbosum (Linnaeus). Bulletin 
Natural History Museum Los Angeles County, No. 20:57-67. 

Ghiselin, Michael T. & Barry R. Wilson. 1966. On the anatomy natural history, 
and reproduction of Cyphoma , a marine prosobranch gastropod. Bulletin 
of Marine Science, 16(1 ): 132-141 . 

[Editor: Hans sent in the following corrections (for our errors) in his July 
column] Second pagagraph on page 100, as printed it reads that I met Michael 
Ghiselin at Harvard University's Museum of Comparative Zoology. However, the 
original text had the following sentences: "While at the University of 
California, Berkeley, he taught the invertebrate zoology course on campus. His 
laboratory was at the Bodega Marine Laboratory. It was there I met him...." 
Also, " gibbosum " was misspelled in the title. 

Comment on known species of Cyphoma and Pseudocyphoma . 

Steve Long called my attention to several nominate species of west Atlantic 
Cyphoma and Pseudocyphoma which I had not included in my summary of Cyphoma 
species (Bertsch, 1984). These are all recently described and relatively rare. 
Since most of these taxa were established from limited type material, further 
collections are obviously necessary to determine the status of these species: 
Cyphoma sedlaki Cate, 1976; holotype collected from the Florida Keys. 
Cyphoma rhomba Cate, 1978; named from two specimens collected at Ft. 
Lauderdale Reef, Florida (Living on sea whips, rather than the 
normal sea fan prey of C . gibbosum ) . 
Cyphoma macumba Petuch, 1979; based on two specimens, one live 

collected, from Abrolhos Reef Complex, Brazil. 
Pseudocyphoma gibbulum Cate, 1978; one specimen collected off the Dry 
Tortugas Islands, SW Florida. 
I am grateful to Steve Long for alerting me to these omissions. 



S&SL 16(8) : 121 



References 

Bertsch, Hans. 1984. Cyphoma ; the hump shells. Shells and Sea Life, 16(6) :85-87. 

Cate, Crawford N. 1976. Five new species of ovulidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda). 

The Veliger, 19(2) : 159-162. 

Cate, Crawford N. 1978. New species of Ovulidae and reinstatement of Margovula 

pyrulina (A. Adams, 1854) (Gastropoda). The Nautilus, 92(4) : 160-167- 

Petuch, Edward J. 1979. New gastropods from the Abrolhos Archipelago and reef 

complex, Brazil. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 92(3) :510-526. 

[Editor - Walter Sage (American Museum of Natural History) and Ed Petuch 
(Florida International University) each brought the information on additional 
Cyphoma s to my attention. Thanks to each of them.] 

Hans Bertsch, 4444 W. Pt. Loma Blvd. #83, San Diego, CA 92107 



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Rates: $.30 per word per month; minimum ad $7-50 per month for 25 words or 
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SHELL BUSINESS FOR SALE $45,000.00. Includes fixtures, large stock of 
specimens, coral, sea life. Write: C. Westbrook, 7076 Overseas Hwy., 
Marathon, FL 33050. (305)743-3074. 

PERSONAL NOTES 

From Heike WMgele [Fachbereich 7, Universitat Oldenburg, Postfach 
2503, 2900 Oldenburg, West Germany] Today you ask for comments on the May 
issue. I have only one: Very good and very interesting. Working on 
Opisthobranchs I am naturally more interested in those articles concerning the 
opisthos, but it is always good to "widen one's horizon." Looking forward to 
the next issue. 

From I.S. Roginskaya [P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Academy of 
Sciences of the U.S.S.R., 23 Krasikova St., Moscow, U.S.S.R., 117218] In the 
April number of the "Opisthobranch" you were worried by the absence of someone 
to survey Russian malacological literature. I would be very pleased to help 
you and to provide "S&SL" with recent Russian citations (or abstracts?) We 
have a monthly issue - "Journal of Abstracts" (my free translation of the 
title!), where abstracts of all recent biological publications and especially 
of Russian biological publications, regularly appear (in Russian). Generally 
most of our articles have English summaries or the title is translated into 
English. 

Only some days ago I have returned from a short (May - 1/2 June) marine 
expedition in central Baltic. No Nudibranchia in macrobenthic bottom samples, 
no veligers of Opisthobranchia (and of Prosobranchia also) in plankton. 
[Editor - I will be very happy to receive abstracts and/or citations for 
Russian malacological publication - or any other publication on any aspect of 
malacology] 

From Barbara Ferguson [6950-46th Ave. N., Lot 51, St. Petersburg, FL 33709] 
Boy am I glad I subscribed to "Shells and Sea Life." I subscribed at the COA 
convention, so I was able to take Jan. thru May issues home with me. Now I 
can"t wait [July 6] for the June issue. There have been other publications, 

S&SL 16(8):122 



and some are still around, but I don't feel they have done what you are trying 
to do. 

I feel you will be able to keep us all happy. The shell collectors and the 
opisthobranch lovers. I never realized just how beautiful some of the animals 
are. 

I disagree with one of your readers who wrote in the May issue (Kathe 
Jensen) that "there are so many publications in the area of general malacology, 
shell collecting, marine life, etc.", that she really didn't think that we 
needed another one. Well, I do, because many of those publications are 
expensive books, technical papers that a lot of amateur or non-professional 
shell collectors can't really understand, what publication has ever taken the 
time or space to help answer questions to help shell collectors and 
"Opisthobranch lovers" of all levels . (And between you and me I believe 
conchologists outnumber the other) but if they co-exist in nature, we can too. 

Now I need some help. I intend to enter my first 
shell show competition and the genus I have chosen 
doesn't have a whole lot of information. Where can I 
find more information on the genus Lamb is family 
STROMBIDAE. I have never seen a color picture of any 
living Lambis . I would like to obtain these pictures 
and information (line drawings, etc.). I want to know 
more about the mollusk. Can you or any of your readers 
help me? 

COA convention was great. Biggest ever. Glad you 
were there showing your publication, and hope you were 
able to get subscriptions, [we DID!] I fully intend 
to take my copies and show my friends. 

P.S. Few people realize how much work goes into this 
type of publication, and much of yourself too. 




Lambis chiragra 
(Linnaeus, 1785) 



From Sandra Millen: We thoroughly enjoyed Yugoslavia. Canada came in 
second to Sweden in the boat race (Dalmatian Cup) with U.S. trailing far 
behind. Unfortunately we did not get to dive as the sport is very seasonal 
(July & August) and the dive shops were all closed. I collected Haminoea sp., 
Janolus cristata and Spurilla neapolitana . I saw other opisthobranchs in the 
aquarium at the Rovinj Marine Station, where I discovered that Tom Thompson had 
worked a few years earlier. 

From A. Myra Keen: Congratulations on the new format and the plans for 
"Shells and Sea Life." I hope your subscribers will enjoy the new issue as 
much as I did and that your clientele will increase rapidly. 

You asked for comments and criticisms. I think your articles were well 
balanced, and I especially applaud Jack Brookshire's memorial to Dr. Berry. 

My major criticism is that if you are to catch and hold the attention of the 
professionals, you will have to be more insistent that your authors transcribe 
technical names accurately. 

I haven't had time to think about writing articles for the last several 
months, but perhaps now, with more leisure, I may get into the mood. If so, 
I'll remember your new publication. 

READER FORUM 



From I.S. Roginskaya: 
lines of text skipped 



On page 31 of the March issue there are about two 
beginning with the words "The radula 54 mm 



specimen. . 



[contained 54 rows (the maximum number of lateral teeth 79-81). 



S&SL 16(8): 123 



Both specimens] had only 15-13 lateral teeth in the old worn rows." The words 
I placed in square brackets were ommitted. [My apologies - editor] 

From George L. Kennedy [President, Western Society of Malacologists] In the 
May issue of "Shells and Sea Life," R. Tucker Abbott encouraged readers to 
support the hobby of shell collecting by joining one of two national (but 
predominantly eastern) shell clubs, the American Malacological Union or the 
Conchologists of America. Despite an opinion, all too often held by many 
easterners, that little of consequence occurs west of the Rocky Mountains, the 
hobby of shell collecting and the science of malacology are thriving in the 
western states. The interest in, and study of, mollusks are well supported by 
numerous shell clubs, and by one regional molluscan organization, the Western 
Society of Malacologists. The Western Society of Malacologists supports the 
study of mollusks at all levels. The Society was founded by individuals who 
believed in the healthy interaction and communications between ALL persons 
interested in mollusks, whether they were purely amateurs interested in shell 
collecting or were professionally schooled in malacology or zoology, but also 
including a wide range of students, serious amateurs, or scientists in 
disciplines not entirely limited to the study of mollusks. 

The Society holds an Annual Meeting each summer and in 1984 will meet at 
Crown College on the campus of the University of California at Santa Cruz, 
August 16-19. Presentations will include a full schedule of scientific papers, 
as well as popular accounts and travelogues of shelling expeditions. What 
better way is there to get to know the personalities in your field, or to 
exchange information on mollusks, than by meeting in person in an informal 
atmosphere? The Society's Annual Report, which contains the abstracts and 
contributed papers presented at the Annual Meeting, is free to all members and 
is distributed worldwide. 

In addition, the Society encourages student participation in its Annual 
Meeting by offering, in odd-numbered years, a $500 Student Research Grant, as 
well as administering a second $500 student grant sponsored by the Southwestern 
Malacological Society. In even-numbered years, awards of $100, $75, and $50 
are given to the three best student papers. Membership in the Society costs 
$7.50 (Regular), $3.00 (Student), or $1.00 (additional family members); 
applications are available from the WSM Treasurer, Mrs. Margaret Mulliner, 5283 
Vickie Drive, San Diego, CA 92109. 

YOUR COLLECTION - A HOW-TO COLUMN by Susan J. Hewitt 
#1 WHAT MAKES A GOOD COLLECTION. 

You're interested in starting a collection or improving your existing one. 
You should realize right now that your collection has the capability of 
becoming a very valuable scientific resource, not just to yourself, but also 
to a museum or to an educational institution. Eventually this is where all 
good collections should go, either during your lifetime or if you wish, upon 
your death. This can be written into your will right now. Naturally, you can 
choose which institution you prefer to donate your collection to. 

In the case of a fine private collection you may be able to claim a fair- 
sized tax write-off when you donate it to a non-profit organization. This is 
of course assuming that the institution is interested in acquiring your 
collection. The main question is — does it have good scientific value? 

What makes a collection valuable scientifically? Curiously enough this has 
almost nothing to do with the so-called value of the shells/specimens as they 
are listed in the trade books. It also has nothing to do with how much you may 
have paid for specimens. What is valuable to the scientists is the information 

S&SL 16(8): 124 



that goes along with the specimens, how reliable that information is, and 
whether it contains all the relevant details. This is why material you collect 
yourself is likely to be more valuable, since you will know all about it. You 
will be able — as you actually collect it — to write on the label all the 
necessary information to go with it. 

Shells or other specimens with little or no information, however attractive, 
are worthless to scientists. Unreliable information is worse than no 
information. The most important facts (data) are: who collected the specimen, 
when it was collected (year and preferably month and day,) and where exactly it 
was found (country, state, county, city, site name and substrate type). 

NEXT MONTH — The how-to of labels, part one. 

CURRENT EVENTS 

The WESTERN SOCIETY OF MALACOLOGISTS will hold its 17th Annual Meeting at 
Crown College, on the campus of the University of California, Santa Cruz, 
California, on Thursday August 16 to Sunday August 19, 1984. A full schedule 
of Contributed Papers with the theme "Natural History of Marine Mollusks of the 
Eastern Pacific" is planned. 

In addition to the regular sessions, several special symposia are planned; 
including ones on Nudibranchs, chaired by Terry Gosliner, Marine Mollusks of 
Northwestern Baja California, chaired by Hans Bertsch, and Paleoecology and 
Fossil Mollusks chaired by George Kennedy. Also planned are slide shows 
featuring nudibranchs and South African Mollusks by Terry Gosliner, 
Paleontology in the High Arctic (80 degrees North), by Louis Marincovich, and 
late AMU-PD and early WSM meetings and their participants, by Jim Mclean. 

Several field trips are planned, arrangements are being made to open Moss 
Landing Marine Station and the U.C. Santa Cruz Long Marine Laboratory to 
visitors during the meeting. 

There will be a shell and book auction to raise funds to support the WSM 
student grant and other WSM activities. 

For additional information contact; Margaret Mulliner, Treasurer, WSM, 5283 
Vickie Drive, San Diego, CA 92109, (619) 488-2701. 

UNDERWATER PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY, presents The 20th Annual Film Festival at 
the Civic Theater, 2021 C Street, San Diego. September 7th and 8th. Master of 
Ceremonies will be Jack McKenney, one of the top underwater cinematographers in 
the world. Programs will begin at 8:00 each evening. Tickets are $8.00 (open 
seating) . 

SCHEDULE OF SHOWS AND CONVENTIONS 



August 
August 
August 
Sept. 



11-12 
11-12 

16-19 
7-8 



Sept. 12-19 



Sept. 


22-23 


Oct. 


13-14 


Oct. 


13-14 


Oct. 


20-21 


Dec. 


27-30 



1984 
Midwest Regional Shell Show 
Townsville Shell Show 
Western Society of Malacologists 
20th. Annual Underwater Film 
Festival 

Association Conchliogique de 
Nouvelle Caledonie 
Long Island Shell Show 
Santa Barbara Shell Show 
Tri-State Shell Show 
Philidelphia Shell Show 
Western Society of Naturalists 



Indianapolis, Indiana 
Townsville, Australia 
Santa Cruz, Calif. 
San Diego, Calif. 

Noumea, New Caledonia 

Freeport, New York 
Santa Barbera, Calif. 
Cincinnati, Ohio 
Philidelphia, Penn. 
Denver, Colorado 



S&SL 16(8):125 



PUBLICATION NOTES 



Anonymous. 1972. Chromodoris — the sea slug. Newsl. Bermuda Biol. Sta. Res., 1(3):2, pi. 

[ON10419] 
Ahmed, Z. 1980. Intracellular calcium regulation and changes in pH in molluscan neurons. 

Dissertation Abstracts International, (B) 40(11):5519. [ON10420] 
Aldrich, R.W. 1980. Cumulative inactivation of outward current in molluscan neurons and its roll 

in use dependent broadening of action potentials. Dissertation Abstracts International, 

(B) 40(11):5119-5120. [ON10421] 
Amsellem, J. 4 G. Nicaise. 1976. Distribution of the glio-interstitial system in molluscs 2. 

Electron microscopy of tonic and phasic muscles in the digestive tract of Aplysia and 

other opisthobranchs. Cell & Tissue Research, 165(2) : 171-184. [ON10422] 
Anderson, E.S. 1973. The association of the nudibranch Ro3tanga pulchra MacFarland 1905 with the 

sponges Ophlltaspongia pennata , Esperiopsis originall3 and Plocamia karykina . 

Dissertation Abstracts International, (B) 33(12):5668. [ON10423] 
Antonia, S. 1930. Phylllrhoe sanzol Sparta 1927. Fauna Flore Mediterranean, 1930, pi. [ON10424] 
Baba, K. 1984. Supplementary information on the morphology of Phestilla melanobranchia 

Bergh, 1874, from Seto, Kii, Middle Japan (Nudibranchia: Aeolidacea: Tergipedidae) . 

Vellger, 26(4):24l-247. [ON10425] 
Ballesteros, M. 1977. Sobre Spurilla neapolltana Delle Chiaje (1824) y Berghia verruclcornis A. 

Costa (1864), dos Aeolidacea (Gastropoda: Oplsthobranchia) recolectados en Cubellas 

(Barcelona). Publicaciones del Departmento de Zoologia, Universidad de Barcelona, 2:7- 

12. [In Spanish; 0N10427] 
Ballesteros, M. 1978. Contribucion al conocimiento de la fauna bentonica de Cubellas. 

Publicaciones del Departamento de Zoologia, Universidad de Barcelona, 3:11-23. [In 

Spanish; 0N10428] 
Barish, M.E. 4 S.H. Thompson. 1983. Calcium buffering and slow recovery kinetics of calcium- 
dependent outward current in molluscan neurones. J. Physiology, 337:201-220. [ON10429] 
Barnes, R.S.K. [Ed.] 1984. A Synoptic Classification of Living Organisms. Blackwell Scientific 

Publications, Worcester, Great Britain, pp. i-ix + 1-273, 67 figs. [ISBN 0-87893-048-5; 

$11.50 paper; distributed by Sinauer Associates, Inc., Publishers, Sunderland, MA 

01375; pp. 187- 196 Mollusca. Contains an outline of classification for all living 

organisms bacteria, through protists, to fungi, plants 4 animals. A handy reference 

with classification through ORDER level; ON10430] 
Bertsch, Hans 4 Alex Kerstitch. 1984. Distribution and radular morphology of various nudibranchs 

(Gastropoda: Oplsthobranchia) from the Gulf of California, Mexico. Veliger, 26(4): 264- 

273. [ON10431] 
Bertsch, Hans 4 Luis Aguilar Rosas. 1984. Range extensions of four species of nudibranchs along 

the Pacific coast of Baja California, Mexico. Nautilus, 98(1):9-11. [ON10432] 
Brown, G.H. 1978. The north Atlantic species of Cuthona and related genera. Haliotis, 9(2):87. 

[ON10433] 
Brown, G.H. & B.E. Picton. 1979. Nudibranchs of the British Isles — a colour guide. 

Underwater Conservation Society, Manchester, pp. 1-30. [ON 10434] 
Connor, J. A. 1980. The fast K+ channel and repetitive firing, pp. 125-130. In: J. Koester 4 J.H. 

Byrne (Eds.). Cold Spring Harbor reports in the neurosciences, vol. 1. Molluscan nerve 

cells: from biophysics to behavior; meeting, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory: Cold Spring 

Harbor, New York, USA, May 18-21, xix + 230 pp. [ON10435] 
Cowan, M.E. 1980. Response of selected marine invertebrates to Ichthyocides. Kalikasan, 9(2- 

3):111-120. [ON10436] 
Crow, T. 4 Nancy Offenbach. 1983. Modification of the initiation of locomotion in Hermissenda 

crassicornis : behavioral analysis. Brain Research, 27K2):301-310. [ON10437] 
Derjugin, K.M. 1915. [La faune du golfe de Kola et les conditions de son existence]. Petrograd. 

Mem. Acad. Sci. (series 8), 34(1):i-ix, 1-929, 14 pis. [In Russian; ON10438] 
Dorsett, D.A. 1974. Neuronal homologies and the control of branchial tuft movements in two 

species of Tritonia . J. Experimental Biology 61 (3):639-654. [ON10439] 
Dorsett, D.A. 1976a. The evolution of neural mechanisms underlying behaviour in Tritonia , pp. 

385-397. In: P.S. Davies (Ed.). Perspectives in experimental biology, vol. 1, zoology, 

xiii + 525 pp. Pergamon Press. [ON10440] 
Dubois, J.M. 1983- Potassium currents in the frog node of Ranvier. Progress Biophysics 4 

Molecular Biology 42(1): 1-20. [ON10441] 
Edmunds, M. 4 H. Just. 1983- Eolid nudibranchiate Mollusca from Barbados. J. Molluscan Studies 

49(3):l85-(203). [ON10442] 
Erokhin, V.E. 1979. The use of antibiotics when studying the feeding of invertebrates on 

exometabolite3. Hydrobiological J. l4(4):77-80. [ON10443] 
Farley, C.A. 1978. Viruses and viruslike lesions in marine mollusks. Marine Fish Rev. 

40(10): 18-20. [ON10444] 



S&SL 16(8): 126 




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S&SL 16(8): 127 



A Redescription of 
Oliva foxi Stingley, 1984 

by Donald R. Shasky 



In Vol. XVI, nos. 178-179, 1984, of La Conchiglia, 
there appeared a description of the new species Oliva 
foxi Stingley, from Cocos Island, Costa Rica. 
Material I collected at Cocos Island and the briefness 
of Stingley's description justifies a redescription of 
the taxon: 

The description below is based on 21 specimens 
that are currently in my collection. These specimens 
were taken by SCUBA diving and dredging. 

Shell cylindrical. Protoconch mammilate, 4 whorl - 
ed. As the first post-nuclear whorl emerges, a deeply 
channeled suture also emerges which partially 
submerges the fourth nuclear whorl and each suc- 
ceeding whorl. Post-nuclear whorls 3'/2. On the post- 
nuclear whorls, there is a faint carina just adapical to 
where the whorl is immersed by the channel. The 
carina terminates in a slight thickening at the begin- 
ning of the body whorl. Columella is gently angled 
abaxically. Columellar edge scalloped with weak 
plicae separating each scallop. There are about 11 
scallops which progressively become thicker and 
stronger as they progress abapically. Base of col- 
umella white or yellow with 3 plaits. Protoconch col- 
or pale mauve or cream. Ground color is a dark pink 
on the majority of specimens, but may be yellow or 
white or shades in between. Color of the pattern 
varies from rich reddish brown to yellowish brown 
and coffee brown. Pattern of bold and weak zig-zag 
lines which form strong tenting on most specimens. 
Aperture brownish pink in most specimens but yellow 
in some. 

Discussion: Stingley in his discussion states, "This 
Olive in no way resembles any other Oliva species in 



color, form, and disposition of markings. I know of 
no other species to compare this Olive with." 
However, at least two olive species are similar and 
should be carefully compared with Oliva foxi: the 
Hawaiian Oliva richerti Kay, 1979, (from off Oahu in 
20-266 m) and the Panamic O. kaleotina Duclos, 
1835. 

I have not yet examined Oliva richerti, but a color 
photograph of this species, published prior to its 
description, in the June, 1976 Hawaiian Shell News il- 
lustrates its similarity to O. foxi. In reading Kay's 
description the principle difference I find between 
these 2 species is that O. richerti has 4 columellar 
plaits while O. foxi has 3. The length and width are 
the same. Dr. Kay compared O. richerti to O. 
multiplicata Reeve, 1850. Oliva foxi may prove to be 
synonymous with or a subspecies of O. richerti. The 
color pattern and shell characters of Oliva foxi are 
different from those of O. kaleontina Duclos, 1835. 

Oliva foxi was first illustrated in Hawaiian Shell 
News by Zeigler in July, 1980, under the title, "An 
Olive Stranger from Cocos Island." I thank Lt. Bill 
Fenzan for reviewing the past issues of the Hawaiian 
Shell News which are cited above. 



ADDITIONAL REFERENCES 

Donner, Diane 1976 Eight Years of Deep-Water Shelling. 

Hawaiian Shell News 24:(5) 1,5. 
Fox, Eva 1984 Oliva foxi. Hawaiian Shell News 32:(6) 3. 
Kay, E.A. 1979. Hawaiian Marine Shells. Bishop Museum 

Press, Hawaii, pp. 653, figs. 195. 
Zeigler, R.F. & H.C. Porreca. 1969. Olive Shells of the World. 

Rochester Polychrome Press, Rochester, New York, pp. 

96, pis. 13. 
Zeigler, Dr. Rowland F. 1980 The Olive Stranger from Cocos 

Island. Hawaiian Shell News 28:(7) 12. 



Dr. Donald R. Shasky. 834 W. Highland Ave., 
Redlands, CA 92373. 



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S&SL 16(8): 128 









Oliva foxi Stingley, 1984. Cocos Island, Costa Rica. All photos by Don Shasky. 

S&SL 16(8): 129 



Partnerships in the Sea 

Text and photos by Alex Kerstitch 



In the predator-prey cycle of the underwater world 
some marine animals participate in a less savage ex- 
istence. Instead they establish partnerships in which 
unrelated species benefit from close-knit relation- 
ships. 

The late Conrad Limbaugh, a perceptive marine 
biologist, reported in 1961 an unusual occurrence 
while diving off the southern California coast. He 
witnessed large schools of opaleye, Girella nigricans 
(Ayers, 1860), milling about in tight clusters while a 
small wrasse swam from fish to fish inspecting and 
nibbling their skins. Later, he observed several small 
shrimps roaming unmolested inside the mouth of a 
large moray eel. These animals, explained Limbaugh, 
were engaged in a significant activity known as 
"cleaning symbiosis." This phenomenon involves the 
removal of ectoparasites and diseased tissue by one 
animal, the cleaner, from the infested body of 
another, the host. Both benefit from this reciprocal 
arrangement, the cleaner by consuming the parasites 
and the host by being freed from harmful unwanted 
guests. 

In the Gulf of California I have often observed 
such cleaning behavior, particularly off the tip of Ba- 
ja California Sur at Cabo San Lucas. On one occa- 
sion, however, I was the unexpected recipient of this 
benevolent grooming. Huddled under a coral 
overhang in shallow water I was preoccupied with 
photographing an uncooperative angelfish. Dis- 
tracted by a mild itching on the back of my hand 
holding the camera, I noticed a small banded goby, 
Elacatinus sp. tugging tenaciously at bits of skin on a 
healing scratch. Whether it was actually ingesting 
tissue is not known but the persistent goby continued 
to groom for several minutes. 

Until recent years, symbiotic cleaning was best 
known among terrestrial animals. The African 
ankole and cattle egret, red crabs and Galapagos ig- 
uana, or red-billed oxpecker and rhinoceros are just a 
few examples. But with the advent of SCUBA, 
marine biologists are discovering cleaning symbiosis 
is widespread among fishes and some crustaceans as 
well. Over 50 species of marine fishes and dozens of 
shrimps are confirmed cleaners. Known cleaners in- 
clude wrasses, gobies, angelfishes, butterflyfishes, 
decapod shrimps and a few crabs. 

The function of conspicuous coloration among 
tropical cleaners (both fishes and shrimps) is believed 
to be associated with cleaning symbiosis. The poster 
colorations serve to advertise the presence and profes- 
sion of potential cleaners. The contrasting light and 
dark striped pattern of the cleaner wrasse, Labroides, 



the cleaner goby, Elacatinus sp. or the yellow bars on 
the black juvenile Cortez angelfish Pomacanthus 
zonipectus (Gill, 1863) characterize them as cleaners. 

Alteration of coloration and pattern occurs in some 
host species during cleaning sessions. For example, 
goatfishes Mulloidichthys spp. normally turn 
reddish-pink while cleaned in contrast to their normal 
pale silvery hues. The function of this change is not 
fully understood; in addition to being a possible 
solicitation signal to attract a cleaner, it has been sug- 
gested that ectoparasites often mimic scale coloration 
of their host to which they are attached, thus making 
them difficult to see. A sudden color change from an 
infested fish would expose the parasite to the cleaner. 

Cleaning stations consisting of several hundred 
fishes have been reported on occasions. These sta- 
tions are often maintained by only a few cleaners ser- 
vicing tangs, grunts, goatfishes and other species. In 
one hour a single cleaner, such as the barberfish, 
Johnrandallia nigrirostris (Gill, 1863) can groom as 
many as 300 individuals. These will actually wait in 
line to be attended. 

The rewards of cleaning symbiosis are occasionally 
marred by the presence of cleaning imposters. Small 
wrasse-like blennies, Plagiotremus spp., known as 
fanged blennies because of their needle-sharp fangs, 
mimic the color pattern and body shape of some 
cleaner wrasses to such degree that infected fishes will 
mistake them for benevolent cleaners. So complete is 
the deception that the mimic even imitates the 
cleaner's swimming displays. As the unsuspecting 
host fish swims up with mouth opened or gills ex- 
posed to be attended, the fanged blenny imposter 
bites off a chunk of flesh. 

Predation of cleaners is uncommon but occupa- 
tional hazards exist. As a result, some cleaners 
possess the added protection of being distasteful to 
predators. At least two species from the Gulf of 
California, the banded cleaner goby, Elacatinus 
digueti (Pellegrin, 1901), and the widebanded cleaner 
goby, Elacatinus sp. (undescribed) appear to have this 
immunity. 

To conclude, my own observations in various parts 
of the world of cleaning behavior suggest that an 
unexpected large number of species, both shrimps 
and fishes, engage to some extent in symbiotic clean- 
ing. Many of these have yet to be reported. It is clear 
that, ecologically, cleaning symbiosis plays an impor- 
tant role. In some studies, marine biologists sys- 
tematically removed all cleaners from isolated reefs. 
The results varied in each tested area, but in several 
cases fish infestations increased considerably. Sub- 
sequently, infested fishes migrated to other areas, 
presumably in search for potential cleaners. 

See Photos back page. 

REFERENCES 

Brusca, Richard: Common Intertidal Invertebrates of the 
Gulf of California; 1980. 

Gotto, R.V. Marine Animals; Partnerships and Other Assoc- 
iations. (1969). 



S&SL 16(8): 130 



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8. Subject index. Lists opisthobranch subjects 
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Back volumes of the "Opisthobranch Newsletter" 
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S&SL 16(8): 131 




Figure 1. Wrasse, Halichoeres sp. cleaned by goby. 
West Mexico. 





Figure 3. Pacific green moray being cleaned by banded cleaner goby 
Elacatinus digueti (Pellegrin, 1901) Gulf of California. 




Figure 5. Cleaner shrimp, Lysmata grabhami (Gordon) cleaning fish, 
Philippines. 




Figure 2. Cleaner wrasse, Labroides sp. Indo-Pacific. 



Figure 4. Cortez angelfish, Pomacanthus zonipectus (Gill, 1863) 
showing conspicuous coleration of a cleaner; Gulf of California. 



S&SL 16(8):132 



Errata 

The figure descriptions nos. 4 & 5 on page 132 are reversed. Please also read 
coloration. Apologies to both Alex Kerstitch, the photographer of the lovely 
photos and our readers. S&SL. 



0*4 



SHELLS AND SEA LIFE 

A MONTHLY PUBLICATION ON MOLLUSKS AND MARINE LIFE 



$2.50 September, 1984 



Volume 16, Number 9 




Chromodoris sp. 34 mm. Cedros Island, Mexico, 23 m depth, August 23, 1980. One of only two recorded 
specimens of this undescribed chromodorid from west America. Photo by Jeff Hamann. 



IN THIS ISSUE: 

SHIPWORMS, RARE DEEP-WATER SHELLS, NUDIBRANCHS & MICROMOLLUSKS. 



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SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(9):134 



SHELLS AND SEA LIFE 

A MONTHLY PUBLICATION ON MOLLUSKS AND MARINE LIFE 



Editorial Staff 

Managing Editor Steven J. Long 

Assistant Editor Sally Bennett 

Contributing Editor Hans Bertsch 

Photographic Editor . David K. Mulliner 

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Hans Bertsch Donald B. Cadien 
Walter O. Cernohorsky Kerry B. Clark 

Eugene V. Coan Malcom Edmunds 

Michael T. Ghiselin Terrence Gosliner 

George L. Kennedy James R. Lance 

William G. Lyons T. E. Thompson 

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© Copyright Steven J. Long and Sally Bennett 1984 



CONTENTS - SEPTEMBER 

136 Wood-wrecking Worms are Actually 

Calamitous Clams. 

S. Donaldson & S. Millen 
138 Tritonia pickensi (Nudibranchia: Tritoniidae) 

from Baja California, Mexico. 

H. Bertsch & T. Gosliner 
140 NOTES FROM HANS BERTSCH: Deep-water 

Rarities: Calliostoma platinum and Lima 

sphoni. 

142 Common Names List - Announcement 

143 Principles Governing Selection of Common 

Names of Aquatic Invertebrates from 
America North of Mexico. 

145 YOUR COLLECTION - A HOW-TO 

COLUMN: No. 2 Labels, part 1. 
S.J. Hewitt 

146 EDITOR'S NOTES 

147 PUBLICATION NOTES 

147 CURRENT EVENTS: Schedule of Shows. 

148 Shelling in the Maldives and Sri Lanka. 

M. Wing 
151 Mollusks of Cocos Island - I: Olivella 
cocosensis. D. Shasky 

151 An Unusual Cone. I. Thompson 

152 The World of Marine Micromollusks. 

J.H. McLean 




SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(9):135 



WOOD-WRECKING 
WORMS ARE 
ACTUALLY 
CALAMITOUS CLAMS 

by Sven Donaldson and Sandra Millen 

For early seafarers, the spectre of shipwreck was a con- 
stant companion. Often it was the insidious activities of 
shipworms, not the overt dangers of storms and reefs, 
that brought about disaster. In just a few months, given 
warm water and otherwise favorable conditions, ship- 
worms could weaken a stout vessel to the point where it 
became unequal to the stresses of even moderately rough 
weather. A few months later the same hull might collapse 
under its own weight. On Columbus's fourth (and final) 
voyage to the new world, shipworms humbled the great 
navigator. With two ships gone, he desperately beached 
the remaining Capitana and Santiago in a vain attempt to 
halt the infestation and repair the damage. Ultimately he 
was rescued from the shores of Jamaica by a follow-up 
expedition. All in all, it is no wonder that shipworms were 
universally feared and loathed by early mariners. 

It was not until a great shipworm infestation in the 
1730s threatened the dykes responsible for flood control 
in Holland that a scientist named Sellius learned that 
these worms were not worms at all, but mollusks — long, 
skinny clams. Although highly modified in shape, they 
are clearly close relatives to a group of burrowing clams 
called rock piddocks. Piddocks, like other clams, have a 
bivalve shell, but the rounded front of the shell bears file- 
like teeth. Young piddocks settle on hard clay or rock. As 
they grow, they slowly rasp away at their surroundings 
and bury themselves deeper and deeper. The neck of the 
piddock contains two siphons, one used to bring in water 
containing tiny food organisms and oxygen, the other us- 
ed to expel oxygen-depleted water and feces. The pid- 
dock's neck is tremendously elongated to reach to the 
mouth of its burrow. 

A common piddock is Zirfaea pilsbryi which lives in 
hard clay from Alaska to Baja California. A smaller pid- 
dock that bores into hard rock and sometimes Abalone 



shells, is Penitella conradi. Extremely common at some 
intertidal sites, it can greatly accelerate shoreline erosion. 
There are two species of shipworms found in our area: 
the dreaded Teredo navalis, found worldwide, but for- 
tunately rare this far north, and the somewhat less 
destructive Bankia setacea. Shipworms are still further 
adapted for burrowing than their relatives, the piddocks. 
The bivalve shell has been reduced until it no longer 
encloses the body, but serves solely as a boring tool. The 
body has evolved to become tapered and wormlike, while 
the siphons are similarly elongated to reach all the way to 
the surface (sometimes over a meter from the head of the 
burrow). Attached to the siphons are special calcified 
structures called pallets used to blockade and seal the 
mouth of the burrow. 




Siphons of Zirfaea pilsbryi extend from hard mud in 
the passage between North and South Pender Islands, 
British Columbia, Canada. 

A shipworm initially matures as a male. For the 
first several months of its adult life it produces sperm. 
Later it changes sex and begins to produce eggs. 
There is even a suspicion that in its androgonous, in- 
between state, it can produce both and self- fertilize. 
Frequently, before its first year is up, the collective 
activities of the shipworm and its neighbors cause its 
habitat to crumble away and the now unprotected 
saboteurs all perish. However, if our shipworm lives 
on, male and female phases continue to alternate. 




Schematic diagram of Toredo navalis. 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE ]6(9):136 



Like other bivalves, Bankia and Teredo produce an 
astronomical number of offspring. Bankia releases its 
eggs and sperm directly into the sea where haphazard 
fertilization takes place; Teredo retains its eggs in its 
gill chambers where they are fertilized and brooded to 
the veliger larva stage. The gill chambers of an 
average female Teredo contain 20 to 50 thousand lar- 
vae, while one prolific mama harbored over 2 million. 
The veliger has two ciliated lobes called the vellum for 
swimming, and a little bivalve shell for protection. 

After a short period of planktonic life, the veliger 
must find a suitable wooden surface for settlement. 
Those that fail die, in the case of Teredo only four 
days after being released from the maternal gill 
chamber. Like barnacle larvae, shipworm veligers set- 
tle and metamorphose in response to complex phys- 
ical and chemical cues. After a veliger has located a 
suitable wooden surface, it begins boring. 

At this stage its shell is not yet calcified, and it lacks 
the rim of file-like teeth found on the shells of adults. 
Larval boring is believed to be a chemical process in- 
volving enzymes used to attack the wood so that 
sweeping movements of the delicate shell can brush 
away the residue. Once below the surface, the larva 
metamorphoses and its shell hardens. All future bor- 
ing is a strictly mechanical process. To bore, the ship- 
worm rocks its shells back and forth while gripping 
the burrow with its sucker-like foot so that its rasp- 
like shell teeth bite into the wood at the head of the 
burrow. As it drills, it slowly twists its body. The 
resulting hole is perfectly circular. To eject sawdust, 
the shipworm simply eats it and passes it through its 
digestive tract. 




Several Zirfaea about 12 inches long extracted from 
their burrows. Shipworms are several times longer and 
thinner, with even smaller shells. 



There has been much controversy as to whether 
shipworms actually digest the wood that passes 
through their intestines. Piddocks remove rock or 
clay in much the same manner, but obtain all nourish- 
ment from plankton drawn in through their siphons. 
Recent tests indicate that up to 80% of the cellulose 
and 50% of the hemicellulose in the injested wood is 



assimilated by the shipworm. It is not known whether 
the digestion of wood is aided either by bacterial sym- 
bionts (such as those found in the digestive tracts of 
termites and cattle), or by bacteria and fungi already 
living there. In either case, it appears that the ship- 
worm has turned the family burrowing habit into a 
new way of obtaining food. 

After the wood is initially penetrated, a young ship- 
worm turns to follow the grain. Thus in a heavily- 
infested timber, the burrows are all parallel. Further- 
more they can be very closely spaced. In addition to 
their sensitivity to grain direction, shipworms can tell 
(perhaps by feeling vibration) when they are nearing a 
neighbor's burrow in time to turn away slightly and 
avoid creating an intersection. If a shipworm can drill 
no deeper without hitting a neighbor, both boring and 
growth are inhibited, and it becomes a stunted dwarf 
or stenomorph. 

For thousands of years man has sought ways to 
combat shipworms. Many ingenious methods have 
been tested, but to date the shipworm still appears to 
have the upper hand. Early methods still helpful to- 
day include hauling boats out of water and charring 
their surfaces or baking them in the hot sun. Taking 
the affected boat into fresh water also works, but any 
of these methods, to be effective, must be used over a 
lengthy period. Once a shipworm has sealed off the 
opening to its burrow with its pallets, it ability to 
resist adverse conditions is quite extraordinary. Other 
methods include treatment with poisons such as 
creosote and covering the wood with a variety of 
sheathing. None of these approaches is outstandingly 
successful. Even wooden pilings encased in concrete 
can fall prey to successive waves of rock piddocks and 
shipworms. A bizzare attempt to electrocute ship- 
worms by passing massive charges through pilings ac- 
tually seemed to encourage them; test pilings were 
riddled more quickly than controls. A more suc- 
cessful approach, used in the British Columbia logg- 
ing industry, is to shake shipworms to death using 
either pile drivers or nearby dynamite blasts at two 
month intervals. 

Since preventative treatments for shipworm in- 
festation are expensive, a great deal of effort has gone 
into developing methods of detection. Electronic 
stethoscopes used to listen for characteristic rasping 
sounds, reflective sonic testing, and even X-radio- 
graphy are employed. Most basic of course, is simply 
looking for the traces of sawdust that mark the tiny 
entrances of shipworm burrows, but this is no easy 
task. So if you do discover your wooden boat, dock 
or float has been attacked by shipworms, try not to 
panic. Odds are it's already too late! 

[Note: This article originally published in Pacific 
Yachting, March, 1981 and is reprinted here with 
permission of the authors.] 

Sven Donaldson and Sandra Millen, Department of 
Zoology, University of British Columbia, 6720 
University Blvd., Vancouver, B.C., V6T 2A9, 
Canada. 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(9):137 



TRITONIA PICKENSI 
(NUDIBRANCHIA: 
TRITONIIDAE) FROM 
BAJA CALIFORNIA, 
MEXICO 

by Hans Bertsch and Terrence Gosliner 

The opisthobranch fauna of the Gulf of California, 
Mexico (in the tropical eastern Pacific) presently in- 
cludes eight known species of the nudibranch 
suborder Dendronotacea: 

Dendronotus nanus Marcus & Marcus, 1967 

Bornella sarape Bertsch, 1980 

Doto amyra Marcus, 1961 

Doto lancei Marcus & Marcus, 1967 

Melibe leonina (Gould, 1852) 

Tritonia diomedea Bergh, 1894 

Tritonia pickensi Marcus & Marcus, 1967 

Crosslandia daedali Poorman & Mulliner, 1981 

Doto lancei occurs throughout the Gulf of California 
(Bertsch, 1973); Melibe leonina has recently been 
reported from Bahia de los Angeles (Poorman & 
Poorman, 1978); the ranges of Bornella sarape and 
Tritonia diomedea have been discussed by Bertsch & 
Kerstitch (1984). We are not aware of additional 
published Gulf occurrences for the other four species 
since they were named or reported from the Gulf of 
California. 

Tritonia pickensi has been reported only from 
Puerto Penasco and Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico, oc- 
curring on gorgonians (Marcus & Marcus, 1967; 
Williams & Gosliner, 1971). Hence the following new 
records are noteworthy: 

1. 1 specimen (7 mm long), Bahia San Carlos 
(several km north of Guaymas), Sonora, Mexico (27 ° 
56 ' N; 1 1 1 ° 08 ' W); leg. Terrence Gosliner and Gary 
Williams, 22 December 1969; found on a purple 
Muricea gorgonian (see Figure 1). 





Figure 2. In situ underwater photograph of Tritonia pickensi 
on a gorgonian; Bahia de los Angeles, Baja California; 20 feet 
deep; 28 May 1984; photo by Hans Bertsch. 

2. 1 specimen (6 mm long), subtidal, 6 m depth, 
Punta Gringa, Bahia de los Angeles, Baja California 
(29 ° 04 ' N; 1 1 3 ° 35 ' W); leg. Hans Bertsch and Nancy 
Love, 28 May 1984; found on a gorgonian. Based on 
the identification keys in Brusca (1980), the gorgo- 
nian species on which this Tritonia pickensi was 
found appears to be Psammogorgia arbuscula Verrill 
(see Figure 2, underwater photograph showing the tri- 
toniid in situ). 

3. 1 specimen (10 mm long), subtidal, 13 m depth, 
Cabo San Lucas (north side), Baja California Sur 
(22 ° 53 ' N; 109 ° 54 ' W); leg. T. Gosliner, 19 January 
1984; found on a fishing line entwined around the 
same species of gorgonian as Specimen 2, above. Its 
egg mass was found with the nudibranch. 




Figure 1. Tritonia pickensi collected at Bahia San Carlos, 22 
December 1969; 7 mm;photograph by Steven J. Long. 



Figure 3. Original illustration of Tritonia pickensi, used by 
Marcus & Marcus in their description of the species; photo 
by Dr. Peter E. Pickens. 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(9):138 



These specimens demonstrate a range of color 
variation for this species. The white swath on the dor- 
sum of the animal sends lateral branches to the bran- 
chial processes on the notum margin. This swath 
varies in prominence or intensity. Figure 3 illustrates 
one of the living animals on which the original 
description of Tritonia pickensi had been based. Note 
that the white frosting, although present, is rather 
subtle. The specimen from Bahia San Carlos (Figure 
1) shows quite pronounced white markings. The 
design is the same as that described by Marcus & Mar- 
cus, but is a bit wider and more obvious. The two 
specimens collected from Baja California (Figure 2) 
and Baja California Sur (they were feeding on a dif- 
ferent genus of gorgonian than the animal from 
Bahia San Carlos) were similar to the original 
paratypic material in having less-pronounced white 
markings. The specimen collected at Cabo San Lucas 
had even less white frosting than the others; however, 
comparison of its radula (Figure 4) with a paratype's 
radula (Figure 5) revealed no differences, substan- 
tiating our belief they are conspecific. 




Figure 4. Tritonia pickens SEM of radula from specimen 
number 3. SEM by Terrence Gosliner. 



These specimens and the accompanying illustra- 
tions represent the first report of the occurrence of 
Tritonia pickensi from the Gulf coast of Baja Califor- 
nia and from the southern extreme of the Gulf of 
California (a range extension of about 600 km), the 
first identification of probable prey gorgonians, and 
the first published photographs of living animals of 
this species. 




Figure 5. Tritoni pickensi SEM of paratype radula. SEM by 
Terrence Gosliner. 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

Part of the field work for this note was performed on a 
research expedition to Baja California Sur, supported by a 
grant from the George Lindsay Field Research Fund, Califor- 
nia Academy of Sciences. We are grateful for this assistance, 
and also thank our colleagues on our various Gulf of Califor- 
nia research trips: G. Williams and N. Love; and L. Aguilar, H. 
Herrmann, M. Ghiselin, W. Lee, R. van Syoc, and D. Catania. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Bertsch, Hans. 1973. Distribution and natural history of opis- 

thobranch gastropods from Las Cruces, Baja California 

del Sur, Mexico. Veliger 16(1):105-111. 
Bertsch, Hans, and Alex Kerstitch. 1984. Distribution and 

radular morphology of various nudibranchs (Gastropoda: 

Opisthobranchia) from the Gulf of California, Mexico. 

Veliger 26(4):264-273. 
Brusca, Richard C. 1980. Common intertidal invertebrates of 

the Gulf of California. Tucson, University of Arizona Press. 

513 pp. 
Marcus, Eveline, and Ernst Marcus. 1967. American opis- 

thobranch mollusks. University of Miami, Studies in 

Tropical Oceanography 6:256 pp. 
Poorman, Forrest L., and Leroy H. Poorman. 1978. Additional 

molluscan records from Bahia de los Angeles, Baja Califor- 
nia Norte. Veliger 20(4):369-374. 
Williams, Gary and Terrence M. Gosliner. 1971. The 

opisthobranch mollusks of San Carlos Bay, Mexico. The 

Echo 3:33 

Dr. Terrence Gosliner, Department of Invertebrate 
Zoology, California Academy of Sciences, Golden 
Gate Park, San Francisco, CA 94118 



Richard E. Petit 

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SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16 (9): 139 



NOTES FROM HANS BERTSCH: 
Deep-water rarities: Calliostoma 
platinum and Lima sphoni. 
Photos by Hans Bertsch 

Last month concluded a series of "Notes" 
on Cyphoma, with special attention given to 
the well-known C. gibbosum. We examined 
the feeding, reproduction and anatomy of this 
species. This month, by contrast, I will 
present some information on two rare, deep- 
water species of Californian mollusks, about 
which there is very little biological infor- 
mation known. Some time ago I wrote about 
the commensal relationship of Pecten diegen- 
sis Dall, 1898, and Capulus californicus Dall, 
1900. However, the snail and clam pair 
chosen for this month really have nothing in 
common - except that both have been collected 
infrequently off southern California by 
dredge, trawl, or submersible. So we have a 
rare gastropod and a bivalve to discuss this 
month, placed together only because they are 
deep-water rarities in the same faunal region. 

Class Gastropoda 

Subclass Prosobranchia 

Order Archaeogastropoda 
Trochidae 

Calliostoma platinum Dall, 1889 

The holotype specimen was collected in 414 
fathoms (757 m) near the Santa Barbara 
Islands, California (Dall, 1889). Oldroyd 
(1927) described its range as from the Farallon 
Islands to San Diego, in deep water. Hanna 
(1952) reported dredging a specimen southwest 
of the Farallons (57° 32.3' N; 123° 2.7' W) in 
340-120 fathoms (621-219 m); an illustrated 
specimen (Anonymous, 1952) was collected by 
Delbert Goodwin, north of Santa Cruz Island, 
California, in 220-236 fathoms (402-431 m). 
Abbott (1974) cited its range from Queen 
Charlotte Strait, British Columbia, Canada, 
to San Diego, California, in 50-414 fathoms 
(91-757 m). The illustrated specimen (Figure 
1) is in the collection of the San Diego Natural 
History Museum. The data indicate it was 
collected by Ida S. Oldroyd, from Monterey, in 
122 fathoms (223 m). 

The shell of this species is moderate-sized 
for the genus (about 30 mm in height), thin, 
polished, and iridescent white. There are 7 
whorls beside the nucleus; the shell whorls 
have an inflated or swollen appearance. Dall 
records that the subsequent whorls are 
slightly flattened behind the periphery, full 
and rounded on the base; and a "longitudinal 
sculpture of obscure spiral lines behind the 
periphery and somewhat stronger flattish 
threads, separ-ated by shallow grooves, on 




Figure 1. Specimen of Calliostoma platinum, originally col- 
lected by Ida S. Oldroyd. 

the base; at the periphery is a single 
prominent thread, immediately in front of 
which is the suture, the succeeding whorl 
being appressed against the thread." The 
aperture is "rounded quadrate." The outer 
lip is thin and sharp; the columella is slender, 
pearly, and slightly arched. The interior is 
iridescent, polished, without lirae. Dall 
(1889: 343) apparently did not consider this 
species to be representative of the highly 
touted beauty of mollusks: "The shell itself is 
less attractive than most of the group.... 
The exterior of this specimen shows little 
pearliness and is chiefly of a somewhat livid 
white, like the eye of a boiled fish." Well, the 
shell may not be as highly adorned as chorus 
line members of 1890's "Follies," but it is 
certainly straightforward, simple, clean, 
elegant, and exquisitely attractive. I have to 
admit a philosophical prejudice: everything 
has beauty simply because it exists. 
Whatever is added over and beyond mere 
existence is a bonus to be further appreciated. 
Some month I must discuss the role of 
anthropomorphisms, personal attitudes and 
individual preferences in science. 

The operculum of Calliostoma platinum 

has about 14 very narrow whorls; it is 
polished internally and is somewhat rough 
externally. 

The soft parts are whitish. The head and 
sides of the foot below the epipodial line are 
profusely granulose. Among the granules 
rise pointed, larger papillae, which are also 
very granulose. They appear almost arbor- 
escent. The long foot is rather narrow, 
double-edged, and somewhat auriculate in 
front. The tentacles are long and slender, 
and the black eyes are quite prominent. 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(9):140 



Class Bivalvia 

Subclass Pteriomorphia 
Order Pterioida 
Limidae 
Lima sphoni Hertlein, 1953 

When Gale Sphon was associated with the 
Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, he 
sent Dr. Leo G. Hertlein (of California 
Academy of Sciences) a specimen of a large 
Lima. The shell had been collected by John 
Tennant, on the drag boat Christine, between 
Santa Catalina and Santa Barbara Islands, 
California, in 250-300 fathoms (457-549 m). 
Considering it to be new to science, Dr. 
Hertlein subsequently named the new species 
L. sphoni. 

Before I describe the shell, two peripheral 
comments are appropriate. Most of the depth 
records of specimens dredged or trawled or 
netted from deep water are given as a range - 
from depth "x" to depth "y." Many sampling 
techniques of the deep ocean floor do not just 
drop to the bottom and pick up a scoop from 
one site. A catching device is often dragged 
over the bottom some distance (hopefully to 
increase what is caught on any given haul; 
this is more efficient because it takes a long 
time to drop the line all the way to the 
bottom and then bring it back up to the 
surface). Collecting data are then less 
precise, because the specimens could have 
entered the collecting device at any of the 
bottom depths along the line of the towed 
dredge. Sometimes the path travelled is long 
enough that different latitude and longitude 
coordinates must be given for the beginning 
and the end of the tow. 





Figure 2. Outer surface of the valves of a 110 mm long 
specimen of Lima sphoni. Obtained from deep water, south 
of San Diego. 



Figure 3. Inner surface of left valve, outer surface of right 
valve, of Lima sphoni. 



The second aside concerns the patronym. 
Gale Sphon is presently at the Los Angeles 
County Museum of Natural History. His 
major research interests have been the 
Mitridae and the Opisthobranchia. In addi- 
tion to this Lima, he has had a number of 
other eastern Pacific tropical molluscan 
species named for him: Olivella sphoni Burch 
& Campbell, 1963; Mitra sphoni Shasky &. 
Campbell, 1964; and the nudlbranchs Chromo- 
doris sphoni (Marcus, 1971) and Chromodoris 
galexorum Bertsch, 1978 (this last species was 
named after Gale Sphon and Alex Kerstitch). 
Of course, one should include in this list 
Sclerodoris tanya (Marcus, 1971), which 
Eveline Marcus named for a pet Siamese cat of 
Gale's; the feline's name was Tanya. 

Lima sphoni is a large, thin shell, with a 
height of more than 110 mm. It is covered 
with a thin, pale brown periostracum (Figures 
2 and 3). The hinge line is straight, 
moderately long, with a slightly oblique 
ligamental pit in the narrow (but very broadly 
triangular) cardinal area. The beaks are 
anterior and low. Anteriorly the valves slope 
steeply from the umbos to the margin, where a 
depressed lunular area and decided gape 
between the valves are present. The posterior 
slope is much more gentle (less steep). The 
sculpture consists of more than 50 rounded 
radial ribs (55 in the holotype, nearly 60 in the 
specimen illustrated here). Concentric sculp- 
ture consists of faint growth lines; 4 or 5 more 
prominent, concentric offsets on the ribs 
indicate resting stages. 

The interior of the shell (Figure 3) is 
polished and white. It is corrugated in 
conformity to the exterior ribbing. The 
rounded muscle impressions are faintly 
visible. The hinge has a slight depression at 
the anterior end. 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16 (9): 141 



The specimen illustrated here was collected 
in 2000 feet (609 m) of water, south of San 
Diego, California, by the submersible Deep- 
star II. It is in the collection of Clifford and 
Clifton Martin of Oceanside, California. I 
am grateful to these gentlemen for having 
allowed me to photograph their specimen of 
Lima sphoni. 

The deep water habitats of Calliostoma 
platinum and Lima sphoni have made these 
two species rare in collections. That same 
factor is responsible for the lack of 
knowledge about the biology of these 
organisms. It is hoped that further research 
by submersibles will provide us with 
information about the life styles of these not- 
so-famous mollusks. 

Dr. Hans Bertsch, 4444 W. Pt. Loma Blvd. No. 83, 
San Diego, CA 92107 



REFERENCES 

Abbott, R. Tucker. 1974. American Seashells, 

Second Edition. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 

New York. 663 PP> 
Anonymous. 1952. Photograph of Calliostoma 

platinum. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 4th Ser. 

27(11-15):plt. 20, fig. 7. 
Dall, William H. 1889. Scientific results of 

explorations by the U.S. Fish Commission 

Steamer Albatross. VII. Preliminary report on 

the collection of Mollusca and Brachiopoda 

obtained in 1887-1888. Proc. U.S.N.M. 12 

(773):219-362. 
Hanna, G Dallas. 1952. Geology of the 

continental slope off Central California. 

Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 27(9):325-358. 
Hertlein, Leo G. 1963- A new species of giant 

Lima from off southern California (Mollusca: 

Pelecypoda). Occas. Papers Calif. Acad. Sci., 

40: 6 pp. 
Oldroyd, Ida Shepard. 1927. The marine shells 

of the west coast of North America. Stanford 

University. Vol. II (III). 



COMMON NAMES LIST- 
ANNOUNCEMENT 

A preliminary list of scientific and 
vernacular names of mollusks has been 
prepared by a committee from the Council of 
Systematic Malacologists (CSM), American 
Malacological Union (AMU). The list is 
intended to cover those species occurring on 
the American continent north of Mexico 
and/or generally within 200 miles of its 
margin (to 200 m), including coastal islands, 
but not the West Indies. Principles governing 
the selection of common names were developed 
by the Names of Invertebrates Committee of 
the American Fisheries Society (AFS). This 
committee's main goal is to achieve uni- 
formity and avoid confusion in vernacular 
nomenclature of aguatic invertebrates. 

In 1983, CSM adopted the AFS principles 
and elected to join that Society's effort to 
establish common names for aquatic inverte- 
brates. CSM's list covers living terrestrial, 
freshwater, and marine mollusks that have 
been previously described and published, 
preferably in monographed systematic works. 
Common names have been provided for most, 
but not all, species. AFS intends to publish 
the mollusk list developed by AMU within the 
next five years, and to publish a revision every 
ten years. The AFS list as it is developed and 
published will also include crustaceans, and 
other groups of aquatic invertebrates, and 
probably terrestrial mollusks to show AFS' 
appreciation of CSM's cooperative efforts. 



Within the next few months, the governing 
principles and the draft preliminary list for 
terrestrial mollusks is scheduled to appear in 
the monthly publication Shells and Sea Life 
(505 E. Pasadena, Phoenix, AZ 85012); 
freshwater and marine mollusks lists will 
follow. The draft lists are being presented to 
an expanded shell audience for further review 
and comment. Selected comments will be 
published, thereby providing a forum for 
discussion. All draft lists of molluscan 
groups should be published before next year's 
AMU meeting. 

Any questions on this CSM project should be 
directed to the committee chairman Dr. Donna D. 
Turgeon, Regulations Branch Chief, F/M12, National 
Marine Fisheries Service, Page Bldg. II, 3300 
Whitehaven St. NW, Washington, DC 20235; phone 
202-634-7432. 



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SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(9):142 



PRINCIPLES GOVERNING SELECTION 
OF COMMON NAMES OF AQUATIC 
INVERTEBRATES FROM AMERICA 
NORTH OF MEXICO. 



Introductory statement on draft. --In early 
1982, an American Fisheries Society Commit- 
tee on Common and Scientific Names of 
Aquatic Invertebrates (CCSNAI) was formed 
to study and propose methods for standardiz- 
ing common names for aquatic invertebrates of 
America north of Mexico. From the outset, 
the Committee recognized that the selection 
of common names for these invertebrate 
species is a formidable task that must be 
deliberate. There was never any thought 
that the myriad recognized aquatic inverte- 
brate species of this region should each be 
assigned a common name, because there is no 
practical necessity in everyday use (i.e., 
economic, ecological, medical, scientific, 
recreational, or general interest) to do so. 
Species that are of such importance often 
already bear well known common names that 
stand in place of less familiar Latin names. 
Since the common names are governed by no 
recognized codes, there may be multiple 
synonyms or homonyms. The confusion which 
could result from these instances may be of 
little consequence in local applications; 
indeed, provincial names are often aptly 
descriptive. But in trade, for example, where 
Canadian and United States market or 
customs regulations apply, such informality 
is an impediment because single adopted 
common names (official names) must be used 
for the purposes of unambiguous recognition. 
The problem is so well known to anyone who 
reads these remarks that there is little need to 
amplify the argument. 

After deliberation, CCSNAI decided that 
the Principles set forth in the American 
Fisheries Society-Common and Scientific 
Names of Fishes of North America [AFS- 
CSNFNA] (American Fisheries Society Spe- 
cial Publication No. 12, 4th ed, 1980, 174 
pp.), and those in a projected list of common 
names of fishes of the world, were essentially 
acceptable, after moderate adjustments to 
meet the special problems posed by inverte- 
brates. The Committee's intent is embodied 
in the remarks following each Principle that is 
presented, but because no common names of 
invertebrates have as yet been accepted, the 
illustrative names suggested are intended for 
the purpose of discussion only. Accepted 
example names of invertebrates can be 
substituted for these after they are approved. 
Principles 11 and 12 of the AFS-CSNFNA 
have been combined in Principle 11 as they are 



in the projected list of common names of fishes 
of the world. 

The AFS-CSNFNA list, fourth edition, 
was designed to give a common name to every 
species of North American fish, from the 
continent itself to the 100-fathom line at the 
edge of the continental shelf. CCSNAI does 
not envision such a comprehensive list for the 
numerous aquatic invertebrate species but did 
decide that species eligible initially for 
assignment of common names should occur on 
the American continent north of Mexico 
and/or generally within 200 miles of its 
margin, including coastal islands, but not the 
West Indies. 

Suggested Principles 

1. A primary vernacular name shall be 
accepted for each species or taxonomic unit 
included. Alternate published names may be 
listed in order of prominence. Rationale for 
selection of the primary name and etymologies 
may be indicated. 

2. No two species on the list shall have the 
same primary name. Commonly used names 
of extralimital species should be avoided 
wherever possible. 

3. The expression "common" as part of an 
invertebrate's name shall be avoided if 
possible. Use of adjectives that also describe 
age or size and thus may have dual meanings 
shall be avoided as part of an invertebrate's 
name wherever possible (e.g., little, small, 
big, fat). 

4. Simplicity in names is favored. Hyphens 
and suffixes shall be omitted (e.g., coonstripe 
shrimp) except where they are ortho- 
graphically essential (e.g., cup-and-saucer, 
brown-banded), have special meaning (e.g., 
Jan-mayans alvania), or are necessary to 
avoid possible misunderstanding (e.g., half- 
slippershell). Compounded modifying words, 
including paired structures, should usually be 
treated as singular nouns in apposition with a 
group name (e.g., hawkwing conch, rooster- 
tail conch), but a plural modifier should 
usually be placed in adjectival form (e.g., 
fingered limpet, checkered pheasant), unless 
its plural nature is obvious (e.g., lineolate 
periwinkle). Preference shall be given to 
names that are short and euphonious. 

The compounding of brief, familiar words 
into a single name, written without a hyphen, 
may in some cases promote clarity and 
simplicity (e.g., slippershell, moonsnail, 
hairyshell, seaslug, doveshell), but the 
habitual practice of combining words, 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(9):143 



especially those that are lengthy, awkward, 
or unfamiliar is to be avoided. Spelling of 
compound names should follow rules set forth 
in the Council of Biology Editors Style 
Manual, American Institute of Biological 
Sciences. 

5. Common names shall not be capitalized 
in text use except for those elements that are 
proper names (e.g., channeled whelk but San 
Diego doris). 

6. Names intended to honor persons (e.g., 
Marshall mussel, Jay river snail) are 
discouraged in that they are without 
descriptive value. In some large groups, 
identical specific patronymics in scientific 
names (sometimes honoring different persons) 
exist in related genera, and use of a 
patronymic in the common name is confusing. 
However, some patryonymics are already well 
established in literature, agency regulations, 
and industry (e.g., Tanner crab). Apos- 
trophes should be deleted. 

7. Only clearly defined and well-marked 
taxonomic entities (usually species) shall be 
assigned common names. Most subspecies are 
not suitable subjects for common names, but 
those forms that are so different in 
appearance (not just in geographic distri- 
bution) as to be distinguished readily by 
laymen or for which a common name 
constitutes a significant aid in communi- 
cation may merit separate names. There is a 
wide divergence of opinion concerning the 
criteria for recognition of subspecies. We 
have usually not named subspecies. Excep- 
tions are those of certain invertebrates such 
as the pearly mussel, Epioblasma florentina, 
which are listed by the United States 
Department of Interior as endangered. 
Subspecies have importance in evolutionary 
inquiry but are rarely of significance to 
laymen or in those aspects of biolgical 
endeavor in which common names are of 
concern. The common name for the species 
should apply to all subspecies of a taxon and 
may be appropriately modified by those 
treating subspecies. The practice of adding 
geographic modifiers to designate regional 
populations makes for a cumbersome terminol- 
ogy. 

Hybrids in general are not named. The 
established common name of a hybrid, if 
important, is indicated by a footnote. 
Cultured varieties, phases and morphological 
variants are also not named even though they 
are important in commercial trade of 
aquarium animals. 



8. The common name shall not be intimately 
tied to the scientific name. Thus, the 
vagaries of scientific nomenclature do not 
entail constant changing of common names. 
The practice of applying a name to each genus, 
a modifying name for each species, and still 
another modifier for each subspecies, while 
appealing in its simplicity, has the defect of 
inflexibility. If an invertebrate is trans- 
ferred from genus to genus, or shifted from 
species to subspecies or vice versa, the 
common name should nevertheless remain 
unaffected. It is not a primary function of 
common names to indicate relationship. 
When two or more taxonomic groups (e.g., 
nominal species) are found to be identical, one 
name shall be adopted for the combined group. 

This principle is regarded not only as 
fundamental to the achievement of stability, 
but as essential to the development of a true 
vernacular nomenclature. 

Scientific names are governed by the 
International Rules of Zoological Nomen- 
clature. 

9. Names shall not violate the tenets of 
good taste. 



The foregoing principles are largely in the 
nature of procedural precepts. Those given 
below are criteria that are regarded as aids in 
the selection of suitable names. 

10. Colorful, romantic, fanciful, metaphor- 
ical, and otherwise distinctive and original 
names are especially appropriate. Such 
terminology adds to the richness and breadth 
of the nomenclature and yields a harvest of 
satisfaction to the user. Examples of such 
names include arrow crab, batwing seaslug, 
blackberry drupe, marsh walker, rugose 
nutmeg, scotch bonnet. 

11. American Indian or other truly vernac- 
ular names are welcome for adoption as 
common names. Indian names in current use 
include the carib fossaria, cayuse physa, 
geoduck, and quahog. In addition to aborigi- 
nal names, names of American invertebrates 
have been derived from foreign languages: 
e.g., Spanish (abalone, pusa aglaja). Al- 
though too little genuine originality is 
evident, excellent names have been developed 
by American immigrants. Most of these 
conform to principles 13 and 14 below. 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(9):144 



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Sea Beach at Ebb Tide Arnold 

Seashell Parade Melvin 

Sea Shells/Dar-Es-Salaam Vol.1 Spry $ 

Sea Shells/Dar-Es-Salaam Vol.2 Spry S 

Sea Shells/No. America-Recording Abbott 
Seashells / Cape Verde Islands Burnay $ 
Seashells of Sagami Bay Kuroda 

Seashells of Southern Africa Kensley $ 

Seashells of Sri Lanka Kirtisin $ 

Seashells of the West Indies Humphrey '. 

Seashells of the World Abbott ! 

Seashells / World with Values Melvin $ 

Seashells/Tropical West America Keen 
Seashells of Western Europe Bouchet ' 

Seashore Animals /Pacific Coast Johnson 3 
Seashore Life Between the Tides Crowder 
Seashore Life Coloring Book D'AttilioS 

Seashore Life in So. Calif.(US) Hinton $ 



Shell- Stix Deluxe Paperback Ed. Stix 
aShell- Stix (hard cover) Stix 



1.75 
i 1.75 
3.00 

1.25 
14.00 

1.00 
16.25 

10.00 
14.7 5 

22.25 
i 1.50 
S 26.00 

6.75 
51.25 

$ 8.50 
$ 12.50 
i 8.75 
i 8.75 
$ 13.00 
i 6.00 
$ 85.50 
, 26.75 
13.50 
$ 21.00 
$ 3.7 5 
18.50 
49.25 
7.00 
8.25 
I 8.50 
3.00 
4.75 
11.50 
51.57 



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90414 



Krauss 


$ 


4.50 


Rogers 


( 


( 13.00 


Romashko 


$ 3.75 


Fair 


$ 


9.50 


Pope 


$ 


1.50 


Kellum 


$ 


1.50 


Pelosi 


$ 


4.75 


Murray 


$ 


6.00 


Rice 


$ 


3.75 



Shell Art 

Shell Book 

Shell Book 

Shell Collectors Guide 

Shellcraft Animals 

Shellcraft Critters 

Shellcraft Instruction 

Shell Life & Shell Collecting 

Shelter's Directory-8th Ed. 

Shelling & Beachcombing/Carib/Fl Magnotti $ 5.75 

Shells & Shores of Texas Andrews $ 31.50 

Shells-Timeless&FascinatingWorld Saul $ 10.25 

Shells in Australia Coleman $ 5.50 

Shells in Color Abbott 

Shells of Britain and Europe Lellak 

Shells of Japan - 2 volume set Habe 

Shells of New Guinea&Cent.Indo-P Hinton 

Shells of New Zealand Powell 

Shells of the Caribbean Lozet 

Shells / Western Pacific Vol.1 Habe 

Shells / Western Pacific Vol.11 

Shells of the World- Vol. 1 

Shells on Postage Stamps 

Shell Struct./Miner./Bivalvia 

So.Australian Mollusca - Chiton 



$ 20.00 
$ 9.00 
$ 67.00 
$ 18.00 
$ 13.75 
$ 12.50 
$ 51.50 
Habe $ 51.50 

Habeilto $ 34.00 
Emmerich $ 21.00 
Taylor $ 19.50 
Cotton $ 7.00 



So.Australian Mollusca-Pelecypod Cotton $ 
Standard Catalog of Shells Wagner $ 

Starting With Marine Invertebrat Walls $ 
Study of Scutus antipodes CernohorsS 

Subtidal Marine Biology of Calif GalbraithS 
Thousand &. 1 Questions /Seashore Berrill $ 
Thousand World Seashells Melvin $ 

Treatment/Exotic Fish Disease KingsfordS 
Tropical Marine Fishes Zeiller $ 

Underwater Guide to Tahiti Bagnis S 

United States Mollusca Webb ! 

Welsh Seashells ChatfieldS 

West Americ. Fresh Water Moll. I Taylor $ 
What is a Shell? Rice $ 

World's Shells Dance $ 

Bull. Inst. Malac-Tokyo Vol.l#04 Kosuge $ 
Review of the Volutidae Smith 3 

Bull. Inst. Malac-Tokyo Vol.l#05 Kosuge $ 
NPacShell//05-Genus Volutharpa Kosuge 

NPacShell#04-Genus Pyrolofusus Kosuge 3 
NPacShell//03-Genus Volutomitra Kosuge 
NPacShell#02-Genus Arctomelon Kosuge 

NPacShell#06 -Genus Japelion Kosuge ! 

NPacShell//07-Genus Plicifusus Kosuge $ 

NPacShell#01-Genus Volutopsius Kosuge S 
Pariah #3 Walls ! 

Pariah /M Walls ! 

Pariah //7 Walls 

Pariah #8 Walls 

NZ Mollusca-Marine Land Freshwat Powell 
Reef Building Corals/IndoPacific Ditlev S 
Genera of the Bivalvia Vokes 

Texas Shells Andrews 

Pliocene Mollusca S.Fla. -Reprint Olsson 3 
Taxon.Notes/Polynesian-Nassariid CernohorsS 



Taxonomy I. P. Mollusca Part 8 CernohorsS 

Invertebrate Zoology Barnes $ 
Monograph / Genus Marginella Sowerby ' 

Shell Collecting Walls $ 

Sea-Slug Gastropods Farmer 3 

Pacific Coast Nudibranchs Behrens $ 

Australian Crustaceans in Colour Healy $ 

Australian Seashores in Colour Healy $ 

Guide Shell Collecting Kwajalein Brost $ 

Australian Gr. Barrier Rf Color Gillett $ 

Corals - Burgess Burgess $ 

Cone Shells Cape Verde Islands Rockel $ 

Catalog of Living Chitons Kaas&VanBS 
Seashore&Shallow Seas/Brit.&Euro Campbell $ 
Hawaiian Nudibranchs Bertsch $ 

NPacShell#07a- Genus Plicifuss Kosuge $ 
NPacShell//08 - Genus Colus Kosuge 3 



9.25 
57.50 
10.00 
1.25 
5.25 
5.50 
19.50 
5.75 
11.00 
12.00 
9.00 
3.75 
9.50 
3.75 
12.00 
7.50 
11.25 
8.50 
; 3.25 
6.00 
2.50 
$ 3.25 
4.75 
8.75 
6.75 
2.75 
2.75 
2.75 
2.75 
36.75 
29.00 
S 24.75 
$ 10.00 
37.25 
3.50 

3.75 
10.00 
$ 13.25 

6.00 
t 11.00 
16.00 
8.50 
6.00 
12.00 
13.00 
6.00 
13.00 
21.75 
12.00 
8.00 
2.50 
B.00 



$ 
$ 
$ 



.S/N - NEW BOOK DESCRIPTION - AUTHOR - Postpaid Price ..S/N - NEW BOOK DESCRIPTION - AUTHOR - Postpaid Price 



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NPacSheIl//09-Genus Fusivolutopsi Kosuge $ 3.25 
Bull. Inst. Malac-Tokyo Vol.1 //06 Kosuge $ 8.50 
Monograph / Genera Spondylus etc Sowerby $ 12.50 
Beach Birds Vessel&W $ 2.50 

Tide P00I3 Vessel $ 2.50 

Pacific Marine Life DeLuca $ 3.50 

Monog. Marine Mol.#2-Buccinidae Cernohors$ 8.50 
Pacific Coast Subtid.Mar.Invert. Gotshall $ 12.50 
Acta Conchyliorum-Olividae 1982 Greifene $ 41.50 
Coquillages de Polynesia Salvat $ 51.50 

Living Corals- New Caledonia etc Robin $ 13.50 
Underwater Guide/New Caledonia Laboute $ 13.50 
FieldGuideN.AmerSeashells AudSoc Rehder $ 13.00 
Designs For Coloring Seashells Heller $ 3.25 
Bull. Inst. Malac-Tokyo Vol.l#07 Kosuge $ 7.50 
NPacShell#10 - Genus Beringius Kosuge $ 7.50 
NPacShelltfll-Genus Ancistrolepis Kosuge $ 2.50 
Seaweeds of Hawaii Magruder $ 7.00 

Hawaiian Reefs and Tidepools Fielding $ 7.00 

Monograph / Genus Columbella Sowerby $ 12.50 

Conchology Say $ 5.50 

South African Shells-A Collector Richardds$ 16.00 



Coleman 
Bennett 
Power 
Estival 
Arakawa 
Faulkner 



$ 26.00 
$ 38.50 

$ 13.00 
$ 23.00 

$ 17.00 
$ 22.00 



What Shell is That? 
Great Barrier Reef- Bennett 
Great Barrier Reef- Power 
Cone Shells N.Caledonia/Vanuatu 
Shells on Stamps of the World 
Living Corals - Faulkner 
Revision/Austr.&N.Z.Nassariidae- 
Taxonomy I.P Mollusca Part 9 
Animals of the Sea-Stamp Book 
Carolina Seashells (US) 

Seashore Life/FloridaA: Caribbean Voss $ 10.00 

Sharks/Other Dangerous Sea Creat Greenber $ 6.00 
Acmaeidae Lindberg $ 13.50 

Genus Lepidcehitona Grey #185 Kaas&VanB$ 9.00 
Notes/ Descript/ Bulimulidae#186 Breure $ 22.50 

Altena $ 13.00 



Cernohors$ 8.50 
Cernohors$ 3.50 
GoldenBk $ 2.00 

Rhyne $ 5.75 



Clover $ 
Craft $ 
Stahly $ 
Abbott $ 
Backhuys $ 



Bosch 
Passas 



$ 



$ 



11.00 
2.25 
2.75 
51.50 
38.00 
36.25 
7.75 
3.50 
$ 16.75 

4.00 

26.00 

2.75 

41.25 

13.50 

14.00 



Genus Babylonia //188 

Latiaxis Catalog 
Fun With Shells 
Sand Dollar 

Compendium of Seashells 
Land&Freshwater Molluscs Azores 
Seashells of Oman 
Shellcraft - Derby Lane 
NPacShell//lla-Genus Ancistrolepi Kosuge 
NPacShell#12-Genus Clinopegma Kosuge 
NPacShell#13-Genus Parancistrole Kosuge 
Saudi Arabian Seashells Sharabat 

Four Species/Pterynotus/Favartia D'Attilio$ 
Freshwater Molluscs of Canada Clarke 
Monograph / Genus Fissurella Sowerby $ 

Standard Catalog/Shells-Supp.#2 Unknown $ 
Niger/Rostrate Cowries/New Caledo Chatenay $ 19.00 
Cipree Rare - Italian text Bodoni $ 6 2.00 

Seashells/Southern Africa Kilburn $ 51.75 

Seashells of the Arabian Gulf Smythe $ 26.00 
Starfishes & Related Echinoderms Clark $ 11.00 

Descript/New Vexillum W.Pacific- Cernohors$ 1.25 
Taxonomy I.P. Mollusca Part 10 Cernohors$ 
Taxon.Stat.Cronia Fiscella- 1982 Cernohors$ 
Living Seashells Johnson $ 

Bull. Inst. Malac-Tokyo Vol.l//08 Kosuge $ 
Shellcraft Secrets Stahly $ 

Endodontid Land Snails-Pac. Parti Solem $ 

Endodontid Land Snails-Pac. Part2 Solem $ 

Endodontid Set #483 and #484 Solem $ 

Monograph / Genus Murex Sowerby 

World Seashells-Kawamura Collect JapanScie$ 
IPM Vol.l//08-Genus Cypraea(Zoila Wilson&Mc$ 
IPM Vol.2//09-Cassidae Abbott $ 

IPM Vol.2#10-Turriculinae Powell $ 

1PM Vol.2//ll-Family Littorininae Rosewater$ 
IPM Vol.2#12-Family Tectariinae Rosewater$ 
Bull. Inst. Malac-Tokyo Vol. 1(709 Kosuge $ 
IPM Vol.3//14-Genus Gabrielona Robertson$ 

Shell Art Woods $ 



5.25 
3.00 
9.00 
7.50 
2.75 
50.50 
55.25 

82.75 
$ 20.50 
13.00 

5.25 
21.50 
16.75 
10.50 

4.75 
8.50 

5.50 

8.00 



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Revision of the Genus Ancilla Kilburn $ 
Catalog/Living Bivalvia/E.Pac. Bernard $ 
Shells Alive Coleman 

Shells of the Philippines Springst $ 

Cowries of the World Burgess 

Revision of Recent Xenophoridae Ponder $ 
Monograph series- 1st 5 Sowerby Sowerby $ 
Hong Kong Nudibranchs Orr 

Corals of the World Wood ! 

Taxonomy I.P. Mollusca Part 11 CernohorsS 
Portugese Malac. Soc. Paper #2 Unknown 
Moluscos Marinos Del Norte/Chile Basly $ 
Deadly Cones Unknown 

Illustration Types SS Berry Leaf Hertz $ 
Marine Bivalve Molluscs-Canada Lubinsky $ 
Shallow Water Marine Mol-Yucatan Vokes 



8.00 
10.50 
$ 13.00 
41.50 
$ 90.00 
$ 23.00 
$ 6 5.00 
$ 5.25 
$ 31.25 
4.00 
$ 4.25 
10.75 
$ 2.00 
8.50 
12.50 
$ 26.00 



Descriptions of 5 New Murex 1-84 D'Attilio$ 4.75 
Bull. Inst. Malac-Tokyo Vol.l//10 Kosuge $ 7.50 



NPacShell#14-Genus Buccinum Tiba&Kosu$ 

Western Soc./Malacologists #01 WSMReprin$ 

Western Soc./Malacologists #02 

Western Soc./Malacologists #03 

Western Soc./Malacologists //04 

Western Soc./Malacologists #05 

Western Soc./Malacologists #06 

Western Soc./Malacologists #07 

Western Soc./Malacologists #08ab WSM & AMU$ 

Western Soc./Malacologists #09 WSM $ 

Western Soc./Malacologists #10 

Western Soc./Malacologists #11 

Western Soc./Malacologists #12 

Western Soc./Malacologists #13 

Western Soc./Malacologists #14 

Western Soc./Malacologists #15 

Western Soc./Malacologists #16 



WSM 
WSM 
WSM 
WSM 
WSM 
WSM 



WSM 
WSM 
WSM 
WSM 
WSM 
WSM 
WSM 



18.75 

3.50 

6.00 

6.00 

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8.50 
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8.50 



8.50 
WSM Occ.Pap.#l-Keen-Add.&Correc. Keen&Coan$ 5.00 
WSM Occ.Pap.#2-Cat./Works/Malac. Radwin&Co$ 3.50 



J.Mal.Soc.Aust.Vo.l most reprint MSA 
J.Mal.Soc.Aust.Vo.2 some reprint MSA 
J.Mal.Soc.Aust.Vo.3 some reprint MSA 



$ 



J.Mal.Soc.Australia Volume 
J. Mai. Soc. Australia Volume 
J.Mal.Soc.Australia Volume 



Austra 
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lan 
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Shell 
Shell 
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Shell 
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ian Shell 
ian Shell 
Shell 
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Shell 
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Shell 
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Shell 
Shell 
Shell 
Shell 
Shell 
Shell 
Shell 
Shell 
Shell 
Shell 
Shell 
Shell 
Shell 
Shell 
Shell 
Shell 
Shell 



No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 



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News No. 

News No. 

News No. 

News 

News 

News 

News 

News No. 

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News 

News 

News 

News 

News 

News 

News No, 

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News 

News 

News 

News 

News 

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News 

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39.00 
29.00 
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.S/N - NEW BOOK DESCRIPTION - AUTHOR - Postpaid Price ..s/n - 



BOOK DESCRIPTION - AUTHOR - Postpaid Price 



90663 
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Australian Shell News No. 

Australian Shell News No. 

Australian Shell News No. 

Australian Shell News No. 

Australian Shell News No. 

Australian Shell News No. 40 

Australian Shell News No. 41 

Australian Shell News No. 

Australian Shell News No. 

Australian Shell News No. 44 

Australian Shell News No. 45 

Australian Shell News No. 

Australian Shell News No. 



35 
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Bull. Inst. Malac-Tokyo Vol.l//03 Kosuge $ 
Conchig.Medit.VoI.l-Gastr.-hard Parenzan $ 
Conchig.Medit.Vol.l-Gastr.-soft Parenzan $ 
Conchig.Medit.VoI.2-Bival//lHard Parenzan $ 
Conchig.Medit.Vol.2-Bival//lSoft Parenzan $ 
Conchig.Medit.Vol.2-Bival//2Soft Parenzan $ 
Gems of the World Oceans (hard) Melvin 
Gems of the World Oceans (soft) Melvin ! 
Guide to Shells- Am. Mus. (Hard) Emerson ! 
Guide to Shells- Am. Mus. (soft) Emerson $ 
Guide to Shells-Simon&Sch. Hard Sabelli $ 
Guide to Shells-SimoniSch. soft Sabelli 
Sea Shells/No. America(soft cover Abbott 
Seashells/Pacific Northwest(hard White 
Seashells/Pacific Northwest(soft White 
Standard Catalog Shells-Insert Abbott 



$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 



2.00 
2.00 
2.00 
2.00 
2.00 
2.00 
2.00 
$ 2.00 
$ 2.00 
$ 2.00 
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$ 2.00 
10.00 
15.95 
13.50 
15.95 
13.50 
13.50 
i 8.50 
6.00 
18.75 
10.25 
23.75 
10.95 

9.00 
11.00 
7.25 
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600 VELIGER, Vol. 14 (1971-1972) in parts, good. $23.00. 

601 VELIGER, Vol. 14 (1971-1972) in parts, good. $25.00. 

602 VELIGER, Vol. 15 (1972-1973) in parts, good. $25.00. 

603 VELIGER, Vol. 16 (1973-1974) in parts, good, 

spiral bound $25.00. 

604 VELIGER, Vol. 19 (1976-1977) in parts, excellent $27.50. 

605 VELIGER, Vol. 14 (1971-1972) in parts, good, 

spiral bound $26.00. 

606 VELIGER, Vol. 13 (1970-1971) in parts, good, 

spiral bound $23.00. 

607 VELIGER, Vol. 25 (1982-1983) in parts, excellent $35.00. 

608 VELIGER, Vol. 11(3) (Jan. 1969) issue, fair $8.50. 

609 VELIGER, Vol. 16(2) (Oct. 1973) issue, good $9.50. 

610 VELIGER, Vol. 16 (1973-1974) in parts, good $33.00. 

611 VELIGER, Vol. 16(4) (Apr. 1975) issue, good $9.50. 

612 VELIGER, Vol. 19 (1976-1977) in parts, excellent $35.00. 

613 VELIGER, Vol. 17 (1974-1975) in parts, excellent $35.00. 

614 VELIGER, Vol. 18 (1975-1976) in parts, excellent $35.00. 

20 (1977-1978) in parts, excellent $35.00. 

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617 VELIGER, Vol. 22 (1979-1980) in parts, excellent $35.00. 

618 VELIGER, Vol. 12-22 (1969-1980) in parts $300.00). 

619 VELIGER, Vol. 22(2) (Oct. 1979) issue, excellent $22.00. 

620 VELIGER, Vol. 12 (1969-1970) in parts, good, 

3-hole punch $25.00. 

621 VELIGER, Vol. 23(1) (Jul. 1980) issue, excellent $22.00. 

622 VELIGER, Vol. 23(3) (Jan. 1981) issue, excellent $16.00. 

623 VELIGER, Vol. 23(4) (Apr. 1981) issue, excellent $16.00. 

625 VELIGER, Vol. 13 (1970-1971) in parts, good, 

3-hole punch $25.00. 

626 VELIGER, Vol. 14 (1971-1972) in parts, good, 

3-hole punch $25.00. 

627 VELIGER, Vol. 15 (1971-1972) in parts, good, 

3-hole punch $25.00. 
6 28 PL ATT, RUTHERFORD, 1949. Shells take you over world 



615 VELIGER, Vol. 

616 VELIGER, Vol 



$3.50. 



horizons. National Geographic Magazine, July, 

1949. pp. 33-84, color photos. $20.00. 
629 THE TABULATA, Vol. 1-7 + suppl. & index., 

6 parts in photocopy. $40.00. 
6 30 THE TABULATA, Vol. 4(4) (Oct. 1971) good $3.00. 

631 THE TABULATA, Vol. 6-7 + index, good $17.50. 

632 THE WESTERN SOCIETY OF MALACOLOGISTS ANNUAL REI 

formerly The Echo, Vol. 1-8, 9-12, 14-16 (1968- 
19B4) missing vol. 9&13, good $6 5.00. 

633 BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN MALACOLOGICAL UNION, 1 

good $5.00. 

634 BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN MALACOLOGICAL UNION, f 

1974-1978, good $24.00. 
6 35 BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN MALACOLOGICAL UNION, f 
1976-1978, good $18.00. 

637 HICKMAN, C.P. 1955. Integrated Principles of 

Zoology, 956 pp. fair $7.50. 

638 COX, I. [ed] 1957. The Scallop. 135 pp. excellent $22.50. 

6 39 THE WESTERN SOC. MALACOLOGISTS ANNUAL REPORT, 
Vol. 15, excellent $6.00. 

640 PROC. MALAC SOC. LONDON, 38(4) April, 1969, good, $5.0 

641 PROC. MALAC. SOC. LONDON, 39(1-6), Apr. 1970-Dec. 

1971, excellent $25.00. 

642 INDO-PACIFIC MOLLUSCA, Cassidae, good $16.00. 

643 INDO-PACIFIC MOLLUSCA, Littorinidae, Pt. II., good. 

644 WARMKE & ABBOTT, 1961. Caribbean Seashells, 

softcopy, good $3.50; hardcopy, good $7.50. 

645 WEBB, W.F. 1959 [14th Edition] Handbook for shell 

collectors, revised edition, 264 pp., front 
board split, fair $6.50. 

647 WALLS, J.G., Cone Shells. 1011 pp., excellent $22.50. 

648 FEINBERG, H.S. [ed.] 1979. Simon & Schuster's guide 

to Shells. 512 pp., softbound, excellent, $8.00. 

649 SHELL COLLECTOR, Premier Issue, excellent, $3.50. 
6 50 THE NAUTILUS, Vol. 83-85 (Jul. 1969-Apr. 1972), 

excellent, $22.50. 
6 52 SHELL COLLECTOR, No. 1, good $3.50. 
6 53 HANNA, G.D. 1963. West American Mollusks...Genus 

Conus - II. good, $5.00. 
6 54 ZIM & INGLE, 1955. Seashores. Golden Nature Guide, 

soft, good, $1.00. 
6 55 EVANS, I.O., 1964. The Observer's Book of Sea and 

Seashore, hardbound, good, $4.50. 
6 56 HANNA & HERTLEIN, 1961. Large Terebras (Mollusca) 

from the Eastern Pacific. Proc. Calif. Acad. 

Sci., 30(3):67-80, pis. 6-7. excellent, $2.00. 

657 KEEN, A.M. 1968. West American Mollusk Types at the 

British Museum (Natural History) IV. Carpenter's 
Mazatlan Collection. 51 pp., good $5.00. 

658 KEEN, A.M. 1966. Moerch's West Central American 

Molluscan Types with Proposal of a new Name for 
a Species of Semele. Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. 
Sci., (59):33 pp., good, $2.50. 
6 59 HABE, T. 1971. Shells of Japan. 139 pp., good, $4.50. 

660 ZEIGLER & PORRECA, 1969. Olive shells of the world. 

96 pp., good, $8.50. 

661 BRAUN, E. 1975. Tideline. Viking Press, 144 pp., 

hard, good, $12.50. 

662 SWAINSON'S EXOTIC CONCHOLOGY, 1968, 48 pp., reprint 

edition, good, $12.50. 

Seaakell Z)reaSure* £ook* 



SHELL 

SEA LIF 

505 East Pasadena • Phoenix, Arizona 85012-1518 USA 



TELEPHONE (602) 274-3615 (24 hours) 





12. Commonly employed names adopted from 
traditional English usage (e.g., crab, cray- 
fish, deer, limpet, mussel, periwinkle, pig, 
prawn, shrimp, toe) are given considerable 
latitude in taxonomic placement. Adherence 
to customary English practice is to be 
preferred if this does not conflict with the 
broad general use of another name. Many 
English names, however, have been applied to 
similar-appearing but often distantly related 
invertebrates in America. We find shrimp in 
use for representatives of a host of decapod 
crustacean families. Crawfish or crayfish is 
in use for representatives of such diverse 
groups as the Cambaridae, Nephropidae, 
Palaemonidae and Palinuridae. For widely 
known species, the Committee believes it 
preferable to recognize and adopt general use 
than to adopt bookish or pedantic substi- 
tutes. Thus, established practice should 
outweigh consistency with original English 
usage. This may not be well understood by 
some zoologists who may suggest strict 
adherence to the former usage. 

13. Structural attributes, color, and color 
pattern are desirable and are in common use in 
forming names. Beaded, channeled, copper, 
fluted, giant, hairy, keeled, mottled, shoul- 
dered, splendid, and a multitude of other 
descriptor decorate invertebrate names. Ef- 
forts should be made to select terms that are 
descriptively accurate, and to hold repetition 
of those most freguently employed (e.g., 
white, black, spotted, banded) to a minimum. 

Following tradition in American inver- 
tebrate zoology, we have attempted to 
restrict use of line or stripe to longitudinal 
marks that parallel the body axis and bar or 
band to vertical or transverse marks. 



14. Ecological characteristics are useful in 
making good names. They, too, should be 
properly descriptive. Terms such as reef, 
pond, coral, sand, rock, riffle, freshwater, and 
mountain are well known in invertebrate 
names. 

15. Geographic distribution provides suit- 
able adjectival modifiers. Poorly descriptive 
or misleading geographic characterizations 
should be corrected unless they are too deeply 
entrenched in current usage. In the interest 
of brevity, it is usually possible to delete 
words such as lake, river, or ocean in the 
names of species (e.g., Ohio pebblesnail, not 
Ohio River pebblesnail). 

16. Generic names may be employed outright 
(e.g., elimia, valvata) or in modified form 
(e.g., diplodon, from Diplodonta, nerite, from 
Neritina) as common names. Once adopted, 
such names should be maintained even if the 
generic name is changed. These vernaculars 
should be written in Roman and without 
capitalization. Brevity and euphony are of 
especial importance for names of this type. 

17. The duplication of common names of 
invertebrates and other organisms should be 
avoided if possible, but names in wide general 
use need not be rejected on this basis alone. 

The name tulip is commonly applied to 
bulbous herbs of the genus Tulipa and also to 
certain gastropods. Similarly, olive is em- 
ployed for the fruit of a tree, Olea europaea, 
of the family Oleaceae and for various 
gastropods. On the basis of prevailing use, 
these names are admissible as invertebrate 
names. 



YOUR COLLECTION - A HOW-TO 

COLUMN: 

No. 2 Labels, part 1. 

by Susan J. Hewitt 



Labels are the keystone of a valuable 
collection. Good labels, with good informa- 
tion, are what count. Of course, a method of 
storing the collection which prevents the 
labels from becoming accidentally separated 
from the specimens is egually indispensable. 

The most important consideration is that 
some kind of label is written either in the field 
or as soon after you return as possible. This 
need only have on it the location, date, and 
your initials. Probably the perfect labels for 
this would be smallish precut rectangles of 



good quality paper (ideally 100% rag.) Pencil 
is best for field label information since it is 
not affected by water or even alcohol. If it is 
not erased, pencil writing on rag paper easily 
lasts a hundred years. 

Many collectors imagine that since a 
museum makes its own labels it will throw 
away the collector's original labels. Quite 
the contrary! These are kept with the 
specimens and considered quite valuable. So 
try to have blank label paper with you when 
you collect. This is most desirable, but 
admittedly not always possible. Museum 
curators get quite used to finding scraps of 
paper bag, old shopping lists and even paper 
towels used as emergency field labels! 

NEXT MONTH - Labels, part 2. 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(9):145 



EDITOR'S NOTES 



Here we go with the September issue. It 
has been quite a month since we put the last 
issue together. We keep adding more and 
more to the magazine and don't quite seem to 
get the important (to us) stuff done (e.g., sell 
ads, sell books, sell subscriptions, get the 
computers running consistently, get more 
articles into typesetting.) We hope you will 
help us with those items (except for the 
computers which are beyond help) and tell 
friends, dealers, and anyone else you can think 
of about S&SL. Don't forget to keep sending 
in notes and articles. We don't forget them! 

Sally and I attended the Western Society of 
Malacologists meeting and enjoyed seeing 
many of you there. We went to San Diego 
after the meeting and bought Seashell 
Treasures Books from Don and Jeanne Pisor. 
We have moved all of the books to Phoenix and 
are setting them into order as quickly as 
possible. We hope to provide the finest 
selection of shell books and malacological 
literature in the world along with the finest 
shell magazine! 

Each issue is now 24 pages and takes a lot 
of juggling to make everything fit. We need 
color photographs along with articles or 
notes, notes on what interests you, comments 
on what you want to see in the magazine, and 
information on what is going on in the world 
of mollusks. Everyone has something worth- 
while to contribute. 

This month has (we think), something for 
everyone. Please note the common names list 
announcement and principles. This list will 
provide a complete and current systematic list 
of all scientific and common names for every 
species of mollusk found in North America, 
north of the Mexican/US border — within a 
year! You, as readers of S&SL, are invited to 
participate by suggesting common names as 
well as current systematic classification for 
mollusks. 

Jim McLean (and the Los Angeles County 
Museum of Natural History) have kindly lent 
us Jim's article on micromollusks. Jim 
wanted us to note that the article was written 
for the LACMNH membership magazine Terra, 
and therefore goes into many details that all 
of us (are supposed to) know already. I know 
I certainly learned a lot from the article. 

Thanks to the many people who have helped 
us over the past couple of issues with articles, 
photos, corrections, and just plain moral 
support. Thanks also to Larry, Tina & Steve 
at Arrowhead Press, Inc., and Joe & Peggy at 
Colormasters, Inc., the people who do our 
printing and color separations each month. 
They are great people to work with. 



The publication date for both the June and 
July issue was July 9, 1984. The August 
issue was published on August 3, 1984. 
These dates may be used for purposes of 
priority. 

The Southwestern Malacological Society 
needs speakers for the programs each month. 
Meetings are the second Wednesday of each 
month. Call if you can get to Phoenix, 
Arizona and would like to present a program. 
Call, even if you don't want to give a talk^ind 
we will help you get to the meeting as a 
visitor. 

The October issue of Shells and Sea Life 
should have a large spread on the meetings, 
conventions, and shows this past summer. If 
you have color prints or other information on 
one or more of the shows, please send it along 
to help put together a complete spread. 




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SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(9):146 



PUBLICATION NOTES 

Kaas, P. & R.A. Van Belle, 1980. Catalogue of 
living chitons. E.J. Brill, Leiden, Nether- 
lands, 144 pp., 8 vo. cloth. [$21.75 + $2.00 
foreign postage; alphabetical list of chitons 
+ literature references & critical notes] 

Kaas, P. & R.A. Van Belle. 1981. The genus 
Lepidochitona Gray, 1821 (Mollusca: Poly- 
placophora) in the Northeast Alantic Ocean, 
the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea. E.J. 
Brill, Leiden, Netherlands, 43 pp.; 128 figs.; 
3 maps. [Dutch fl. 16.75] 

Van Belle, R.A. 1981. Catalogue of fossil 
chitons. E.J. Brill, Leiden, Netherlands, 84 
pp., 8vo. cloth. [Dutch fl. 33--; alphabetical 
list of fossil chitons + references & critical 
notes] 

Van Belle, R.A. 1983- Systematic Classification 
of the chitons. Informations de la Society 
Beige de Malacologie, Serie II, (1-3): 
[monographic classification including most 
recent literature; no pagination available]. 



Shelling with Schelling 

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CURRENT AND OUT OF PRINT SHELL BOOKS 

FREE PRICE LISTS UPON REQUEST 

P.O. Box 83, Glen Ellen, CA 95442 



Schedule of Shows and Conventions 

This list is compiled primarily by Donald Dan. 
Please send corrections and additions to S&SL by the first of each month. 

September, 1984 

07-08 20th Annual Underwater Film Festival, San Diego, California 

12-19 Association Conchyliologique de Nouvelle Caledonie, Noumea, New Caledonia 

22-23 Long Island Shell Show, Freeport, New York 

October, 1984 

13-14 West Coast Shell Show & Fiesta of Gems, Santa Barbara, California 

13-14 Tri-State Shell Show, Cincinnati, Ohio 

20-21 Philadelphia Shell Show, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

December, 1984 

27-30 Western Society of Naturalists, Denver, Colorado 

January, 1985 

18-20 Southwest Florida Shell Show, Ft. Myers, Florida 
18-20 Central Florida Shell Show, Orlando, Florida 
24-27 Greater Miami Shell Show, Miami, Florida 
25-27 Sarasota Shell Show, Sarasota, Florida 

February, 1985 

01-03 Broward Shell Show, Pompano Beach, Florida 

14-17 Palm Beach Shell Show, W. Palm Beach, Florida 

15-17 Naples Shell Show, Naples, Florida 

22-24 St. Petersburg Shell Show, St. Petersburg, Florida 

March, 1985 

07-10 Sanibel Shell Show, Sanibel Island, Florida 
13-14 Marco Island Shell Show, Marco Island, Florida 
29-31 Astronaut Trail Shell Show, Melbourne, Florida 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(9):147 



SHELLING IN THE MALDIVES AND SRI 
LANKA. 

by Marjorie Wing 

sri LariKQ 




I left Phoenix, Sky Harbor Airport, at 
10AM Wednesday, March 8th, changed planes 
at New York for the transatlantic flight to 
Frankfurt. The next morning I boarded an 
Airlanka plane, arriving in Colombo, Sri 
Lanka very early on the morning of March 
10th. There I met Joel Green our tour 
organizer and leader and my fellow travelers 
who had come in from various directions. It 
was pleasant to meet four people I had shelled 
with before (Norstroms and Rhodes). 

We were on our way. After a short 45 
minute flight we arrived in Male airport in the 
Maldives. There we took a long and beautiful 
trip by motor launch, passing many islands on 
the way to Olhuveli, a very pleasant island 
resort of individual cottages strung out along 
a lovely beach. The next four days we spent 
shelling this island and others nearby. The 
Maldives apparently do not allow shelling, 
but one can buy shells from the natives. Joel 
however, had obtained official permission for 
us to shell. We explored the two small 
islands nearby. One beach had an interesting 



coral area, the other island bay had a mostly 
sand bottom. Olhuveli itself had a lovely 
sandy area inside the reef where there were an 
abundance of cones. Unfortunately I have 
not had time to identify all of these shells, 
but the following is a partial list: 

Nearest Island: (Sandy bottom) Terebra 
maculata, T. subulata, Lambis chiragra, 
Strombus gibberulus, S. marginatus, S. 
succinctus, Cymatium perryi. Coral Island: 
Drupa morum, D. ricinus and three other 
species of Drupa. Olhuveli: Conus aren- 
atus, C. betulinus, C. ebraeus, C. eburneus, 
C. emaciatus, C. flavidus, C. guercinus, C. 
litteratus, C. striatus, C. textile and C. 
zonatus. Others in the group found: Cyprae- 
cassis rufa, Latirus polygonus, Lambis 
lambis, Nerita lineata, and Strombus lenti- 
ginosus. 

Thursday, March 15, we were up before 
sunrise, we took the motor launch back to 
Male airport and a plane to Colombo. There 
we boarded a very comfortable air-condi- 
tioned coach with a guide, driver and 
assistant. We drove to Sigiriya, an ancient 
mountain top palace, a very beautiful area. 
Then to the Nilaveli Beach Hotel, a 
fascinating drive through tropical scenery, 
past lakes and rice fields. The beach at the 
hotel was very beautiful, but not for shelling. 
We drove a short distance to a rocky shore 
where we found a few shells. That afternoon 
we took a short cruise through a wildlife 
sanctuary. The scenery was pleasant and we 
encountered a crocodile, a peacock high in a 
tree and several unidentifiable (to us) 
animals. The next morning was spent at 
Pigeon Island, shelling and snorkling. Shore 
fisherman took a group of us to snorkle for 
Murex palmarosae. They also had a number 
for sale which some of us bought. I also 
purchased a very nice Murex brunneus from a 
boy on the beach. Joan Caldwell bought 
Conus canonicus, two species of Tridacna and 
Tectus pyramis from them. My other shells 
from here include: Cypraea mauritiana, C. 
arabica, C. caput-serpentis and- a number of 
others I haven't organized as yet. Conus 
striatus and Cypraea staphylaea were also 
found. 

On Sunday, March 18, we left for the lodge 
at Habarana. On the way we toured the 
ancient capital of Anuradhapura. The next 
day we visited the ruins of Polonnaruwa, the 
capital after Anuradhapura was abandoned in 
the eleventh century. We reached Kandy (the 
last royal capital) about 6 PM in time to to 
attend the ceremonies at the Temple of the 
Tooth. This temple contains the sacred 
Tooth Relic which makes it an important holy 
pilgrimage city for the Buddhists. We saw 
an excellent performance by the Kandy 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16 (9): 148 



Dancers, ending with an impressive display 
of firewalking. The following morning we 
visited the Royal Botanical Gardens at 
Peradeniya with their beautiful orchids, the 
largest single collection in Asia. Then on to 
Nuwara Eliya through beautiful hill country 
climbing through miles of tea plantations by 
means of switchbacks which took us up to 
around 6,000 ft. On the way we toured a tea 
'factory'. 




Murex palmarosae (Lamarck, 1822) Nilaveli. 

Wednesday, March 21, we drove to the 
popular beach resort of Hikkaduwa. On the 
way we passed through the gem mining area of 
Ratnapura with tiny individual pits scattered 
about in some of the fields. We stopped for 
lunch at a small museum where there were cut 
gems for sale. From there to the coast were 
extensive rubber plantations. 



Upon reaching the coast we found the sea 
very rough and, in some areas, houses 
flooded and water washing over the highway. 
The following day the water was still rough 
but we did a little shelling at low tide close to 
the hotel. By Friday it was calm and we 
shelled a portion of the nearby reef very 
profitably. Shelling was also very good 
Saturday morning. Some of the shells I found 
were: Bursa crumena, B. granularis, Conus 
coronatus, C. terebra, Cypraea arabica, C. 
moneta, C. ocellata, Mitra mitra, Oliva 
miniacea, Vasum turbinellus and others as yet 
to be identified. Others found; Conus 
flavidus, C. rattus, Cypraea ocellata, Latirus 
amplustre and Malea pomum. 

At 3.15PM we left for Colombo, (stopping 
at Bentota for an elephant ride on the beach! 
On arrival at the airport I took the midnight 
plane out, heading for Frankfurt and home. 

Fellow shelters were: Edith Abbott, Joan 
Caldwell, Joel Greene, Helen Greenley, Lucy 
Hall, Ruth and Victor Hermann, Jim McLean, 
William and Jo Norstrom, John Pearson, Fred 
and Pat Renz, Homer and Ann Rhode and Joan 
Sherman. Joel Greene Tours made all of the 
group arrangements. 

Joan Caldwell, Joel Greene, John Pearson, 
Pat Renz and the Ceylon Tourist Board (Sri 
Lanka) provided information and/or photo- 
graphs for this article. Thanks to each. 

Marjorie Wing, 10902 Hibiscus Dr., Sun City, 
AZ 85373 




One of the largest selections of outstanding specimen 
shells to be found anywhere! Complete stocks of 

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SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16 (9): 149 



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SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(9):150 



MOLLUSKS OF COCOS 
ISLAND-I: 
OLIVELLA COCOSENSIS 

Text and Photos by Donald R. Shasky 

Due to the high shark population and the 
sometimes strong currents the daylight diving at 
Cocos Island is usually exciting. Daylight diving is 
best, as it is in most localities, in substrates other than 
sand, since sand-dwellers creep mostly at night. 




Olivella cocosensis Olsson, 1956. 16-34 m depth. In sand at 
night, Chatham Bay, Cocos Island, Costa Rica. March 22-25, 
1984. 



At night, the excitement at Cocos Island multiplies. 
Thousands and thousands of long-spined sea urchins 
emerge from pockets in the coral, waiting to impale 
the unwary diver. Most exciting of all is the explosion 
of "night crawlers" out of the sand. One of the com- 
monest of the "night crawlers" is Olivella cocosensis 
Olsson, 1956. To my knowledge, the only reported 
specimens are the type lot and the specimens Keen 
reports from an unspecified locality in Nicaragua. 

The color of the shells illustrated here is typical of 
most shells of this species found at Cocos Island. 
They have a bluish-gray ground color with varying 
amounts of brown suffusion. An occasional speci- 
men has a white ground color. Most of my specimens 
were taken in depths of 18-36 m. 



LITERATURE CITED 

Keen, A. M. 1971. Sea shells of tropical west America: marine 
mollusks from Baja California to Peru, 2nd ed. Stanford 
Univ. Press, Stanford, Calif., xiv + 1064 pp.; illus. 

Olsson, A. A. 1956. Studies on the Genus Olivella. Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, 108:155-225; pis. 8-16. 



Dr. Donald R. Shasky, 834 W. Highland Ave., 
Redlands, CA 92373. 



AN UNUSUAL CONE. 

by Iva S. Thompson 

On May 28, 1984, I collected an 84 mm Conus 
ammiralis Linnaeus, 1758. It was collected in 1.5-2 m 
water, on sand bottom, near the Sawa-I-Lau caves, 
Nabuperu Bay, Yasawa Island, Fiji. 

I photographed an average size cone with mine to 
show not only the difference in size, but the fact that 
my find has the color pattern reversed. How lucky 
can you get! The 84 mm cone appears to be a new size 
record. 

Iva S. Thompson, 660 White Pine Tree Rd., Venice, 
FL 33595. 




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SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16 (9): 151 



THE WORLD OF 

MARINE 

MICROMOLLUSKS 

by James H. McLean 




Unsorted microshells after extraction from grunge sample 
taken by diving at a depth of 70 feet at Punta San Pablo, Baja 
California, Mexico. The long slender shell is 6 mm in length. 

Seashells have always had great appeal to collectors 
of natural objects, as they are unsurpassed in the 
variety and beauty of their form and color. Some 
shells are large enough to use as trumpets or punch 
bowls. However, many species of shelled mollusks are 
quite small, some no larger than grains of sand. There 
is, in fact, an entire world of seashells that the 



observer can only enter with the help of a binocular 
microscope. With magnification of five to twenty 
times, one can discover the many different families of 
minute or small-shelled mollusks known as 
micromollusks or microshells. All are intricate in 
form and color; some resemble the more familiar, 
larger seashells of tropical and temperate seas, but 
others are entirely different. One finds some species 
that are full grown at less than a millimeter in max- 
imum size and many others that are mature at sizes up 
to 6 millimeters (one-quarter of an inch) in length.* 

A close look at coarse beach sand may reveal the 
presence of tiny shells, but this is not the best place to 
look for them because such specimens are likely to be 
so abraded that the sculpture, or surface detail, is 
lost. Occasionally, good recently dead microshells are 
found on beaches at the drift line, where a narrow 
deposit of shells can be left by the uppermost reach of 
the preceding high tide. The best place to look for 
microshells, and the only place to find them in perfect 
condition, is where they live. The most prolific 
habitats are rocky places where algal growth is thick. 

You can get a good introductory look at micro- 
shells by taking a handful of seaweed off the rocks, 
either at low tide or by reaching beneath the water as 
deeply as possible. The algae should be shaken in a 
small basin of seawater. Many tiny snails may drop 
off the seaweed into the basin, from which they can 
be transferred into a small jar. This method has the 
advantage of isolating living specimens away from 
sand and gravel particles. You can then examine the 
living specimens in a dish of seawater under a 
microscope. The snails move with great rapidity and 
are fascinating to observe. Unfortunately, you will 
collect only some of the microshells living in the 
vicinity with this method, as not all of the species live 
on the fronds of algae. 

A greater variety of microshells can be collected by 
scooping the surface layer of sand or gravel from the 
bottom of a tide pool, especially the sand that ac- 
cumulates under rocks. Another method is to yank 
surfgrass from the seafloor and shake the roots in a 
bucket of seawater. You can take an even larger varie- 
ty of species if you are a scuba diver. On rocky bot- 
toms, you can fill a small cloth sack with the gravel 
that has accumulated in crevices or under rocks. If 
you are diving above sandy bottoms, the most effec- 
tive way to collect the microshells is to sift the sand 
underwater, using a fine-meshed hand net; the net will 
let fine sand particles pass through while retaining the 
larger particles as well as all the shells that were living 
in the sand. 

An unsorted concentration of shell specimens in 
sand and gravel residue is appropriately known as 
"grunge" (this word, which brings gravel and mud to 
mind, is commonly used by collectors, although it is 



♦Shells between one-quarter inch to one inch in 
length are small but are too large to be called 
microshells. 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(9):152 



not yet to be found in the dictionary). Grunge 
samples are rich sources of small shells, but a certain 
amount of effort is required to separate the shells 
from the residue — a quart of grunge, which may yield 
hundreds of small specimens, can take hours to sort. 
If only the shells (rather than the living animals) are 
to be studied, it is easiest to handle the sample after it 
has been washed in fresh water and dried on paper 
towels (the specimens are so small that there is no 
problem with odor, but soaking the sample in alcohol 
prior to drying is one way to make it dry rapidly and 
completely prevent decay). 

Once dried, the sample should be screened into dif- 
ferent size fractions, which makes it easier to ex- 
amine. A set of screens of different sizes can be made 
from small pieces of hardware cloth and window 
screening for this purpose; screens of graduated mesh 
size are also available from geological supply com- 
panies. After the dried sample has been screened, the 
larger fractions can be picked for shells by eye, and 
the intermediate size can be sorted with the help of a 
large magnifying glass mounted on a stand; the 
smallest sizes of the screened fraction have to be ex- 
amined under a dissecting microscope. Shells of each 
size can be extracted with fine forceps that are 
available from biological or geological suppliers. The 
shells should then be sorted by species and placed in 
small vials or plastic boxes. In the Malacology Sec- 
tion of the Natural History Museum, we store 
microshells in micropaleontological slide mounts 
made of thick cardboard and topped with plastic 
cover slips; these are also available from biological or 
geological suppliers. Locality information is written 
on the slide mounts. 

The number of species of microshells that can be 
found in one place is much greater in tropical waters 
than in temperate waters. In such places as the Gulf 
of California, the Philippines, and the Great Barrier 
Reef in Australia, it is not unusual to find 200, 300, or 
even 400 different species in one sample. (Although 
400 species from one locality may seem like a large 
number, there are some 50,000 species of mollusks, 
and large numbers of species occurring at any one 
place are therefore not unusual.) At a depth of 100 
feet, the water may be cooler, and the species diversity 
and composition often changes; thus many species 
are found only at or below this depth. Again, the 
variety of species to be found at these depths is 
greatest in tropical regions. Here in southern Califor- 
nia, a scuba diver who takes a grunge sample at any 
of the Channel Islands can easily collect hundreds of 
small specimens, representing as many as 100 dif- 
ferent species. 

Although many guide books with colored or black 
and white figures of numerous shells are available to 
shell collectors, there are no general books that ex- 
clusively treat microshells. Indeed, there are only two 
books treating entire faunas that even attempt to il- 
lustrate all of the micromollusks from one region: 
E. A. Kay's Hawaiian Marine Shells (Bishop Museum 
Press, Honolulu, 1979) and A, W. B. Powell's New 
Zealand Mollusca (Collins, Auckland, 1979). Marine 



Shells of Southern California, which I wrote in 1969 
and revised in 1978, includes most of the micro- 
mollusks that can be found by shore collectors and 
scuba divers on rocky bottoms in southern Califor- 
nia. 

There are four main groups of shelled marine 
mollusks: the Gastropoda or snails, the Bivalvia or 
clams, the Scaphopoda or tusk shells, and the 
Polyplacophora or chitons. The great majority of 
both small-and large-shelled marine mollusks are 
gastropods; there are about three times as many 
species of gastropods as there are of bivalves. The 
chitons and scaphopods, among which there are no 
microshells, are relatively few in number. As in all 
other kinds of animals, each family of marine 
mollusks has a consistent size range. Thus, entire 
families may be classified as micromollusks. These 
families have feeding and reproductive strategies that 
are as varied as those of their larger relatives. 

Juvenile shells (early growth stages) of large- 
shelled mollusks are also within the size range (up to 6 
mm in length) of micromollusks. However, juvenile 
shells of the large species may be distinguished from 
those of micromollusks in having a relatively large 
early whorl (protoconch) of the shell. The early shell 
also provides clues as to the kind of embryonic 
development followed in gastropods. Whether the 
species are large or small, there are two main kinds of 
embryonic development: some develop directly into 
miniatures of the adult (after a brief larval stage, 
either free-swimming or taking place within the con- 
fines of egg capsules), others have a long free- 
swimming larval stage called a veliger. In species that 
develop directly, the protoconch has only one turn 
(whorl) before the appearance of shell sculpture like 
that of the mature shell. In species that have a 
planktonic veliger stage, the protoconch is followed 
by two or three whorls having sculpture that is entire- 
ly different from that of the adult snail. This early 
sculpture is formed during the planktonic stage, when 
the shell must be lighter to stay suspended in the 
water. The transition to adult shell sculpture, which is 
readily seen in the shell, marks the change from 
planktonic life to a life on the sea floor. Both em- 
bryonic strategies are found among the 
microgastropods. 

Here at the Natural History Museum, the staff 
members in the Malacology Section have particularly 
concentrated on building our collection of micro- 
mollusks. Grunge samples are collected from all 
localities that we visit on our field trips and expedi- 
tions. The processing of the material — the picking 
and sorting of specimens from the grunge — has been 
done primarily by volunteers, who each devote a day 
a week to the project. Over the last 20 years, 
thousands upon thousands of microshells from many 
places around the world have been added to the 
research collection. This collection is a major 
resource, one that is used by specialists from other 
museums who are studying the small shells in an at- 
tempt to learn more about their classification and 
evolution. 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(9):153 



w 






Wm; 




R/sson/a signae 
Mexico. 



t height 3.2 mm. Nayarit 



■Karaen;o/«ra.he.«hl^mm. San 
Pedro, California. 



Tu^ SP., h ei 9h t 33 mm. Bahia 
Her radura, Costa Rica. 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16 



(9):154 



One can generally assign a marine shell species to a 
genus on the basis of shell characters (features such as 
absolute size, color pattern, form of sculpture, etc.), 
but the family classification is based upon anatomical 
differences in the soft bodies, including internal 
structure and such external features as the number 
and placement of the sensory tentacles. Most of the 
large-shelled marine species are now well known, but 
there are many smaller species discovered and named 
each year and untold numbers from the more remote 
regions of the world yet to be discovered. 

The study of micromollusks has always been dif- 
ficult because of their small size. In recent years, 
however, a powerful new tool — the scanning electron 
microscope (SEM) — has made their study more re- 
warding. Small specimens can be photographed with 
an almost limitless depth of field, and small areas on 
the shells can be enlarged. Microsculpture on pro- 
toconchs can be examined, revealing detail that is 
barely visible under the dissecting microscope. Addi- 
tionally, the soft bodies of these mollusks can be ex- 
amined with SEM after the specimens are rendered 
rigid by critical-point drying, which removes all water 
from the tissues. Viewed with SEM, the microstruc- 
ture of sense organs on the surface of the animal can 
be even more intricate than the fine sculpture of the 
shells. 

The feeding device of snails, and other mollusks ex- 
cept bivalves, is the radula, a rasplike structure that 
bears rows of microscopoic teeth. The configurations 
of radular teeth are used in assigning species to their 
correct family. The SEM has greatly facilitated study 
of the extremely small radulae of microgastropods. 
Some of the applications of the SEM to research on 
micromollusks are shown here in a series of illustra- 
tions of the recently described monoplacophoran 
limpet Vema hyalina. 

Many groups of minute mollusks continue to be 
known only by their shells in museum collections. 
The shells of different species of micromollusks often 
appear to be quite similar, but the anatomies differ 
enough to place them in quite unrelated families. 
Thus the species in these groups need to be examined 
alive before we can fully understand their relation- 
ships. Many questions remain to be answered, and 
our quest for micromollusks from around the world 
continues. 



The photographs of single shells illustrating this 
article were taken by Bertram C. Draper, a museum 
volunteer who has made a specialty of the macro- 
photography of minute shells. 

See also photos on back cover. 

Reprinted from Terra, Vol. 22, No. 6, July/August, 
1984. 

Dr. James H. McLean, Malacology Section, Los 
Angeles County Museum of Natural History, 900 Ex- 
position Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90007 



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SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(9):155 



Right: Moelleria costulata, two specimens, diameter 1.7 mm. Seldovia, 

Alaska. 

Page 154 left: Solariella peramabilis, two specimens, juvenile shells, 4.5 

mm. Off Catalina Island, California. 

Page 154 center: Arene olivacia, diameter 3.2 mm. Costa Rica. 

Page 154 right: Miralabrum planospiratum, three views of same shell, 

diameter 4.8 mm. Guaymas, Mexico. 





Balcis columbiana, height 7.3 mm. 
Kodiak Island, Alaska. 



Clathromangelia fuscoligata, height 
8.0 mm. San Pedro, California. 



Ividella navisa, height 3.2 mm. Santa 
Rosalia, Baja California, Mexico. 




Volvulella cylindrica, height 3.8 mm. 
San Felipe, Baja California, Mexico. 



Triptychus incantata, height 7.7 mm. 
Nayarit, Mexico. 



Mangelia hexagona, height 7.5 mm 
Corona del Mar, California. 



ft- 



SHELLS AND SEA LIFE 

A MONTHLY PUBLICATIONS MOLLUSKS AND MARINE LIFE 



$2.50 October, 198 




Volume 16, Number 10 




Photograph by Richard L. Goldberg. Elaphroconcha sp. Citeureup, Western Java, Indonesia. 1984. 



IN THIS ISSUE: 
LAND SNAILS, MUREX, STARFISH, OCTOPUS, AUSTRALIAN COLLECTING PERMITS 



Sealhell UreaAureA (Book* 




SHELL 

SEA LIF 



05 Fast Pasadena ■ Phoenix, \, izoiia 85012-1518 ISA 




EDITOR'S NOTES 

The past few months have been very exciting for Sally and 
I. Last month we told you about our purchase of Seashell 
Treasure Books. This month we are happy to add Tom Rice 
as a Contributing Editor. We know you will be pleased to see 
him back writing again. Be certain to read the note from Tom 
at right. 

In just a few short months, SHELLS and SEA LIFE has 
grown from a 4 page monthly newsletter to the 32 page 
magazine you are reading. The October issue is our 184th 
issue and brings us close to 2 ,000 subscribers — and growing 
daily. None of this could have been done without your 
support. Thanks to all of you. Please keep the notes and 
articles coming and keep telling your friends about S&SL! 

This month we have included the entire common names 
list for North American terrestrial mollusks. The pages have 
been reduced to keep the list somewhat reasonable (at least 
1 12 original pages for the whole list). The marine gastropod 
species will start in the November issue and be followed by 
the freshwater species and the marine bivalves. S&SL has 
been enlarged by eight pages each month to carry the list 
without reducing the number of articles each month. The 
Shell Show Calendar is missing this month but should return 
in the November issue. 

Including the September issue, we have printed more than 
eighty photos in color this year along with many black and 
white photos. Upcoming issues will have articles on muricids, 
sacoglossans, cypraeids, marginellids, xenophorids and other 
groups. 

The publication date of the September (183rd) issue was 
September 19, 1984. The October issue (our 184th issue) 
should be mailed at the end of October with the November 
issue following by about 2 weeks. Please check the label on 
your October issue. The first line of your address label should 
show the month and year your subscription expires. If you 
are receiving more than one copy of S&SL, please send us 
both labels so that we can combine the two subscriptions and 
extend the time you will be receiving our magazine. 

The October issue of "The Festivus" reports the passing 

of Ben H. Purdy, San Diego, California, on September 2, 

1984. Ben will be missed by many people in the U.S. and 

around the world. 

SHELLS and SEA 



The Autumn issue of "New York Shell Club Notes" that 
Mary Elizabeth Young died in Anderson, North Carolina, on 
August 30, 1984. She was a long-time Patron and officer of 
the National Capital Shell Club and was known throughout 
the shell world as the owner of The Shell Cabinet, in Falls 
Church, Virginia. 

Steven J. Long 



From Tom Rice, Of Sea and Shore Magazine, Port 
Gamble, Washington (September 2 1 , 1984): 

As you might have gathered by the continuing delays in 
getting out the last issues Of Sea and Shore magazine, we've 
been having difficulties. These have proven insurmountable 
and I have decided to cease publication of Of Sea and Shore 
magazine. I do this only after a great deal of thought and 
examination of all alternatives. 

I will continue publication of "A Catalog of Dealers' 
Prices for Marine Shells," "A Shelter's Directory of Clubs, 
Books, Periodicals and Dealers," as well as the project on 
Minute Gastropods of the Panamic Province and other 
projects I have in mind. Back issues of Of Sea and Shore 
magazine will also continue to be available through our Port 
Gamble address. Any questions concerning missing issues 
up to and including Volume 13, Number 2 (the last issue 
published) of Of Sea and Shore should be directed to me. 

I am very pleased to tell you that, starting with the Novem- 
ber, 1984 issue, I will be a Contributing Editor to Shells and 
Sea Life. I am looking forward to continuing many features 
which my readers have enjoyed in the past — shelling trips, 
hints on various aspects of amateur shelling, shells-on- 
stamps, etc. Plus, I hope to do some more writing about my 
personal travels and shelling expeditions. 

I look forward to a long and enjoyable association with this 
magazine. I hope that readers will enjoy my efforts to help 
them understand and enjoy their fascinating hobby. 

More in November. 
LIFE 16(10): 158 



SHELLS AND SEA LIFE 

A MONTHLY PUBLICATION ON MOLLUSKS ANDMARINE LIFE 



Editorial Staff 

Managing Editor Steven J. Long 

Assistant Editor Sally Bennett 

Contributing Editor Hans Bertsch 

Photographic Editor David K. Mulliner 

Editorial Review Board 

R. Tucker Abbott David W. Behrens 

Hans Bertsch Kerry B.Clark 

Walter O. Cemohorsky Malcom Edmunds 

Eugene V. Coan Terrence Gosliner 

Michael T. Ghiselin James R. Lance 

George L. Kennedy T. E. Thompson 
William G. Lyons 

Shells and Sea Life was formerly known as the 
O pis t hob ranch Newsletter. The magazine is 
open to articles and notes on any aspect of 
malacology — or related marine life. Articles 
submitted for publication are subject to editorial 
board review and may include color or black & 
white illustrations. Deadlines for articles are the 
first day of each month for the following month. 
Short notes for the "Center Section" will nor- 
mally appear within thirty days of submission. 

Short articles containing descriptions of new or 
repositioned taxa will be given priority provided 
the holotype(s) have been deposited with a 
recognized public museum and the museum num- 
bers are included with the manuscript. We under- 
take no responsibility for unsolicited material 
sent for possible inclusion in the publication. No 
material submitted will be returned unless 
accompanied by return postage and packing. 
Authors will receive 10 free reprints. Additional 
reprints will be supplied at cost provided they are 
ordered before printing. 

Shells and Sea Life ISSN 0747-6078 is pub- 
lished monthly for $20 per year by Steven J. Long 
& Sally Bennett, 505 E. Pasadena, Phoenix, AZ 
85012. Second-Class Postage Paid at Phoenix, 
AZ. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to 
Shells and Sea Life, 505 E. Pasadena, Phoenix, 
AZ 85012. 

Telephone (602) 274-3615. Outside U.S. postal 
ZIP code areas, add $5 surface OR $20 air mail 
postage. Library Rate — $30.00/year. Send 
change of address 6 weeks in advance. Charge to 
remail issue for any reason $3.00. Sample copies 
are available for $3.00 each postpaid. Rates are 
subject to change without notice. Arizona resi- 
dents must add 6% sales tax to all orders. 

© Copyright Steven J. Long and Sally Bennett 
1984 



CONTENTS — OCTOBER 

160 On the Identity of "Murex" peasei Tryon, and its 

Generic Placement, by E.H. Vokes 

161 YOUR COLLECTION — A HOW-TO COLUMN: 

No. 3 Labels, part 2. S.J. Hewitt 

162 A Species of Placostylus from the Solomon islands, by 

R.L. Goldberg 

163 Collecting on the Great Barrier Reef (Capricomia 

Section), by J. Bernard 
165 PUBLICATION NOTES: Book Reviews 
167 Common Names List of North American Terrestrial 

Mollusks. by American Malacological Union 

175 AMU & WSM Group Photographs. 

176 CO A Photographs. 

177 PERSONAL NOTES 

179 Catriona rickettsi Behrens, 1984. by S&SL 

1 8 1 The Intelligent Octopus . by B . Innocenti 

182 NOTES FROM HANS BERTSCH: An International 

Reconnaissance Expedition to Baja California Sur, 
Mexico: Part I. 



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SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16( 10): 159 
Tell advertisers you saw them in S & SL 



ON THE IDENTITY OF 
"MUREX" PEASE1 TRYON, 
AND ITS GENERIC 
PLACEMENT 

by Emily H. Vokes 

Radwin and D' Attilio ( 1976, p. 152) noted that the speci- 
men in the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 
labeled as "holotype" of Murex peasei is not the West 
American shell and so re-named the latter as Favartia 
poormani. But, when one examines the whole story we see 
that Pease (1869, Amer. Jour. Conch., v. 5, p. 83, pi. 8, fig. 
3) originally named Murex foveolatus , said to be from La 
Paz, height 15 mm. He described it as: "last whorl furnished 
with five prominent varices . . . white, interstices between 
the varices suffused with pale flesh color; last whorl just 
beneath its middle, and spire at the suture, encircled by a 
narrow black band." 



As the name was preoccupied, Tryon (1880, p. 129) 
renamed it Murex peasei and noted: "I copy his figure which 
does not at all agree with a specimen [NOT holotype] sent to 
me by him, the latter is too like M. erosus Brod." Undoubt- 
edly this is the specimen now residing in ANSP as ' 'holotype' ' 
(ANSP 36144), which as Radwin and D' Attilio correctly 
indicate is not the same species at all. The shell has six to 
seven varices, is yellow in color; but "poormani" is described 
by them as "six varices, three chestnut bands, one subsutural, 
one medial, and one basal." Keen (1971, p. 532, fig. 1029) 
adds that the specimens are pinkish-brown with a white band 
on lower part of the body. 

If one compares a specimen of Favartia poormani (fig. 3) 
with the original illustration of Murex peasei, (fig. 1) there 
seems little doubt that the two are the same. Thus, there is no 
reason to accept the Favartia specimen in the Academy (fig. 
2) as anything but a mistake made by Pease when he sent the 
shell to Tryon (or, perhaps, even by Tryon after he received 
it!). 




Figure 1. Murex foveolatus Pease. Amer. Jour. Conch., 1869, v. 5, pi. 8, 

fig. 3 (x 4). 
Figure 2. Favartia sp. ANSP 36 144, height 12.6 mm, diameter 6.9 mm. 
Figure 3. "Favartia poormani" Radwin and D' Attilio. LACMNH H-2 196; 



height 18.3 mm; Acapulco, Mexico (figs. 3a, 3b whitened to show 
ornamentation). 
Figure 4. Favartia (Pygmaepterys'!) bicatenata (Reeve). Fig. 4a, 4b 
BM(NH); height 20.2 mm; Port Blair, Andaman Island; 4c MHNParis; 
height 12.6 mm; no locality. 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(10): 160 



Radwin and D'Attilio (ibid., fig. 180, and pi. 24, fig. 9) 
have given a good illustration of "Murex" peasei, assigning 
it to the genus Favartia. But, as they note: "its combination 
of size, color pattern, and the thin delicate structure of its 
varices differs from all other New World species of Favartia 
and from all other Favartia known to us" (ibid., p. 232). 
They also state, in their description of F. poormani, that 
there are two or three weak denticles on the columellar lip. 
This combination of features indicates to me that the species 
is to be placed in the subtenus Pygmaepterys Vokes, 1978 
(type species: Murex alfredensis Bartsch, 1915). This taxon 
had not been named at the time Radwin and D'Attilio pub- 
lished their book but, since its recognition, a number of 
species have been referred to it, in addition to several new 
species described. One of these is Pygmaepterys juanitae 
Gibson-Smith and Gibson-Smith (1983, Veliger, v. 25, p. 
179, figs. 6,7), which is the Caribbean cognate of F. peasei. 

Another closely related form is the species named 
"Ricinula" bicatenata Reeve (1846, Conch. Icon., v. 3, 
Ricinula, pi. 6, fig. 48). This species has been overlooked by 
subsequent workers even though it is not rare, there are 
several specimens in the collection of the British Museum 
(Nat. Hist.). Two are figured here (fig. 4) for comparison. 

Pygmaepterys was discussed in detail by Vokes and 
D'Attilio and it was shown ( 1980, text- fig. 1) that the radula 
of one of the species referred to the group (P. germainae) is 
muricopsine, indicated that the taxon is closely related to 
Favartia. But it is still not certain whether all species are 
congeneric or whether there are two superficially similar 
groups, one of which is muricine and one of which is 
muricopsine (like the convergence seen in Pterynotus and 
Pteropurpura, for example). 



If all species are incorrectly referred to Pygmaepterys, we 
now see a total of eight Recent and at least four fossil species 
in the group: P. alfredensis and maraisi, from East Africa; 
bicatenata and funifutiensis , Indo-Pacific; peasei, East 
Pacific; germainae, juanitae and lourdesae, Caribbean; drezi 
and pratulum , Miocene of Florida; subdecussatus and giselae , 
Miocene of Europe. 

SYNONYMY 

Favartia (Pygmaepterys) peasei (Tyron, 1880) 
Murex foveolatus Pease, 1869 

(non M . foveolatus Hinds, 1844) 

M. (Ocinebra) peasei Tryon, 1880 
Ocenebra peasei (Tryon, 1880) 
Favartia peasei (Tryon, 1880) 

F. poormani Radwin & D'Atillio, 1976 

Not F. peasei (Tryon, 1880) (=F. sp.) 

Literature Cited 

Keen, A.M. 1971. Sea Shells of Tropical West America, Marine Mollusks 
from Baja California to Peru. Second Edition. Stanford Univ. Press, 
Stanford, Calif. , xiv - 1064 p. , 22 color pis. , ca. 4000 figs. , 6 maps. 

Radwin, G.E., & A. D'Attilio 1976. Murex shells of the World; an Illustrated 
Guide to the Muricidae. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, Calif., 284 p., 
32 pis., 192 figs. 

Tryon, G.W., Jr. 1880. Manual of Conchology, Structural and Systematic 
with Illustrations of the Species, v. 2, Muricinae, Purpurinae. Philadelphia, 
289 p., 70 pis. 

Vokes, E.H., & A. D'Attilio 1980. Pygmaepterys, a newly Described 
Taxon of Muricidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda), with the description of three 
new species from the Cenozoic of the Western Atlantic. Tulane Stud. 
Geol. Paleont., 16(2):45-54, pis. 1-2; 1 text fig. 

Department of Geology, Tulane University, New Orleans, 
Louisiana 701 18 



YOUR COLLECTION — A 
HOW-TO COLUMN: 

No. 3 Labels, part 2. 
by Susan J. Hewitt 

You have brought your specimens home with your field 
label, cleaned them or preserved them, and sorted them 
according to species, grouping them in small trays or boxes. 
Now you have several 'lots' from one locality and you need 
to label each lot. 

Again you need pre-cut good rag paper. Most people use 
pen for this stage in labeling. India ink (a carbon suspension) 
is the only medium which lasts forever. It's indelible, and 
does not fade, but it needs a specially designed pen and is too 
awkward for most amateurs to bother with. 



Leave a space at the top of the label for the species 
identification if you are not sure. Follow this with the locality 
data. Give enough information that someone from another 
state or country could find the area in which you collected the 
specimens. If you like you can think of it as an address. Then 
give the date you collected, and indicate who you are. 

You could add information on tide level for example, 
substrate, and a brief indication if the animals happened to be 
feeding (on what?) or laying eggs. 

It goes without saying that your handwriting should be 
legible. Nevertheless, somewhat untidy handwritten labels 
are often preferable to typed ones because a curator can be 
more certain who wrote down the information — was it you, 
the collector? Let's hope so. 

NEXT MONTH — About Collecting. 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(10): 161 



A SPECIES OF 
PLACOSTYLUS FROM THE 
SOLOMON ISLANDS. 

by Richard L. Goldberg 

The genus Placostylus Beck, 1837, comprises some of the 
more intriguing members of the Family Bulimulidae. 
Placostylus ranges from the archipelagos of Solomon, Fiji, 
Vanuatu (New Hebrides), Loyalty, New Caledonia, Lord 
Howe and New Zealand. The latter three localities have 
species that are closely allied and represent some of the most 
well developed forms, with thick and heavy shells. 

Ten subgenera have been proposed for the various isolated 
geographical complexes. The subgenus Aspastus Albers, 
1850, is represented by one species — P. (A.) miltocheilus 
(Reeve, 1848). It is an aboreal species found in the southern 
Solomon Archipelago, on Ulawa, San Cristoval and its 
coastal Islands. 

Unlike the thicker, more well developed species of 
Placostylus, P. miltocheilus is very light-weight, almost 
transparent, and more or less glossy. The living mollusk is 
green which shows through the shell, giving it the appearance 
of a lanceolate leaf. The coloring probably provides good 
camouflage in its aboreal habitat on palm trees and leaves of 
trees. 

Several subspecies have been named for geographical 
variants. Its center of distribution is San Cristoval Island, 
where typical P. milticheilus is found. The shell is white 
under a pale yellow cuticle, which is generally worn away in 
adult shells. The striking characteristicinc of this species is 
the bright orange to red peristome. 





Figure 2. 

The subspecies P. m. albolabris (Brazier, 1895), is found 
on Santa Anna Island, off southeast San Cristoval Island. 
This subspecies is characterized by its white peristome, 
squatter shape, and pale yellowish cuticle. 

The subspecies P.m. stramineus (Brazier, 1889), is re- 
ported to have the same general range as the typical 
miltocheilus. The shell has pale straw-yellow cuticle which is 
retained in the adult shell. The general adult size is smaller 
than typical miltocheilus, and does not possess such strong 
axial ridges. The peristome is always orange-red. 

The subspecies P. m. mayri (Clench, 1941) (= P. m. 
minor Brazier, 1 895) is a smaller race with a white to yellow- 
ish shell and an orange-yellow peristome. It is limited to 
Ulawa Island, north of San Cristoval Island. This subspecies 
is the closest to the typical P. miltocheilus, except for the 
adult size. 

Placostylus miltocheilus, with its delicate form and brightly 
colored peristome, stands out as one of the most beautiful of 
the genus. 

Photographs by Richard L. Goldberg. 

Figure 1. (left) Placostylus (Aspastus) miltocheilus albolabris (Brazier, 
1 895) — Santa Anna Island, Solomon Islands, (right) P. (A) miltocheilus 
(Reeve, 1848) — San Cristoval Island, Solomon Islands. 

Figure 2 . Placostylus (Aspastus) miltocheilus stramineus (Brazier, 1 889) — 
San Cristoval Island, Solomon Islands. 

Richard L. Goldberg, 49-77 Fresh Meadow Lane, Flushing, 
New York 11365. 



Figure 1. 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(10): 162 



COLLECTING ON THE 
GREAT BARRIER REEF 
(CAPRICORNIA SECTION), 

John Bernard, Rt. 8, Box 480, 
Crossville, TN 38555 



Collecting is the taking, by any means, of any declared 
species of plant, animal, or marine product from the marine 
park, whether it is alive or dead. 

Collecting with a permit is allowed throughout most of the 
Capricornia section. However, there are certain restrictions. 

Wreck Island Reef, and surrounding waters has been de- 
clared a Preservation Zone (a no access area) to preserve the 
reef in its natural state, undisturbed by man. This zoning 
complements the status of Wreck Island, a Queensland 
National Park, recognised as one of the most important 
nesting grounds in the Pacific Region for the Loggerhead 
Turtle. 

One Tree Island Reef and surrounding waters has been 
zoned for scientific research only, free from all other activ- 
ities. One Tree Island Field Station, operated by the Univer- 
sity of Sydney , has been a center for coral reef research since 
its founding a decade ago. 

Heron Island and Wistari Reefs and surrounding waters 
have been given Marine National Park "A" status. Similar 
to the concept of a national park on land. This zoning pro- 
vides for the protection of the natural resources of the area 
while allowing recreational activities including fishing with a 
rod or handline and approved research. 

Llewellin Reef and surrounding waters, in response to 
public request to set aside an area for the appreciation and 
enjoyment free from all fishing and collecting, is zoned 
Marine National Park "B", a look but don't take status. 



The Permit System 

The aim in developing the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, 
is to allow for responsible use of the Great Barrier Reef 
Region while protecting the resources of the reef. Although 
certain activities may appear to be reasonable, they may also 
have the potential for placing heavy demands on the Reefs 
resources. Careful monitoring of such activities is necessary 
to prevent major problems from developing. 

Through the permit system, the Great Barrier Reef Marine 
Park Authority and the Queensland National Parks and Wild- 
life Service are able to: 

*separate potentially conflicting activities. 
*encourage responsible behavior in Reef users. 
*gather information about the Reef and activities that 
may be damaging. 
* impose, where necessary, limits on time and area in 
which such activities may occur. 



The Authority controls permit issue for: 

*all types of research. 

*tourist cruise ships. 

*tourist and educational facilities and programs. 

♦discharge of waste. 
The Queensland National Parks and Wildlife Service, 
which is responsible for the day to day management of the 
Capricornia Section, and has been delegated powers to issue 
permits for: 

♦removal of vessels that are wrecked, stranded, sunk or 
abandoned. 

Construction of mooring facilities. 

♦fishing with specific types of nets. 

* aircraft operations. 

*use of hovercraft. 

♦collecting (other than for research). 
However the Authority retains the ability to issue permits 
for these activities, if necessary. 

During certain specified periods some areas in the Section 
may be closed to activities, such as collecting, to allow for 
marine stock replenishment. Other areas may be closed to the 
public to afford protection to the birds and turtles during 
nesting season. Reef Appreciation Areas, in which collecting 
is not permitted, may also be declared on parts of the heavily 
used reefs to provide areas for public observation and appre- 
ciation of relatively undisturbed marine life. All closures are 
widely publicised. Permit holders must follow these rules. 

a. Not more than two of any species of mollusks other 
than the following are to be taken: shells on egg masses, 
Tridacna species, Cassis cornuta, Charonia tritonis. 

b. Permits must be available for viewing while collecting 
activity is taking place. 

c. No collecting at Lady Elliot Island Reef and Lady 
Musgrove Reef pending further decision. 

d. List of species, numbers and their sites of collection to 
be forwarded to Marine Parks Section. 

The information here was taken from a pamphlet entitled 
"Permits and Collecting" available from: Executive Officer, 
Great Barrier Reef Marine Parks Authority, P.O. Box 1379, 
Townsville, Queensland 48 10, Australia. 

Collectors wishing more information would be wise to 
contact local shell clubs for specific information on avail- 
ability of permits and more specific local conditions. 



SHELLOAK 

BUY, SELL, EXCHANGE 
' SHELLOAK SPECIMEN SHELLS 

Rt. 8 Box 480, Crossville, TN 38555 
Phone (615) 484-7167. Free price list on request. 





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LAND SHELL CONNECTION 

BUY • SELL • EXCHANGE 
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FOR YOUR FREE LIST WRITE: 
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49-77 Fresh Meadow Lane Flushing. N.Y. 1 1365 USA. 




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House of Quality and Service 

RICHARD M. KURZ, INC. 

1575 NORTH 118th STREET 
WAUWATOSA, Wl 53226 U.S.A. 



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PUBLICATION NOTES 



Book Reviews 

Systematics of the Family Nassariidae (Mollusca: 
Gastropoda) by Walter O. Cernohorsky. 1984. Bulletin 14, 
Auckland Institute and Museum, New Zealand. 356 pages, 
172 text figures, 5 1 black and white plates. 

This extensive monograph is the latest in a series of papers 
by Walter O. Cernohorsky on the marine molluscan family 
Nassariidae, a group of predominantly small to medium 
sized gastropods which are characteristic of the intertidal 
fauna and are concentrated in distrubution in the warmer 
waters of the Indo-Pacific. The introduction covers family 
characters, the animal, the radula, larval development, 
classification, and distribution. Cernohorsky recognizes as 
"tentatively valid" well over 300 living species in this 
family, geographically distributed as follows: 40 species. 
Pacific coast of America; 23 species, Western Atlantic- 
Caribbean; 53 species, Europe-Eastern Atlantic; and 211 
species, Indo-Pacific. 

The family is divided into three subfamilies: Dorsaninae, 
Cylleninae, and Nassariinae. Noting the size of the family, 
Cernorhorsky reserves detailed treatment of Dorsaninae for a 
future monograph, but provides a checklist of fossil and 
living speciees of this subfamily, whose genera are Bullia, 
from South Africa and the western Indian Ocean; 
Buccinanops, from the southeastern coast of South America; 
and Dorsanum, from West Africa. Descriptions of the 5 
fossil and 14 living species of Cylleninae (genus Cyllene) 
from the tropical Indo-Pacific, Southeast Australia, and West 
Africa are included. All Indo-Pacific species of Nassariinae 
(genera Nassarius with 12 subgenera), Hebra, and Demoulia 
are also described, while checklists of fossil and living 
Nassariinae from the Pacific coast of America and the western 
and eastern Atlantic are given, as are lists of dubious or 
excluded species for all subfamilies. Excellent black and 
white illustrations are provided for each species described. 

Discussion for each species includes scientific name, 
author and date, complete synonymy, several sentences of 
description, type locality, distribution, repository of type 
specimens, material examined, and literature records. Two 
new species are described, Nassarius (Plicarcularia) 
maccauslandi , from the Fiji Islands, and Nassarius (Zeuxis) 
whiteheadae, from Queensland, Australia. A comprehensive 
bibliography and an index to all taxa mentioned, whether 
valid or synonyms, completes the volume. This work is a 
most important contribution on Indo-Pacific mollusks, and 
must be in the library of every serious student of mollusks. 




Marine Mollusks of Cape Cod by Donald J. Zinn. 1984. 
Natural History Series no. 2, The Cape Cod Museum of 
Natural History, Brewster, MA. 78 pages, illustrated. 

This compact, paperbound booklet will readily serve as an 
informal, introductory guide to the marine mollusks of Cape 
Cod likely to be found by the casual beachcomber. An 
introduction gives basic facts about mollusks in these sec- 
tions: history and art, scientific nomenclature, where to find 
mollusks, and how to make a shell collection. A detailed 
glossary introduces the reader to terms used for mollusks. A 
systematic list outlines molluscan classification to the genus 
level for the species included in this book. 

Five classes of mollusks are treated in the descriptive list 
— 1 chiton, 1 scaphopod, 30 gastropods, 35 bivalves, and 2 
cephalopods. Several additional species are mentioned but 
not figured. The discussion of each species lists several 
sentences of description, supplying habitat data, size and 
detail of the shell or animal, and often how to distinguish a 
species from related forms. The well-executed line drawings 
should enable the novice collector to identify his finds. 

An unusual and interesting feature is the inclusion of 28 
recipes for the living mollusks. These recipes often are for 
species not usually considered for consumption, such as 
chitons, limpets, moon snails, and periwinkles. A page of 
references and indices for scientific and common names 
complete this volume. Novices and more advanced collectors 
alike will find this guide a useful and informative addition to 
their libraries. 

The Freshwater Snails of Connecticut by Eileen H. Jokinen. 
1983. Bulletin 109, State Geological and Natural History 
Survey of Connecticut, vii - 83 pages, 35 figures. 

This fine little guide enumerates the 35 species (9 
prosobranchs and 26 pulmonates) of freshwater gastropods 
recognized as occurring in the ponds, lakes, and rivers of 
Connecticut. A detailed introduction covers the classification 
of genera and species, and provides a key to the freshwater 
snails discussed; the various factors affecting the distribution 
and abundance of these mollusks are indicated; the geology 
and aquatic habitats of Connecticut are presented; methods 
and materials used in the collection of specimens are set 
forth; and information on the collection, preservation, and 
identification of freshwater snails is outlined. 

Descriptions, distributional records, comprehensive eco- 
logical data, and good line drawings for each species consti- 
tute the central section of text. Distributional maps are added 
for each species, and the extensive bibliography will facilitate 
additional research. Appendices list habitat and water chem- 
istry data for each site surveyed, the lakes and ponds sampled, 
and the drainage system of Connecticut rivers and streams. 

This highly recommended volume should serve as a model 
for further state surveys and prove most useful to scientists 
and naturalists studying the mollusk fauna of neighboring 
states. 

29 September 1984 
Walter Sage 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(10): 165 
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Delray Beach, Florida 33444 
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PHILLIP W. CLOVER ^ 

COLLECTOR & DEALER IN WORLDWIDE ^~*^ 

SPECIMEN SEA SHELLS 

CURRENT AND OUT OF PRINT SHELL BOOKS 

FREE PRICE LISTS UPON REQUEST 

P.O. Box 83, Glen Ellen, CA 95442 



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Shalimar. Florida 32579 U.SA (904) 862-7844 



Collectible Shells 

of Southeastern U.S., Bahamas 

& Caribbean by R. Tucker Abbott, Ph.D. 
A 'Take it to the Beach' Field Guide 
WATERPROOF - TEARPROOF 
105 beautiful color photos of living animals and 
their shells. 64 pages of color. 300 species il- 
lustrated. How to clean shells. Where to find 
them. Includes fossils, pond and tree snails, as 
well as sealife. 

Collectible Shells stresses conservation, but 
also has helpful hints about collecting and 
cleaning shells. The book introduces the tourist 
and beginner to famous Florida fossils and the 
unique world of tree and pond mollusks. 

Printed on a washable, tearproof plastic 'paper.' 
Drop it in the ocean, use it in the rain, or let your 
wet shells drip all over it. Keep it on your boat or 
take it to the shore. A popular new seller retailing 
for $8.95. Postage and state tax are included as a 
big savings. 



American Malacologists, Inc. 

Publishers of Distinctive Books on Mollusks 
P.O. Box 2255, Melbourne, FL 32902-2255 

We accept VISA or MASTERCARD orders by mail Please give date of ex- 
piration and your card number Foreign customers may send interna- 
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— BookS- 
Major Library Acquisitions 
P.O. Box 30 North Myrtle Beach, South Carolina 

U.S.A. 29582 

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P O. BOX 54 2422 PERIWINKLE WAY 

SANIBEL ISLAND, FLA 33957 PHONE (813) 472-1121 



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AMU Suggested Draft List of Common Names for North American Mollusks 



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SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(10): 170 



enlarged SECOND EDITION 



EDITOR-IN-CHIEF 
R. Tucker Abbott 




american malacologists 

an 

indispensable 
desk 

companion 
for all 
mollusk 
research 
workers and 
historians . . . 



american malacologists 

a national register of living 
professional and amateur conchologists 

plus biographies of 500 great, 

as well as little-known, 

American malacologists of the past 




All the essential biographic facts about 
America's leading mollusk workers, 
shellfishery experts, paleoconcholo- 
gists and advanced shell collectors 

Here are the facts about each biog- 
raphee — dare and place of birth, occu- 
pation, educational record, professional 
career, present position, malacological 



and civic memberships, writings (in- 
cluding titles of most important papers 
and books), current mollusk research 
activities, extent of shell collection, 
expeditions, sources of additional bio- 
graphical information, marital status, 
current address — all in a clear and 
compact style. 



irinmnnnrinrtmrinrir^^ 

APPLICATION FOR LISTING 



(I'LKASK PRINT OR TYPE) 



(no charge) 



, 



NAME: 

(Last) (First (Middle) 

(If one of your names is usually initialized, please list as follows: 
R(obert), P(atricia)). 



DATE of BIRTH: 



I OCCUPATION: 



(Month, day, year) 



PLACE of BIRTH: 



(City and state) 



(Malacologist , marine 



zoologist, paleontologist, lawyer, housewife, or other (please specify)). 
Add "retired" if applicable. 






'EDUCATION: 



Name of Institution 



Degree 



Year 



PROFESSIONAL CAREER (Positions held and dates, earliest first) 



MALACOLOGICAL MEMBERSHIPS (Give societies, shell clubs, with dates and 
offices held, if any): 



OTHER PROFESSIONAL MEMBERSHIPS (Such as AAAS , Society of Systematic Zoologists, 
medical, legal, engineering societies; give dates and offices held, if any): 



WRITINGS AND EDITORSHIPS (Give three most important books or scientific papers 
published, and total number of publications. List names of mollusk journals 
and shell club publications to which you have contributed) : 



MOLLUSK RESEARCH AREAS (Past and present interests. Examples: embryology of 
opisthobranchs, systematics of Conidae; physiology of bivalves; marine mollusks 
of Hawaii): 



I PRIVATE COLLECTION (Give main emphasis, such as marine, land, general, self- 
collected, Australia, fossils): I — i 

I | will exchange shells 



(S)Approx. no. of species! 



@ TRAVELS FOR MOLLUSKS (Private collectors - give countries where collected and 
years; professionals - give official field expeditions and years): 



@ HONORS AND DIRECTORSHIPS (Civic and professional) 



@ LISTINGS IN OTHER REFERENCE DIRECTORIES (Such as American Men of Science , 
Who's Who, Who Knows - and What) : 



@ SPOUSE: 



(Given and maiden name) (Occupation) (Mollu.sk interest) 



Note: A spouse may be listed separately. 

Please request and use another copy of this form. 



@HOME ADDRESS: Street 
City _ 



(State and Zip Code) 



©OFFICE ADDRESS: Street 

City 



(State and Zip Code) 

• Indicate which address (es) you wish listed: jH]Home; ~] Office; | JBoth 

• Telephone number (Optional) : area code: 



no, 



There is no charge for being listed in AMERICAN MALACOLOGISTS. 

There is absolutely no obligation to purchase 
a copy. Proofs of your biography will be sent to you for checking upon request, 
Applicants must be 18 years or older. 

(8) Your signature :_ 

(S) Date : 



Nominations for American Malacologists (Please list names of persons whom 
you feel should be listed in the register but who may not have received 
questionnaires) : 



Name 



Address 



City 



State Zip Code 



Please mail this form promptly to: 



American Malacologists 
Dr.R. Tucker Abbott 




New ADDRESS 

american malacologists 

P. O. BOX 2255 
MELBOURNE. FLORIDA 32901. USA 



SECOND EDITION 

• Hundreds of new malacological registrants 

• Recent (W9 ) address changes 

• Recent deaths 

• Additional biographies of deceased malacologists 

Typical comments: 

"I refer to it almost every day" (Harvard Malacologist) 
"A very useful reference" (Tulane University Historian) 
"It's a great help when exchanging (private sheller) 



WOULD YOU PLEASE ASSIST US IN PLANNING OUR PRINTING SCHEDULE ? 
J Jl plan to order a copy of the new, second edition. 

J I do not intend to order a copy (You will be listed in any event) 
Jl plan to recommend that my institution or library order it. 



A National Register of Professional and Amateur Malacologists 

PUBLISHERS OF DISTINCTIVE BOOKS ON MOLLUSKS 



AMU Suggested Draft List of Common Names for North American Mollusks 



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The Seventeenth Annual Meeting of the Western Society of Malacologists was held during August, in Santa Cruz, California. About 100 persons attended and 
many excellent papers were presented. The Annual Report should appear before the end of 1984. 




The Fiftieth Annual Meeting of the American Malacological Union was held during July, in Norfolk, Virginia. About 200 persons attended with several field 
trips and simultaneous sessions on various aspects of malacology. The report of the meetings should appear in the "American Malacological Bulletin" within 
the next few months. 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(10): 175 





Don CeSar Beach Resort Hotel, St. Petersburg Beach, Florida. Some of the over 400 shelters who registered and attended the 1 2th annual convention of 
the Conchologists of America. 




Wine & Hor d'houvres Welcome and Get Acquainted Part)- hosted by 
the St. Petersburg Shell Club. 




Dinner before the field trip at Fort DeSoto Park. 





Dealer's Bourse where almost any rare or unusual shell you could want was available. Probably the largest and most attractive bourse held anywhere 
with dealers from all over the U.S. and several foreign countries in attendance and displaying their wares. 




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PERSONAL NOTES 



From Kathe Jensen [Zoological Museum, Univer- 
sitetsparken 15, DK-2100 Copenhagen 0, Denmark]: I have 
just had a visit from Dr. Tom Gascoigne, who is now 81 
years old, almost blind, but "still going strong." We had 
some very rewarding discussions on two papers which he is 
preparing for publication, and also he taught me some special 
tricks in fine dissection. Beside this he entertained the entire 
marine invertebrate department with stories from his teaching 
career. 

In May I went to Tenerife, Canary Islands for a vacation, 
but of course I could not stay away from collecting ascoglos- 
sans, and found Ercolaniafunerea, Aplysiopsis sp. (possibly 
A. zebra Clark, 1982), and a juvenile Caliphylla mediter- 
ranea. The former two species are new records for the island. 

I am still working on the taxonomic problems surrounding 
the Stiligr/Ercolania complex and have enclosed a short 
article on the confusing history of these genera, which I 
would like you to consider for publication in "Shells and Sea 
Life". It may be a little drier and duller than most of your 
articles, but I think that it may be very useful to other 
taxonomists, and hopefully will show others the amount of 
tedious bibliographic research involved if a species is not 
properly identified and described in the first place. 

In tracing all the facts for the enclosed article I have been 
able to see at least copies of most of the original descriptions . 
However, the original descriptions of Costa's species have 
not been available to me, and I would greatly appreciate if 
anyone could provide me with a photocopy of these descrip- 
tions (I will pay copying costs and postage). Also, I am very 
interested in hearing from others about the proposal of retain- 
ing the name Ercolaniafunerea for Costa's species. If this 
can be generally accepted, it should be submitted to the 
ICZN. In this connection I would like to hear from people 
who have experience in submitting applications to the ICZN 
and who might be interested in helping and/or supporting me 
in writing such an application. 



Jackie and Ed. Hartley's 




Specimen Shells 



Phones 
SANIBEL. 
(813) 472 3937 
FT MYERS: (813! 694 4527 



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From Gary C. Williams [Department of Marine Biology, 
South African Museum, P.O. Box 61, Cape Town 8000, 
South Africa] G.C. Williams and William R. Liltved of the 
South African Museum took part in a ten day dredging cruise 
in the western Indian Ocean during July aboard the CSIR 
research vessel, Meiring Naude. We collected mollusks, 
octocorals, stylasterine and scleractinian corals, brachiopods, 
and other invertebrates off the east coast of South Africa. The 
research crew was headed by Dr. Richard N. Kilburn of the 
Natal Museum and included Dr. David Herbert, recently 
arrived from Great Britain to take a malacology post at the 
Natal Museum. Herbert's research will concentrate on 
southern African archaeogastropods. 

The hundreds of species of prosobranch gastropods and 
bivalves collected will be retained at the Natal Museum in 
Pietermaritzburg to be studied by Kilburn and Herbert. Over 
forty species of octocoral cnidarians and nine species of 
nudibranchs were also collected. These specimens, as well as 
a great deal of material representing ten phyla, will be retained 
at the South African Museum marine invertebrate collection 
in Cape Town. 

A total of 82 dredge samples were taken at depths ranging 
from 30-510 meters along the coasts of southern Natal, 
Transkei and the eastern Cape. Technical assistance was 
provided by Ruth Fregona, Candy Seymour, Neal Young, 
and Peter Goldman. We thank Captain George Foulis for a 
most productive cruise! 

From Philippe Bouchet [Museum National d'Histoire 
Naturelle, 55 rue du Buffon, Paris 5e, France] I am review- 
ing the deep-water Turbinellidae (excluding Columbariinae) 
from depths exceeding 150-200 m (100 fathoms). I will be 
interested to hear from anyone with relevant material 
world-wide. 

From Gamil N. Soliman [Drexel University, Environ- 
mental Studies Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104] 
Current research: The molluscan fauna (gastropods & 
pelecypods) of the northern Red Sea and eastern Mediter- 
ranean and their migration through the Suez Canal; histo- 
logical and physiological studies on Red Sea prosobranchs 
(Lambis lambis, Chicoreus virgineus & Pleuroploca) with 
relation to their feeding habits; ecological studies on the snail 
vectors of schistomiasis (Bulimus truncatus and Biomphalaria 
alexandrina); and development of nudibranchs. 




Cull MKUDlu!] 



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SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(10): 177 
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SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16( 10): 178 
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CATRIONA RICKETTSI 
BEHRENS, 1984 

The nudibranch pictured here was recently described as 
Catriona rickettsi by David W. Behrens in July, 1984. The 
original description was published in The Veliger 27(1): 
65-71, 7 figures. The species was previously figured in 
Pacific Coast Nudibranchs, (pages 104-105 as Trinchesia 
sp.). This species is one of the most common nudibranchs in 
South San Francisco Bay, occurring by the dozen on 
Tubularia crocea, Obelia sp., and Halipanella luciae. This 
species ranges in size up to 20 mm. 



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Figure 1. 



The body color is transparent allowing the organs to show 
through. There is opaque white pigment on the distal 1/3 of 
the rhinophores and cephalic tentacles, below which is a 
band of orange. The ceratal core varies from yellow through 
orange, pink, red-brown, burgundy, or brownish-green. They 
are tipped with white. The coloration of the certata is nearly 
identical to that of the hydranth of Tubularia, upon which 
they feed. 

The oral tentacles and rhinophores of this species are long 
slender and tapering. The cerata vary greatly in shape from 
fusiform to more club shaped. 

The egg masses, which are present all year-round, are a 
good indication of the presence of the animal. They are an 
irregularly twisted gelatinous string housing a spiral of 
white-cream eggs. The average twisted mass measures 2 by 6 
mm. They are usually attached to the stalk of the hydroid. 

This species is named in honor of Edward F. Ricketts 
( 1 897- 1948) for his outstanding contributions in the fields of 
philosophy and intertidal ecology. 

Photos by D.W. Behrens. 

Figure 1 . Dorsal view of Catriona rickettsi. 
Figure 2. Dorsal view of Catriona rickettsi. 
Figure 3. Egg mass of Catriona rickettsi. 




Figure 3. 




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SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(10): 179 
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SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(10): 180 
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THE INTELLIGENT 
OCTOPUS. 

Boris Innocenti, Aqua - Sports, 
4230 E. Indian School Rd., 
Phoenix, AZ 85018 



The intelligence level of marine creatures (excluding the 
mammals) has never really impressed me, with the exception 
of the octopus. If I were placed in a position of having to 
quantitatively measure the intelligence of the octopus, I 
would have to beg off and defer that to those individuals far 
more qualified than I and hopefully they would not limit their 
observations to life in an aquarium. 

It is evident to anyone who has spent any amount of time 
observing the octopus, that one is observing an intelligence 
well above that of its other marine neighbors. Almost 30 
years of underwater observation has convinced me that a 
large percentage of its behavior seems to be due to a thinking 
process and not just conditioned reflexes or instincts, com- 
pared to its other neighbors. I'm convinced that it is a mental 
giant. Based on this aspect of its biology I have to keep 
reminding myself that it is a mollusk. 

Its power of camouflage is legend even though most 
observations are made in aquaria on a usually very sedentary 
octopus. To observe one in the"wild" is indeed a treat. Its 
color and texture changes occur as rapidly as it can move over 
the varied bottom. Fire a strobe at it, in a photographic 
attempt, and it flares out like an open umbrella (see Figure 1) 
and goes partially to totally white. When one considers how 
fast the strobe and camera are operating one must marvel at 
such speed. I have seen too many photographs of this response 
to assume the action started to occur prior to the strobe firing. 
Equally exciting are the varied color phases that represent 
various moods of the octopus. 

The octopus shown in the photos a Caribbean octopus, 
probably Octopus vulagris. 

In my early encounters, before I knew of their venom 
apparatus, I enjoyed playing with them. With this linowledge, 
however, my encounters became more visual and some in- 
timacy was lost. Discretion was the better part of valor. As 
you become an octopus watcher, you become aware of a 
number of defenses it has against predation. 

Besides camouflage, it has of course, its inky smoke 
screen accompanied by a jet action get-away. As it travels it 
coils its delicate tentacle tips under its mantle. Mainly, how- 
ever, it seems to rely on concealment in cracks and crevices 
among the rocks, corals, or junk. On numerous occasions I 
have noticed them hiding in such a way as to present only 
their suction cups toward the opening and in this position 
attach old bivalve shells to them in such a manner as to 
produce a "door", or perhaps they prefer the term opercu- 
lum. Watching for shell mounds simplifies finding its den. 



One of their most interesting abilities is that of being able 
to "flow" through an opening so small that one would 
assume only a portion of the tentacle could pass through. 
From observation in aquaria I would guess that if the opening 
is large enough to allow its beak to pass through the entire 
octopus can, too. 

If my only encounter with the octopus had been a dissecting 
table or in aquaria it is not unlikely that my opinion of it 
would be much lower than it is. Fortunately our encounters 
have been in its own baliwick. Try it, you will be impressed 
also by this lovely mollusk. 




SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(10): 181 



NOTES FROM 
HANS BERTSCH: 

An International Reconnaissance 
Expedition to Baja California Sur, Mexico: 
Part I. 

The peninsula of Baja California has attracted the interest 
of numerous scientists during the past several hundred years. 
Expeditions from institutions around the world have trekked 
the length of the peninsula by foot, muleback, or four-wheel 
drive vehicles. Some have even arrived by sea or by air. 

The foci of their studies have been as diverse as the 
peninsula and its inhabitants: forests of gangling cirios, basalt 
rocks wrested from mainland Mexico by the spreading of the 
east Pacific rise, lifesize aboriginal cave paintings of red and 
black shamans and deer, fish-catching bats, or cascading 
underwater sandfalls. The existence of this incredible land 
and its oceans is a scientific gauntlet thrown against our 
thoughts of what the world is all about. 

Nearly everyone has his or her favorite geological, bio- 
logical or anthropoligical Baja-oddity. Regardless of one's 
preference, this elongate stretch of land between two seas 
amazes, captivates, and challenges. It is non-relenting, 
whether for good or bad. It always must be treated with 
respect, because it is a harsh wilderness. It has probably 
started as many love affairs as revulsion reactions. Baja must 
be dealt with on its own terms. 

I am one of its lovers. 

During January and June of this year, I participated in an 
international reconnaissance expedition along the Pacific 
coastline of Baja California Sur. (The peninsula consists of 
two states: the northern Baja California and the southern Baja 
California Sur. The dividing line is the 28th parallel.) Under 
the auspices of the California Academy of Sciences in San 
Francisco, our team was supported by a grant from the 
George Lindsay Field Research Fund and consisted of CAS 
staff members and faculty and students of the Universidad 
Autdnoma de Baja California and the Centra de Investigation 
Cienti'fica y de Educacidn Superior de Ensenada (CICESE). 
The purpose of these trips was to select sites for more intense 
study and to develop preliminary data as a basis for a major 
grant proposal. We were interested in an ecological commu- 
nity (opisthobranch mollusks and their prey) in an area of 
great zoogeographic significance — the region of faunal 
overlap between the warm temperate Californian province 
and the eastern Pacific tropical province. During the course 
of these two expeditions we surveyed the intertidal and 
subtidal fauna between Punta Eugenia and Cabo San Lucas 
(on the outer coast of Baja California Sur), and on up inside 
the Gulf of California to Las Cruces (see map). 

In this month's and next month's Notes I will describe 
some of our adventures from these expeditions and some of 
the animals that we found. Most of our scientific results are 
still in preliminary analysis; we reported some of them at 





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August's meeting of the Western Society of Malacologists in 
Santa Cruz. We are in the process of working up possible 
new genera and species, but dissections, literature searches, 
and writing will take some time. 

Participating in both expeditions were Drs. Michael T. 
Ghiselin, Terrence M. Gosliner, Welton Lee (sponge tax- 
onomist at CAS) and I; curatorial assistants Robert van Syoc 
and David Catania; and Oceanologo Luis Aguilar Rosas 
(researcher with UABC in Ensenada). On the first expedition 
Hans Herrmann, graduate student at CICESE, joined us; we 
avoided the confusion of an Mexican and an American with 
the same German first name by pronouncing them differently. 
We had a newly-wed couple accompany us (direct from their 
honeymoon in Hawaii) on the second expedition, along with 
cnidarian taxonomist Dr. Daphne Fautin Dunn. 

The January expedition covered the extreme southern por- 
tion of the Baja California peninsula. It was also meant to 
work out logistic problems and to blend the group as an 
efficient field team. Assembling people from various cities, 
states, and countries to travel to another site requires some 
thought and planning. The group met at my home in San 
Diego, carpeted Nancy's and my living room floor with 
bodies overnight, and then spent the following morning 
repacking diving gear, personal clothes, food, collecting 
equipment, and camera equipment into Dave Catania's Land 
Rover and my jeep and the rental trailer it pulled. Since six of 
us could not fit into the two gear-laden four-by-fours, Michael 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(10): 182 



drove his battered Pinto to Ensenada; it was left there in 
exchange for a third four-wheel drive vehicle (a four pas- 
senger truck) that was loaned to us by CICESE. After a day in 
Ensenada, and with two more people (our Mexican colleague 
Luis and the graduate student from CICESE), more gear and 
more food, our three vehicle international caravan headed 
south. 

After all the early winter rains, the desert was lush, and we 
stopped periodically to photograph the incredible greenness. 
Large cardon cacti were surrounded by verdant hills. Just 
north of the oasis of San Ignacio we saw volcanic hills, with 
brown-black basalt contrasting against blue skies, white 
cumulus clouds, and water-logged vegetation. 

Although most of the main transpeninsular highway was in 
fairly good repair (with the exception of 50 miles of potholes 
south of Cataviria), our travels took us off the peninsula's 
major paved road. Many times we traversed miles of dirt 
road. Even if we found a paved road, there was the possibility 
that it had been washed away by flash floods. One part of 
paved road was barely wide enough for the vehicles to cross; 
a six-foot drop into the arroyo had been carved by the force of 
the rushing waters. Farther south an unpaved road crossing a 
deep arroyo had been washed out, with a new trail curling 
along the mountain to the stream bed and then back up the 
other side. There were no signs that trucks should use low 
gear; the 30° slope was warning enough. 

The most disastrous portion was a stretch of road that 
Michael and I had travelled ten years earlier. It is part of the 
road from La Paz to Las Cruces, deliberately unkept and one 
of the worst roads imaginable. In the midst of this expletive- 
filled road is one particularly gruesome stretch that we had 
nicknamed previously "Arroyo de Machismo." The arroyo 
lived up to its monicker (chosen not in reference to sexism, 
but because it was a brute of an arroyo). The road winds 
down across a sloping mountainside with bumps and two feet 
ruts and pot holes, over granite boulders and slick hardpan 
dirt, with nary any clearance at times, into a sandy wash. 
This year it had been well-packed, and was not the tire- 
grabbing, car-stalling sand pit that it could have been. How- 
ever, on the far side is an equally uneven, abrupt incline 
(nearly a 45° slope), gouged deep into the hillside. Midway 
up, my jeep reached its limit, and the clutch dislocated in two 
separate places. At the time I was pulling the trailer in which 
were all our diving bags, four scuba tanks, and a compressor. 
The torque needed and the splaying apart of the jeep's body, 
wheels and motor bouncing up the hillside were too much. 

Dave and I worked on the clutch, attempted the hill once 
more, only to have the clutch dislocate again. So we unloaded 
the trailer, carried all the gear uphill, rolled the trailer back 
down into the arroyo, let my jeep roll backwards to be 
repaired again, used the eight-cylinder CICESE vehicle to 
haul the trailer up (to the accompaniement of appropriate 
cheers and jeers), reassulted the scarred road with my re- 
repaired jeep, repacked the trailer, and then drove on to Las 
Cruces. The rest of the drive was not uneventful. At a rest 



stop further along, we spent 15 minutes pulling cholla cactus 
spines out of the arm and back of an anonymous expedition 
member who had slipped on a steep portion of the road. 

The itinerary of our January expedition included travelling 
along the entire extreme southerly coastline of Baja California 
Sur, from Bahi'a Magdalena to Las Cruces. We stopped at 
numerous places that looked promising. There were rocky 
headlands interspersed among sandy beaches; some coastline 
was hammered by strong surf, limiting our entry. 

We collected in the mud of Bahi'a Magdalena (learning the 
excitement of "slough diving," where everyone gets 
slimed), at the southern tip of Isla Magdalena (reached by 
launch), intertidally at Todos Santos-Los Cerritos, 60 feet 
deep in the canyon at Cabo San Lucas, at Puerto Chileno, 
Pulmo Reef and at Las Cruces. The dive at Isla Magdalena 
was notable for the motor problems on the launch (we had to 
turn back to find another motor that would work), Luis 
cutting open his foot on a submerged metal hook in the mud 
(luckily the fishing village had a clinic staffed by a doctor 
who stitched closed the injury), and the myriad Californian 
garibaldi fish and tropical angel and damselfishes swimming 
together. That would be comparable to zebra and timber 
wolves roaming the same region. 

Some collecting sites yielded more than others, and we 
will return to them for additional research. At Cabo San 
Lucas we found the rare nudibranch Tritonia pickensi Marcus 
& Marcus, 1967 (See Bertsch & Gosliner, 1984); at Pulmo 
Reef we found an unnamed species of chromodorid that 
James Lance is naming; and at Bahi'a Las Cruces we found 
Phidiana lascrucensis Bertsch & Ferreira, 1874. I will dis- 
cuss the nudibranchs in more detail next month, along with 
some overall results and June's expedition. 

Some of the more interesting animals we found in January 
were the sea stars: the reddish, pencil-thin Mithrodia bradleyi, 
and the large (25 cm diameter) Oreaster occidentalis which 
is gray with bright orange red mottling. Some exhibited 
curious biological associations. On the sea star Phataria 
unifascialis we found the parasitic gastropod Thyca callista 
Berry, 1959. On one sea star were 2 large specimens, rather 
than the usual one large female (see Bertsch, 1975a and 
1975b for more information on this snail, its dwarf male, and 
how it feeds on sea stars). Acanthaster elisii is the eastern 
Pacific crown-of-thorns. Like its Indo-Pacific congener, A. 
planci, it grazes on corrals. I found several specimens of a 
well-camouflaged shrimp commensally occurring among the 
spines of the aboral surface. 

The Baja California peninsula is a unique terrestrial and 
marine habitat. Nearly every trip I have ever made to the area 
has resulted in finding something previously unknown. These 
expeditions have been no exception. 

Literature Cited 

Bertsch, Hans, 1975a. New data for Th\ca callista (Gastropoda: Capulidae). 

TheVeliger, 18(1):99-100. 
Bertsch, Hans, 1975b. A Snail that eats Sea Stars. Sea Frontiers, 21(5):281. 
Bertsch, Hans & Terrence Gosliner. 1984. Tritonia pickensi (Nudibranchia: 

Tritoniidae) from Baja California, Mexico. Shells and Sea Life, 16(9): 

138-139. 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(10): 183 




Photos by Hans Bertsch. Top left - Acanthaster elisii with 2 camoflaged commensal shrimp (right center edge of picture). Top right - 
Oreaster occidentalis from Las Cruces. Bottom left ■ Mitbrodia bradleyi from Las Cruces. Bottom right - pair of the parasitic prosobranch 
Thyca callista on the sea star Phataria unifascailis from Las Cruces. See article starting on page 182. 



!<-> X 



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VOLUME 16. NUMBER 11 




PACIFIC - Chicoreus (Phyllonotus) n.sp. Chicoreus {Phyllonotus) oculatus - ATLANTIC 
Photo by Donald R. Shasky Cover photos except at left by Emily Vokes 





PACIFIC - Chicoreus {Phyllonotus) erythrostoma PACIFIC - Chicoreus (Phyllonotus) peratus 

C. (P.) globosus - ATLANTIC C. (P.) pomum - ATLANTIC 

IN THIS ISSUE: Baja Collecting Trip, Gastropod List, Nudibranchs, Murex, 
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SHELLS and SEA LIFE 

formerly the OPISTHOBRANCH 

Editorial Staff 

Managing Editor Steven J. Long 

Assistant Editor Sally Bennett 

Contributing Editor Hans Bertsch 

Photographic Editor David K. Mulliner 

Contributing Editor Tom Rice 

Editorial Review Board 



R. Tucker Abbott 
Hans Bertsch 
Walter O. Cernohorsky 
Eugene V. Coan 
Michael T. Ghiselin 
George L. Kennedy 
William G. Lyons 



David W.Behrens 

Kerry B. Clark 

Malcolm Edmunds 

Terrence Gosliner 

James R. Lance 

T.E. Thompson 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE was formerly known as 
the OPISTHOBRANCH NEWSLETTER. The 
magazine is open to articles and notes on any 
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© Copyright Steven J. Long & Sally Bennett 
1984 



CONTENTS -- NOVEMBER, 1984 

Volume 16, Number 11 

188 A Nomenclatural Problem in the Ascoglossa — or: Why 
One Should Never Name a Green Sea-Slug "Viridis". 
Kathe R. Jensen 

191 PERSONAL NOTES 

193 READER FORUM 

194 Notes on Pedicularia elegantissima Deshayes, 1863. 

Bill Liltved. 

197 DEALING WITH DEALERS: Those Exasperating 

One-of-a-Kind Shells. David DeLucia 

198 SCHEDULE OF SHOWS -- CURRENT EVENTS 

199 Common Names List of North American Marine 

Gastropods. American Malacological Union. 

205 PUBLICATION NOTES -- EXCHANGE 

206 NOTES FROM HANS BERTSCH: An International 

Reconnaissance Expedition to Baja California Sur, 
Mexico: Part II. 

209 YOUR COLLECTION -- A HOW-TO COLUMN: 

No. 4. About Collecting. Susan J. Hewitt 

210 Comparison of the Muricidae of the Eastern Pacific 

and Western Atlantic, with Cognate Species. 
Emily H. Vokes 



EDITOR'S NOTES 



Thanks to all of you who have contributed to recent issues of of S&SL . We 
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SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(11):187 




A NOMENCLATURAL PROBLEM 
IN THE ASCOGLOSSA — OR: 
WHY ONE SHOULD NEVER 
NAME A GREEN SEA-SLUG 
"VIRIDIS". 

by Kathe R. Jensen 



In the 19th century naturalists all over the 
world excelled in describing new species of 
marine mollusks. These descriptions were often 
based on a single specimen and often in the 
preserved state. 

In 1866 the Italian naturalist A. da Costa 
described two species of small shell-less 
opisthobranchs, Embletonia viridis and Embletonia 
nigrovittata,sent preserved specimens to R. Bergh 
in Copenhagen. In 1878 Bergh gave detailed 
anatomical descriptions of these specimenswhich 
transferred from the nudibranch genus Emble- 
tonia to the ascoglossan (=sacoglossan) genus 
Ercolania. Also, Bergh (1878) considered E. 
nigrovittata a color variety of E. viridis. 

The genus Ercolania had been described a few 
years earlier (1872) by another Italian 
malacologist, S. Trinchese. Trinchese had named 
3 species, E. panceri, E. uzielli, and E. siotti. Only 
the latter was described in detail and has been 
accepted as the type-species of the genus by 
subsequent workers (Baba & Hamatani, 1970a, b; 
Marcus, 1982; Pruvot-Fol, 1954; Schmekel & 
Portmann, 1982). Trinchese did not clearly 
distinguish between generic and specific 
characters, but later workers have used 
canaliculated rhinophores and elongate renoperi- 
cardial ridge as hallmarks for the genus (Bergh, 
1878; Pruvot-Fol, 1954). These characters are, 
however, very variable even within one species 
(Marcus & Marcus, 1956; Marcus, 1982; Jensen, in 
press). The only reliable characters separating 
Ercolania from Stiliger and Calliopaea are the 
sabot-shaped radular teeth and the shortrecurved 
penial style (Trinchese, 1872; Baba & Hamatani, 
1970b; Jensen, 1980, in press). 

In 1867 Costa described a third species, 
Embletonia funerea. This species Bergh (1886) 
considered a Stiliger, whereas Vayssie*re (1888) 
transferred it to Ercolania. Vayssiere (1888) 
mentioned Ercolania viridis, E. nigrovittata and E. 
siotti as synonyms of E. funerea, and acting as first 
revisor, chose the name E. funerea to designate 
this species. His reason for rejecting E. viridis 
and E. nigrovittata was that they were described 



from juvenile specimens. This is not in 
accordance with the International Code of 
Zoological Nomenclature, in which Article 24b 
states that the Law of Priority applies also when 
the description is based on a part or stage of an 
animal. The name Ercolania viridis was almost 
forgotten from the time of Bergh's redescription 
(1878) until the publication of Pruvot-Fol's 
volume on opisthobranchs in the series "Faune de 
France" (1954). Since then E. viridis as well as E. 
funerea and also Stiliger funereus have been used 
for the species in question. 




Ercolania funerea (Costa), Windley Key, Florida. 
Photo by K.B. Clark. 

The introduction of the genus Stiliger into the 
synonymy of Ercolania, first suggested by Eliot 
(1903), further added to the confusion of later 
malacologists. The genus Stiliger was introduced 
by Ehrenberg in 1831 to designatea smallsea-slug 
from the Red Sea, which named S. ornatus. The 
description was very poor, and the animal has 
never been recollected from the original locality. 

In 1865, Meyer & Mobius had described 
Embletonia mariae from Kieler Biicht. This was 
transferred to the genus Stiliger by Bergh (1872). 
In accordance with Alder & Hancock (1855), 
Bergh considered the genus Calliopaead'Oxhigny, 
1837 a junior synonym of Stiliger, but retained 
the specific name mariae although d'Orbigny's 
type-species of Calliopaea, C. bellula, had priority. 
This mistake was corrected by Eliot (1910), and 
this species has been known as Stiliger bellulus 
since then. In 1839-53 Deshayes described 
Custiphorus vesiculosus, which Bergh (1878) 
transferred to Stiliger and in 1886 considered a 
possible synonym of S. funereus. Others have 
considered this species a synonym of S. bellulus 
(Schmekel & Portmann, 1982), whereas others 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(11):188 



have considered it a separate species, S. 
vesiculosus (Haefelfinger, 1962; Gascoigne & 
Sigurdsson, 1977). 

Meanwhile, in a completely different part of 
the world, (Ceylon), Kelaart (1858) described 
another new shell-less opisthobranch, Pterochilus 
viridis. This species was transferred to the genus 
Stiliger by Eliot (1906). Apparently Eliot was 
unaware of the existence of Costa's Ercolania 
viridis, which according to Eliot's own suggested 
synonymy (1903) must also be named Stiliger 
viridis. This inconsistency was pointed out by 
Marcus & Marcus (1970). They chose the second 
name introduced by Costa in 1866 and named this 
species Stiliger nigrovittatus (Costa, 1866). 
Unfortunately Rao & Rao (1963) had described a 
species fromlndia underthat name, and Marcus& 
Marcus (1970) renamed this species Stiliger 
raorum. In the same article Marcus & Marcus 
described Stiliger (Stiliger) funereus (Costa, 1867) 
from Curasao and Puerto Rico. Apparently they 
did not agree with Vayssiere's synonymies (1888). 
This caused subsequent workers in the Caribbean 
to identify this species as Stiliger funereus 
(Marcus, 1972, 1977) or Ercolania funerea (Clark & 
Goetzfried, 1978; Clark & Jensen, 1981; DeFreese 
& Clark, 1983; Jensen, 1981, 1983; Jensen &Clark, 
1983). 

In 1970 Baba & Hamatani gave a description of 
a species collected in Japan, which theyidentified 
as Ehrenberg's Stiliger ornatus. The anatomical 
details given in this paperled Baba& Hamatani to 
reestablish Ercolania as well as Calliopaea to full 
generic rank. This has been accepted by most 
contemporary workers although a few, notably 
the Marcuses (1970, 1982) and T.E. Thompson 
(1973, 1976) still consider these three genera 
synonymous. 

At the present time "Stiliger" bellulus is known 
as Calliopaea bellula (see description by Gascoigne 
& Todd, 1977), which may or may not be 
synonymous with "Stiliger" vesiculosus (Gascoigne 
& Sigurds-son, 1977; Schmekel& Portmann, 1982). 
Costa's Mediterranean species is definitely an 
Ercolania, but it remains to be settled whether its 
specific name should be viridis, as would be 
required by the Law of Priority, or funerea as 
suggested by the first revisor (Vayssiere, 1888). 
Also, E. funerea is the most widely used synonym. 
The generic status of Pterochilus viridis from 
Ceylon remains unsettled. I suggest that the 
Mediterranean species be named Ercolania 
funerea to avoid future confusions should 
Kelaart's Pterochilus viridis be recollected and 
turn out to be an Ercolania. Stiliger nigrovittatus 
Rao & Rao, 1963 is in fact an Ercolania. The 



specific name nigrovittata has been rejected for 
Costa's species by Bergh (1878) as well as by 
Vayssiere (1888). Hence it should not be usedfor 
another species of the same genus. Thus the 
Indian species should be named Ercolania raorum 
(Marcus & Marcus, 1970). Judging from the 
geographical distribution of E. funerea (Mediter- 
ranean, East and West Atlantic, Caribbean), E. 
raorum may well turn out to be synonymous with 
E. funerea. The anatomical differences are very 
slight, and the habitats are almost identical. 

References 

Alder, J. & A. Hancock, 1845-55. A Monograph of British 

Nudibranchiate Mollusca. Parts I- VII. Ray Society, London, 

438pp., 84 pis. 
Baba, K. & I. Hamatani, 1970a. Occurrences of Specimens 

Presumably Identifiable with Stiliger ornatus Ehrenberg. 1831, at 

Seto, Kii, Middle Japan (Opisthobranchia: Sacoglossa). Publ. 

Seto Mar. Biol. Lab., 18:199-206, pis. 3-4. 
Baba, K. & I. Hamatani, 1970b. The Anatomy of Ercolania boodleae 

(Baba, 1938) from Seto, Kii, Middle Japan (Opisthobranchia: 

Sacoglossa). Publ. Seto Mar. Biol. Lab., 18:215-222, pis. 5-7. 
Bergh, R. 1872. Semper's Reisen im Archipel der Philippinen. 

Malacologische Untersuchungen. 1. (3&4):137-203, pis. 17-24. 
Bergh, R. 1878. Beitra'ge zur Kenntniss der Aeolidiaden, V. Verh. 

Zool.-Bot. Gesellsch. Wien, 27:807-840, pis. 11-13. 
Bergh, R. 1886. Beitr'age zur Kenntniss der Aeolidiaden, VIII. 

Verh. Zool.-Bot. Gesellsch. Wien, 35:1-60, pis. 1-7. 
Clark, K.B. & A. Goetzfried, 1978. Zoogeographic Influences on . 

Development Patterns of North Atlantic Ascoglossa and 

Nudibranchia, with aDiscussion of Factors Affecting Egg Size and 

Number. J. Moll. Stud., 44:283-294. 
Clark, K.B.& K.R.Jensen, 1981. A Comparison of Egg Size, Capsule 

Size, and Development Patterns in the Order Ascoglossa 

(Sacoglossa) (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia). Int. J. Invert. Reprod., 

3:57-64. 
Costa, A. da 1866. Saggio sui molluschi eolididei del Golfo di Napoli. 

Ann. Mus. Zool. Napoli, 3:59-90, 4 pis. 
Costa, A. da 1867. Saggio sui molluschi eolididei del Golfo di Napoli. 

Ann. Mus. Zool. Napoli, 4:26-37, 2 pis. 
DeFreese, D.E. & K.B. Clark, 1983. Analysis of Reproductive 

Energetics of Florida Opisthobranchia (Mollusca: Gastropoda). 

Int. J. Invert. Reprod., 6:1-10. 
Deshayes, G.P. 1839-53. Traite" element aire de conchliologie avec 

les applications de cette science a la geologie. Victor Masson, 

Paris.vol.l.pt.l, 368pp. ;pt. 2,818pp.; vol.2, 384pp.; atlas of 132 

pis. 
Ehrenberg, C.G. 1831. Symbolae physicae, seu icones et 

descriptiones animalium evertebratorum seposito insectis. Decas 

prima. Gastropoda branchia. Berlin, Academy, not paged, lOpls. 
Eliot , C. 1903. On some Nudibranchs from East Africa and Zanzibar. 

Part II. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1903 . vol. 1:250-257. 
Eliot, C. 1906. On the Nudibranchs of Southern India and Ceylon 

with Special Reference to the Drawings by Kelaart and the 

Collections Belonging to Alder and Hancock Preserved in the 

Hancock Museum at Newcastle-on-Tyne. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1906 :636-691. 
Eliot, C. 1910. A Monograph of the British Nudibranch Mollusca. 

Supplement. Ray Society, London, 198pp., 8 pis. 
Gascoigne, T.& J. B. Sigurdsson, 1977. Calliopaea oophaga Lemche. 

1974, a species new to the British Fauna (Opisthobranchia: 

Sacoglossa). J. Moll. Stud., 43:286-289. 
Gascoigne, T. & CD. Todd, 1977. Description of a Specimen of 

Calliopaea bellula d'Orbignv. 1837 Found at Robin Hood's Bay, 

North Yorkshire (Opisthobranchia: Sacoglossa). J. Moll. Stud., 

43:290-295. 
Haefelfinger, H.-R. 1962. Quelques faits concernant la nutrition 

chez Favorinus branchialis (Rathke, 1806) et Stiliger vesiculosus 

(Deshayes, 1864), deuxmollusques opisthobranches. Rev. Suisse 

Zool., 69:311-316. 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(11):189 



Jensen, K.R. 1980. A Review of Sacoglossan Diets, with 

Comparative Notes on Radular and Buccal Anatomy. Malacol. 

Rev., 13:55-77. 
Jensen, K.R. 1981. Observations on Feeding Methods in some 

Florida Ascoglossans. J. Moll. Stud., 47:190-199. 
Jensen, K.R. 1983. Factors Affecting Feeding Selectivity in 

Herbivorous Ascoglossa (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia). J. Exp. 

Mar. Biol. Ecol., 66:135-148. 
Jensen, K.R. In press . Annotated Checklist of Hong Kong 

Ascoglossa (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia), with Descriptions of 

Four New Species. Proc. 2nd Int. Workshop Malacofauna of Hong 

Kong and Southern China. 
Jensen, K.R. &. K.B. Clark, 1983. Annotated Checklist of Florida 

Ascoglossan Opisthobranchia. Nautilus, 97:1-13. 
Kelaart, E.F. 1859. Descriptions of New and Little-Known Species 

of Ceylonese NudibranchiateMollusks. Ann. Mag.Nat. Hist. 3rd 

series, 3:488-496. (Reprint of article printed in: Journal of the 

Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society for 1858). 
Marcus, E. 1972. On some Opisthobranchsfrom Florida. Bull. Mar. 

Sci., 22:284-308. 
Marcus, E. 1977. An Annotated Checklist of the Western Atlantic 

Warm Water Opisthobranchs. J. Moll. Stud. Suppl., 4:1-22. 
Marcus, E. 1982.Systematicsof the Genera of the Order Ascoglossa 

(Gastropoda). J. Moll. Stud. Suppl., 10:1-31. 
Marcus, E. & E. Marcus, 1956. On two Sacoglossan Slugs from 

Brazil. Amer. Mus. Nov., 1796 :1-21. 
Marcus, E. & E. Marcus, 1970. Opisthobranchs from Curacao and 

Faunistically Related Regions. Stud. Fauna Curacao other 

Caribb. 1st., 33:1-129. 



Meyer, H.A. & K. M5bius, 1865. Die Faunader KielerBiicht I. Die 

Hinterkiemeroder Opisthobranchia. Engelmann, Leipzig, 88pp., 

19 pis. 
Orbigny, A. d' 1837. Mfimoire sur des especes et sur des genres 

nouveauxderordredesnudibranch.es. GuerinMag.Zool., 7:1-16, 

pis. 102-109. 
Pruvot-Fol, A. 1954.Mollusquesopisthobranches.Faune de France 

58. Lechevalier, Paris, 460pp. 
Rao, K.V. & K.P. Rao, 1963. Stiliger nigrovittatus sp. nov., a 

Sacoglossan Mollusc from the Gulf of Mannar. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. 

India, 5:232-238. 
Schmekel, L. & A. Portmann, 1982. Opisthobranchia des 

Mittelmeeres. Nudibranchia und Saccoglossa. Springer, Berlin, 

410pp. 
Thompson, T.E. 1973. Sacoglossan Gastropod Molluscs from 

Eastern Australia. Proc. Malacol. Soc. Lond., 40:239-251. 
Thompson. T.E. 1976. Biology of Opisthobranch Molluscs. Vol. 1. 

Ray Society, London, 207pp. 
Trinchese, S. 1872. Un nuovo genere della famiglia degliEolididei. 

Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, 2:86-132, pis. 4-13. 
Vayssiere, A. 1888. Recherches zoologique et anatomiques sur les 

mollusques opisthobranches du Golfe de Marseille. II. Nudi- 

branches (Cirrobranches) et ascoglosses. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. 

Marseille Zool., 3(4):1-160, pis. 1-7. 

Kathe Jensen, Zoological Museum, Universitets- 
parken 15, DK-2100 Copenhagen 0, Denmark 



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SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(11):190 



PERSONAL NOTES 



Don Cadien presented the October meeting 
program to the Conchological Club of Southern 
California. He is currently a project scientist 
with M.B.C. Applied Environmental Sciences in 
Costa Mesa, California (for about 12 years or so) 
and is doing an ongoing study of the invertebrate 
fauna off the central California coast. [Don 
Cadien, 1006 - 37th St., San Pedro, California 
90831] 

From Adam Gakganski: This letter will 
probably surprise you, but,I hopeyou willreceive 
it with sympathy. I am twenty-two, I live in 
Poland. I am one of many people who have been 
fascinated by the beauty of the underwater 
world. Molluscs are phylum that interested me 
particularly. 

Collecting shells is my life passion. I devote 
much of my free time and energy to thecollection 
of mine. It is not as rich as I would like it to be, 
but slowly I am gaining moreand more specimens, 
and maybe one day I will be proud of my shells. 
As I mentioned before mycollection isnot bigand 
that is why I collect all the shells not excluding 
freshwater and land snails. However my 
attention is drawn to sea shells (snails only) 
among which I am mostly preoccupied with these 
families: Conidae, Cypraeidae, Ovulidae, Archi- 
tectonicidae. Unfortunately, malacology is not a 
very popular hobby in my country. There are no 
shell societies here in Poland and I am very lonely 
with my hobby. Because of a little number of 
people interested in this field of zoology there is 
almost no literature that accounts for thissubject. 
Being devoid of my own country literature I am 
not able to buy any foreign editions as no such 
exist here. 

I can not afford buying shells and books from 
foreign dealers either as I do not have dollars 
which are exchangable for Polish currency. 
Even if I had the money there exist no banks that 
would take the money and make the proper deal. 
Thus, as you see, collecting shells in my country is 
very difficult. As I can not fulfill foreign clubs' 
requirements I do not belong to any of them. The 
only possibility of gaining information is 
correspondence with collectors from other 
countries. The say the truth — the notion: 
favorite families is in my case a little inexact and 
caused by the fact that all collectors get 
specialized in something. However one can get 
really specialized if he has a directaccess toshells 
and I haven't got it. A very important thing is 



also an access to scientific literature. Can I 
specialize having so great problems with all that? 
I am pleased with every new shell. 

In my country, malacology has few fans and I 
therefore have great difficulty getting books and 
periodicals devoted to the life of the molluscs. 
For this reason I havedared to write toask forany 
material connected with my hobby. I would be 
very happy if you could send me anything that 
would be of use. 

At the end of my letter I would like tosay thatl 
will be very happy if I receive an answer from you 
even if my request is impossible to fulfill. [Adam 
Gakganski, Chrobrego-2/4, 85-047 Bydgoszcz, 
Poland] 

From Kerry B. Clark Rumors of my 
commitment to an asylum are unfounded. 
Actually, I have a contract to work here. But in 
explanation of what happened to Clark in recent 
years, herewith: 

Several years back, after finding some 
interesting effects of temperature on the 
biochemistry of Elysia tuca and Costasiella 
ocellifera and their symbiotic chloroplasts, I 
decided to examine a cnidarian-zooxanthellal 
symbiosis to see whether the same effect occurred 
in other phytosymbioses. This work took much 
longer than I expected, and I was unable to do 
much slug science during that period. Then, for 
about the last two and a half years, I have been 
working day and night on a system for computer 
assisted karyotyping for human medical genetics 
laboratories. I am happy to reportthat thesystem 
is completed, on the market, and hopefully will 
sell like crazy. At least our reviews have been 
excellent. All through this time I've been dying 
to get back to opisthobranchs, and started about a 
year and a half ago with a trip to Belize to work on 
Ascoglossa. This spring I was able to finish work 
on opisthobranchs of Bermuda, and this summer I 
returned to Bermuda to do some physiological 
work on Volvatella bermudae, to determine 
whether itschloroplasts arefunctional. I alsodid 
some work on oxygen conformity in several 
species. I haven't completed my data analysis, 
but it appears that oxygen availability is much 
more critical for opisthobranchs than I'd 
expected. This may explain much more of the 
habitat selectivity we've noted in tropical species, 
and also could account for some of the behavior 
we have noted. We often note our slugs clustering 
around the air-lift tubes in aquaria, and either 
they are orienting rheotaxically or are able to 
sense an oxygen gradient. I was able to glean lots 
more published egg and development data at the 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(11):191 



Bermuda Biological Station library, and am 
currently working on an analysis of this for a 
paper at the Friday Harbor development 
symposium in the spring. I'm due for sabbatical 
leave at the end of spring quarter, and I am 
tentatively planning to spend a good chunk of 
time on the west coast doing more work on 
opisthobranch reproductive ecology, if I can 
arrange financing. If any of you have 
suggestions for the best labs where we could work 
for about 8 weeks at a time, anywhere from 
Panama to Alaska, I'd certainly welcome 
suggestions. We hope to work at several sites in 
different areas to evaluate biogeographiceffects. 
Since I've never been to California, and have 
never met most of the west coast workers, I'm 
really looking forward to thetrip. I alsowelcome 
any advice about collecting areas, etc., and if any 
of you can volunteer as guides, this would save us 
considerable time looking around. Basically we 
hope to "fill in theholes" forsome typesof eggand 
development data, and alsolook atsome newtypes 



of data that we've been collecting on Florida 
species. 

During my hiatus from opisthobranch work, 
I'm afraid I got way behind on reprint mailings. 
Please let me know if I've missed sending papers 
to any of you. [Dr. Kerry B. Clark, Florida 
Institute of Technology, 150 West University 
Blvd., Melbourne, Florida 32901] 

From David K. Johnson: I would like to make 
some suggestions on future features &articles. It 
would be nice to see some articles on certain sea& 
ocean areas such as: Great Barrier Reef, Red Sea, 
Sargasso Sea & Sulu Sea. Also, more articles on 
sea life such as: sharks, whales, sea turtles etc. 

Recently, I started collecting shell stamps. 
You might include some tips by an expert 
collector on this subject. In closing, I enjoy your 
publication. I've learned a great deal from it. 
Please keep up the good work. [David K. Johnson, 
705 N. Grace Avenue, New Bern, NC 28560] 




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SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(11):192 



READER FORUM 



From W.B. Rudman: [August 23, 1984] I just 
noticed a photograph of Jeff Hamann's on the 
back of Vol. 16(5) of Shells and Sea Life which 
has been identified as a species of Cadlina. It is 
actually a new species of Noumea which I am 
describing in a paper on similarly coloured 
chromodorids at present in press with the Zool. J. 
Linn. Soc. Lond. My material came from across 
the Red Sea, in Sudan. I have written to Jeff 
Hamann separately. [Dr. W.B. Rudman, The 
Australian Museum Sydney, P.O. Box A285, 
Sydney South, NSW 2000, Australia] 

From Eveline Marcus: [September 25, 1984] On 
page 111 you only accept descriptions of new 
taxa, provided the holotypes have been deposited 
with a recognized public museum. This is 
feasible in most cases. But, if only one specimen 
is recognized as new, I think it is more necessary 
to make a complete description, including radula 
and reproductive organs, even if the specimen is 
torn to pieces. Of course the remains, the radula 
and the dissected or sectioned parts should be 
deposited. Figures of all characters and 
drawings or photographs of the living animal in 
color are also necessary. However, if there are 
two or more specimens, it may not be sure that 
they really belong to one and the same species: 



Verrill in 1882:545-6 described the new genus 
Koonsia and the species obesa, but figured only the 
entire animal (1884, pi. 1, fig. 7), and the same in 
1885, fig. 107. (copied by Marcus, 1984, fig. 25c). 
Bergh 1897 requested and received paratypes 
from the original vial, conforming with Verrill's 
description of the genus, not with Verill's 
description of the species, nor with his figure. 
Therefore I, in 1984, am calling Bergh's animal a 
new species, Pleurobranchaea confusa. Vayssiere 
did not tell, whether he had specimens or only 
dealt with Bergh's description. Verrill evidently 
had two different species. His figured species, 
narrow with a long tail; and that described by 
Bergh and in the genus, with a broad mantle 
overhanging the sides. 

I also asked U.S. National Museum for a 
paratype and received from vial 784567, off 
Delaware Bay, 4 specimens, considered as 
paratypes of Koonsia obesa. These turned out to 
be Pleurobranchus (Oscanius) membranaceus\ 

Until now the type of Koonsia obesa has not 
been seen again. Bergh's specimens did not have 
the penial hooks which Verrill described. 

Verrill had indicated two localities: Delaware 
Bay, USNM 784657, and Marthas Vinyard,USNM 
34217. One would have to go through all the 
remaining specimens, in vial 784657, perhaps to 
find the narrow one. [Dr. Eveline Marcus, Caixa 
Postal 6994, Sao Paulo, Brazil 01051] 



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Living Pedicularia elegantissima. Dredged off 
Ngabara Point, Transkei, Southern Africa 
32°27"2'S, 28°55"9'E at 250 m, on a rocky bottom 
with sparse pockets of stylasterine corals. 



Pedicularia elegantissima in situ on stylasterine 
coral. Trawled by a commercial trawler in +/- 100 
m off East London, Eastern Cape, Southern 

Africa. 




Depression made in coral by Pedicularia. 



Pedicularia larvae inside mother. 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(11):194 



NOTES ON PEDICULARIA 
ELEGANTISSIMA DESHAYES, 1863 

by Bill Liltved 



Pedicularia elegantissima a close relative to the 
Ovulidae, rarely reaching a maximum of 12 mm 
in length, is restricted to the Western Indian 
Ocean. This species has been recorded from the 
Seychelles, the Mascarene Archipelago, to the 
Eastern Cape coast of Southern Africa. P. 
elegantissima, a deep water species, lives in 
intimate association with stylasterine corals such 
as Errina spp. As a juvenile, the cowrie-like 
subadult moves freely on its host coral. As it 
nears maturity the gastropod becomes sedentary 
and the shell develops into a limpet-like form. 
The Pedicularia now being virtually immobile, 
must in some way be able to browse for food. If 
Pedicularia supposedly derived its nutrition by 
feeding on the actual coral polyps (as some 
ovulids do), it would soon obliterate all the live 
polyps situated in its immediate vicinity, thus 
ruining its food source. I speculate rather that it 
feeds on the mucoid secretions exuded by the 
stylasterine, to which micro-organisms and 
detritus may adhere. 

Pedicularia elegantissima has a long protusible 
neck and a well developed snout for reaching 
from its fixed position where it makes a 
depression in the coral (fig 3). Its two tentacles 
are long, slender and seem to be ciliated. These 
cilia probably aid in the detection of food 
particles which the animal rakes in and scoops 
into its mouth with the comb-like outer lateral 
teeth of its radula. 



An interesting aspect in the development of 
this species is that it is viviparous: the larvae 
appear to be incubated inside the female they 
are ready to be expelled into the water as fully 
developed veligers. The larvae are not contained 
in any type of thecae (egg cases), but were 
observed to be randomly deposited in the 
reproductive tract of the mother. Each almost 
spherical larval shell measures 1.2 mm in length. 




Figure 1. Pedicularia elegantissima larval shells. 

Viviparity is not avery widespreadphenomena 
in marine prosobranch mollusks. It has been 
documented in species such as Littorina saxatilis 
Olivi, of the British Isles and in Cymbium spp. of 
West Africa. 

Additional Reading 

Barnard, K.H. 1963. Contributions to the knowledge of South 
African Marine Mollusca. Part III. Gastropods: Prosobranchia: 
Taenioglossa. Ann. S. African Museum, Vol. 47. 

Fretter,V.& A. Graham, 1962. British Prosobranch Molluscs. Ray 
Society, London, xvi + £55pp. 

Marche-Marchad, I. 1977. Remarks on the Biology, Ecology and 
Systematics of the Genus Cymbium Roeding, 1798 (Gastropoda 
Prosobranchia). La Conchiglia, No. 104-105. 

Scheltema, R. S. Larval Dispersal as a Meansof Genetic Exchange 
Between Geographically Separated Populations of Shallow- 
Water Benthic Marine Gastropods. Biol. Bull. Woods Hole, 
140 : 

Bill Liltved, Dept. Marine Biology, South African 
Museum, P.O. Box 61, Cape Town, South Africa. 



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SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(11):196 



DEALING WITH DEALERS: 

Those Exasperating One-of-a-Kind Shells. 
by David DeLucia 

Here's the scene: Billy Bivalve, an avid 
collector, is perusing his newly received dealer 
list. Suddenly an item catches his eye: "Cardita 
crassicosta COLOR SERIES, 8 different colors 
including lemon yellow - only $50.00." Breathing 
as infrequently as possible to avoid hyperventila- 
ting, he races to the phone and makes thequickest 
call of his life. "I'm sorry," the dealer says, "That 
set has just been sold." Bang! Billy's balloon 
falls to the ground with a burst. Collecting 
seashells has ceased to be fun. He quits and goes 
into computers instead. 

All of us, at one time or another have felt the 
same type of frustration as Billy after missingout 
on that long-awaited one-of-a-kind shell. Since 
so few people are good losers, there must be a 
better way to handle the listing of these elusive 
rarities. 

One solution might be to have a mail order 
auction for one-of-a-kind items. Under this 
system, all customers would be allowed to bid for 
any specimen withina reasonabletime period, say 
20 days, and the one with the highest bid would 
receive that particular shell. Certainly, this 
would be a fair method, but it is time consuming 
to prepare and ties up the dealer's stock longer 
than necessary. 

Another possibility would be to offerone-of-a- 
kind shells as incentives to larger orders. For 
example, a $200.00 order would allow one to 
choose two one-of-a-kind species, a $300.00 order 
three species, etc. A major drawback to this 
approach is that expensive one-of-a-kind shells 
(and many are) would not be appropriate as 
premiums. However, for moderately priced 
specimens, this technique could be a useful 
alternative to the usual 10-15% discount on large 
orders. 

Probably the best solution to the one-of-a-kind 
lists with particular rules (i.e., no phone orders 
accepted, no dealer orders, etc.). This would not 
completely eliminate the "first come, firstserved" 
problem, but with so many alternatives, one isless 
likely to experience frustration at missing out on 
a certain species. To prevent one or two 
customers from buying out the whole list, there 
would be a limit of five species per person. This 
method would also entail more preparation on the 
dealer's part, but might be worth the extra effort 
in the long run. 

One could argue that the thrill of shell 



collecting lies in the chase, and thatone-of-a-kind 
shells are a luxury that should always be just 
beyond reach. Well, that's fine on paper, but 
meanwhile, I will continue to be annoyed upon 
missing out on such beauties as Amaea mitchelli 
Dall, Latiaxiskiranus Kuroda,and Mactraviolacea 
Gmelin, the three species heading my "most 
wanted" list. As for Billy, maybe I'll give himmy 
Cardita crassicosta color series. On second 
thought, I wonder if he does trading...? 



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Collectible Shells 

of Southeastern U.S., Bahamas 

& Caribbean by R. Tucker Abbott, Ph.D. 
A 'Take it to the Beach' Field Guide 
WATERPROOF - TEARPROOF 
105 beautiful color photos of living animals and 
their shells. 64 pages of color. 300 species il- 
lustrated. How to clean shells. Where to find 
them. Includes fossils, pond and tree snails, as 
well as sealife. 

Collectible Shells stresses conservation, but 
also has helpful hints about collecting and 
cleaning shells. The book introduces the tourist 
and beginner to famous Florida fossils and the 
unique world of tree and pond mollusks. 
Printed on a washable, tearproof plastic 'paper.' 
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American Malacologists, Inc. 

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SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(11):197 



SCHEDULE: 

SHOWS AND CONVENTIONS 

1984 

Western Society of Naturalists 

Denver, Colorado, December 27-30 

1985 

Central Florida Shell Show 

Orlando, Florida, January 18-20 

Southwest Florida Shell Show 

Ft. Myers, Florida, January 18-20 

Greater Miami Shell Show 

Miami, Florida, January 24-27 

Sarasota Shell Show 

Sarasota, Florida, January 25-27 

Broward Shell Show 

Pompano Beach, Florida, February 1-3 

Naples Shell Show 

Naples, Florida, February 15-17 

Palm Beach County Shell Show 

W. Palm Beach, Florida, February 20-24 

St. Petersberg Shell Show 

St. Petersberg, Florida, February 22-24 

Sanibel Shell Fair 

Sanibel, Florida, March 7-10 

Marco Island Shell Show 

Marco Island, Florida, March 13-14 

Astronaut Trail Shell Show 

Melbourne, Florida, March 29-31 

Georgia Shell Show 

Atlanta, Georgia, April 12-14 

Underwater Photography Convention 

Our World - Underwater XV, Chicago, Illinois, May 17-19 

5th International Coral Reef Congress 

Papeete, Tahiti, May 27 - June 1 

Conchologists of America 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania & Cape May, New Jersey, June 

American Malacological Union 

Kingston, Rhode Island, July 29 - August 3 

Western Society of Malacologists 

Santa Barbara, California, August 18-21 

1986 

American Malacological Union 
Western Society of Malacologists 

Joint Meeting, Monterey, California, July 2-7 

If we have missed a show or convention that you are aware of 
please excuse us, and send the information for inclusion in next 
month's issue. We would especially like to hear of overseas shows and 
meetings. Thanks to Donald Dan for keeping us informed of many of 
these dates. 



CURRENT EVENTS 

The Conchological Club of Southern Califor- 
nia has elected the following slate of officers for 
the year 1985: President - Bertram Draper, Vice 
President - Ralph Ferguson, Treasurer - Clifton 
Coney, Secretary - Jo Ramsaran, Corresponding 
Secretary - Kirstie Kaiser. 

At the October meeting, Roy and Forrest 
Poorman were given Honorary Life Memberships 



for the numerouscontributions tothe C.C.S.C.and 
to malacology. Congratulations to both of them! 

AMU COMMON NAMES LIST 

The American Malacological Union "AMU 
Suggested Draft List of Common Names for 
North American Mollusks" continues with the 
marine gastropods on the next page. This section 
will continue for two months or more. 

The "OCCURRENCE" codes for the marine 
gastropod list are as follows: A = Atlantic coast of 
North America from boundary with ArcticOcean 
south to U.S.-Mexican border, including coast of 
Gulf of Mexico from Florida through Texas; Ac = 
waters of Arctic Ocean contiguous to North 
America; E = estuarine (exclusively); F = 
freshwater in addition to saltwater; [I] = 
introduced, intentionally or accidentally, by 
human activity; P = Pacific coast of North 
America from Bering Straitsouth to U.S.-Mexican 
border. Designations in parentheses denote 
extralimital occurrence beyond the scope of this 
listing. 

The entire terrestrial mollusk list was included 
in the October issue. Please note that the 
"OCCURRENCE" between the scientific name 
and the common name indicates "T" for 
terrestrial. 

Refer to the "Principles Governing Selectionof 
Common Names of Aquatic Invertebrates from 
America North of Mexico" (S&SL 16(9):143) for 
additional information on selecting or changing 
names. Please note that these lists are based on 
the most recent published names. Send comments, 
corrections, or additions to: Editor, 505 E. 
Pasadena, Phoenix, Arizona 85012, U.S.A. 



Displays at Most 
Shell Shows 

DONALD DAN 

QUALITY SPECIMEN SHELLS 

2s649 Ave. Normandy East • Oak Brook, IL 60521 
(312) 963-7551 Inquiries Welcome— No Lists 





hamaron 
hells 



229 West Second Slreel 

Deer Park New York 11729 U S 

516 586-7830 




SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(11):198 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 



OCCURRENCE 



COMMON NAME 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 



OCCURRENCE 



COMMON NAME 



CLASS GASTROPODA 



ORDER ARCHAEOCASTROPODA 



Pleurotomarlidae 



Perotrochus adansonianua 

(Crosse and P. Fischer, 1861).. ,A Adanson slitsnail 

Perotrochus amabllls (F.M. Bayer, 1963) A lovely slitsnail 

Perotrochus quoyanus 

(P. Fischer and Bernardi, 1856). ..A Quoy slitsnall 

Scissurellldae 

Anatoma baxterl J.H. McLean, 1984 P Baxter sclssurelle 

Sclssurella clngulata O.G. Costa, 1861 A belt sclssurelle 

Sclssurella crispata (Fleming, 1828) A,P,Ac. . . .cri spate sclssurelle 

Sclssurella k"eenae J.H. McLean, 1970 P Keen sclssurelle 

Sclssurella lamellata (A. Adams, 1862) P lamellate sclsBurelle 

Sclssurella lyra S.S. Berry, 1947 P lyre sclssurelle 

Sclssurella proxlma Dall, 1927 A Florida sclssurelle 

Sclssurella soyoae (Habe, 1951) P Soyo sclssurelle 

Slnezona rlmuloldes (Carpenter, 1865) P rimmed sclssurelle 

Hallotldae 

Haliotls assimllls Dall, 1878 P threaded abslone 

Haliotls corrugata Wood, 1828 P pink abalone 

Hsllotls cracherodii Leach, 181 A P .black, abalone 

Haliotls fulgens Phlllppl, 1845 P green abalone 

Haliotls kamtschatkana Jonas, 184 5 P. pinto abalone 

Haliotls pourtalesii Dall, 1881 A Pourtales abalone 

Haliotls rufescens Swains on, 1822 P.... red abalone 

Haliotls sorensenl Bar tech , 1940 P .white abalone 

Haliotls walallensls Stearns, 1899 P flat abalone 

Flssurellidae 

Dlodora aguayoi Pe"rez Farfante, 1943 A Aguayo keyhole limpet 

Dlodora arcuata Sowerby, 1862 A arcuate keyhole limpet 

Dlodora arnoldi J.H. McLean, 1966 P neat-rib keyhole limpet 

Dlodora aspera (Rathke in_ Eschscholtz, 1833) P rough keyhole limpet 

Dlodora bermudensis (Dall and Bartsch, 1911) A Bermuda keyhole limpet 

Dlodora cayenensls (Lamarck, 1822) .A Cayenne keyhole limpet 

Dlodora dysonl (Reeve, 1850) A....... .Dyson keyhole limpet 

Dlodora fluvlana (Dall, 1889) A. .Gulf Stream keyhole limpet 

Dlodora jaumei Aguayo and Rehder, 1936 A ..Jaume keyhole limpet 

Dlodora lister! (d'Orbigny, 1842) A .Lister keyhole limpet 

Dlodora meta (von Iherlng, 1927) A meta keyhole limpet 

Diodora mlnuta (Lamarck, 1822) A dwarf keyhole limpet 

Dlodora sayi (Dall, 1899) A Say keyhole limpet 

Dlodora tanner! A.E. Verrlll, 1883 A Tanner keyhole limpet 

Dlodora variegata Sowerby, 1862 A... .variegate keyhole limpet 

Dlodora viridula (Lamarck, 1822) A green keyhole limpet 

Diodora wetmorei Pgrez Farfante, 1945 A Wetmore keyhole limpet 

Emarglnula dentlgera Heilprln, 1889... A toothed emarginula 

Emarglnula nordica Perez Farfante, 1947 A.. ...... .northern emarglnula 

Emarginula phrlxodes Dall, 1927 A ruffled emarginula 

Emarglnula pumlla (A. Adams, 1851). A pygmy emarglnula 

Emarginula sicula Cray, 1825 A dagger emarginula 

Emarginula tuberculosa Llbassl, 1859 A,(P).. . tube rcu late emarginula 

Flssurella angusta (Groelln, 1791) A narrow keyhole limpet 

Flssurella barbadensls (Gmelln, 1791) A Barbados keyhole limpet 

Fissurella fascicularls Lamarck, 1822 A wobbly keyhole limpet 

Flssurella nodosa (Born", 1778) A knobby keyhole limpet 

FisBurella punctata P. Fischer, 1857 A punctate keyhole limpet 

Flssurella rosea (Gmelln, 1791) A. rosy keyhole limpet 

FlBsurella volcano Reeve, 1849 P volcano keyhole limpet 

Hemitonia bella Gabb, 1865. , P elegant emarglnula 

Hemitonia emarginata (Blainville, 1825) A emarglnate emarginula 

Hemitonia octoradlata (Gmelin, 1791) A eight-rib emarginula 

Lucaplna aeg is (Reeve, 1850) A aegis fleshy limpet 

Lucaplna eolls Pgrez Farfante, 1945 A Eolls fleshy limpet 

Lucaplna philippiana (Finlay, 1930) A Phillppi fleshy limpet 

Lucaplna" sowerbil (Sowerby, 1835) ....A.. Sowerby fleshy limpet 

Lucaplna suffus"a" ~(Reeve, 1850) A. . ..cancellate fleshy limpet 

Lucaplnella callomarglnata (Dall, 1871) P fleshy keyhole limpet 

Lucapinella limatula (Reeve, 1850) A file fleshy limpet 

Megatebennus bimaculatus (Dall, 1871) P two-spot keyhole limpet 

Megathura crenulata (Sowerby, 1825) P giant keyhole limpet 

Nesta atlantlca P6rez Farfante, 1947 A Atlantic nesta 

Puncturella asturiana (P. Fischer, 1882) A Atlantic puncturella 

Puncturella blllsae P^rez Farfante, 1947 A Bills puncturella 

Puncturella caryophylla Dall, 1914 P clove puncturella 

Puncturella cooper! Carpenter, 1864 P Cooper puncturella 

Puncturella cucullata (Gould, 1846) P hooded puncturella 

Puncturella decorata Cowan and J.H. McLean, 1968. ,P painted puncturella 

Puncturella erecta Dall, 1889 A erect puncturella 

Puncturella galeata (Gould, 1846) P helmet puncturella 

Puncturella granulata Seguenza, 1863 A granulate puncturella 

Puncturella longlf issa Dall, 1914 P long-slot puncturella 

Puncturella major Dall, 1891.... P great puncturella 

Puncturella multistriata Dall, 1914 P many-ribbed puncturella 

Puncturella noachina (Linnaeus, 1771) A,P,Ac Linne" puncturella 

Puncturella punctocostata S.S. Berry, 1947 P dot-rib puncturella 

Rlmula aequlaculpta D all, 1927 A webbed rimula 

Rlmula californlana S.S. Berry, 1964 P California rimula 

Rimula dorriae Pgrez Farfante, 1947 A coarse rimula 

Rlmula frenulata Dall, 1889 A bridle rlmula 

Rimula pycnonema Pilabry, 1943 A threaded rlmula 

Acmaeldae 

Acmaea funiculata (Carpenter, 1864) P corded white limpet 

Acmaea mltra Rathke in Eschscholtz, 1833 P whitecap limpet 



Colllsella alyeus (Conrad, 1831) A?,P bowl 

Colllsella asml (Mlddendorff , 1847) P black 

Colllsella borealiB Lindberg, 1982 P boreal 

Colllsella conus (Test, 1945) P Test 

Colllsella digitalis (Rathke in 

EschBcholtz, 1833)... ,P ribbed 

Colllsella Instabilis (Gould, 1846) P unstable 

Colllsella jamaicencis (Gmelln, 1791) A Jamaica 

Colllsella leucopleura (Gmelln, 1791) A black-rib 

Colllsella limatula (Carpenter, 1864) P file 

Colllsella ochracea (Dall, 1871) P yellow 

Colllsella" pelta (Rathke In Eachscholtz, 1833).... P shield 

Colllsella scabra (Gould, 1846) P rough 

Colllsella strigatella (Carpenter, 1864) P strlgate 

Colllsella triangularis (Carpenter, 1864) P triangular 

Lottla gigantea (Sowerby, 1834) P wl 

Notoacmea depicta (Hinds, 1842) P painted 

Notoacmea" tenestrata (Reeve, 1855) P fenestrate 

Notoacmea lnsessa (HlndB , 1842) .......P....... ...... .seaweed 

Notoacmea paleacea (Gould, 1853) P surf grass 

Notoacmea persona (Rathke In Eschscholtz, 1833). ,.P mask 

Notoacmea scutum (Rathke in_ Eschscholtz, 1833).. ..P plate 

Notoacmea testudlnalis (O.F. Muller, 1776) A,P,Ac plant 

Patellolda pustulata (Helbllng, 1779) A spotted 

Tectura rosacea (Carpenter, 1864) p rosy Pacific 



limpet 
limpet 
limpet 
limpet 

limpet 
limpet 
limpet 
limpet 
limpet 
limpet 
limpet 
limpet 
limpet 
limpet 
limpet 
limpet 
limpet 
limpet 
limpet 
limpet 
limpet 
limpet 
limpet 
limpet 
limpet 
limpet 
limpet 
limpet 
limpet 



Problacmaea aplclna (Dall, 1879) P cap 

Problacmaea moskalevl Gollkov and Kussakin, 1972, ,P Hoskalev 

Problacmaea rubella TFabrlcluB, 1780) Ac reddish 

Problacmaea sybaritica (Dall, 1871) P lush 

Rhodopetala rosea (DaTl, 1872) P pink 

Lepetidae 

Lepeta alba (Dall, 1869) P white blind limpet 

Lepeta caeca (O.F. Muller, 1776) A, P, Ac... .northern blind limpet 

Lepeta caecoides Carpenter, 1865 P, Ac. .. .dead-end blind limpet 

Lepeta concentrlca Mlddendorff, 1851 P,Ac ringed blind limpet 

Cocculinldae 

Coccullna beanii Dall, 1882 A Bean coccullna 

Cocculina casanica Dall, 1919 ..*..*........ .P.. Alaska coccullna 

Coccullna rathbuni Dall, 1882 A Rathbun cocculina 

Cocculina reticulata A.E. Verrlll, 1885 A reticulate coccullna 



Lepetellidae 



Addisonia lateralis (Requien, 
Addisonla paradoxa Dall, 1882, 



1848) A. 

A. 



Trochida' 



Calllostoma adelae Schwengel, 1951 •••••■• ..A Adele topsnai 

CallioBtoma annulatum (Lightfoot, 1786) P purple-ring topsnai 

Calllostoma bairdli 

A.E. Verrlll and S.I. Smith, 1880 A Baird topsnai 

Calllostoma barbourl Clench and Aguayo, 1946. ... ..A. .......... .B.irbour topsnai 

Calllostoma bernardi J.H. McLean, 1984 P Bernard topsnai 

Calllostoma canaliculatum (Lightfoot, 1786). .. ....P channeled topsnai 

Calllostoma euglyptum (A. Adams, 1854).. ••••A* sculptured topsnai 

Ca lllostoma f as ci nans 

Schwengel and McGInty, 1942.. .A enchanting topsnai 

Calllostoma gemmu latum Carpenter, 1864. ...........P........... gem topsnai 

Calllostoma gloriosum Dall, 1871 P glorious topBnai 

Calllostoma javanicum (Lamarck, 1822). *••■••••■•* .A. . ...chocolate-line topsnai 

Calllostoma jujublnum (Gmelln, 1791) A mottled topsnai 

Callloetonia keenae J.H. McLean, 1970 ...*■ P. ■■■■■■■■■ Keen topsnai 

Calllostoma llgatum (Gould, 1849) P blue topsnai 

Calllostoma marlonae Dall, 1906 •• ...A... ......... .Marion topsnai 

Calllostoma occidentale 



(Mighels and C.B. Adams, 1842).. .A north Atlantic topsnai 

Calllostoma platinum Dall, 1890 P silvery topsnai 

Calllostoma pByche Dall, 1889 ■••■•• A* ■■■ psyche topsnai 

CallioBtoma pulchrum (C.B. Adams , 1850)... ...A......... .beautiful topsnai 

Calllostoma roseolum Dall, 1881 A rosy topsnai 

Calllostoma sapidum Dall, 1881 A 

Calllostoma splendens Carpenter, 1864 P splendid topsnai 

Calllostoma supragranosum Carpenter, 1864 ...P.. granulose topsnai 

Calllostoma tricolor Gabb, 1865 P tricolor topsnai 

Calllostoma turblnum Dall, 1895 P spindle topsnai 

Calllostoma varlegatum Carpenter, 1864 P variegate topsnai 

Calllostoma yucatecanum Dall, 1881 A depressed topsnai 

CalliotropiB oxybasis (Dall, 1890) P 

Calliotropis regalis 

(A.E. Verrlll and S.I. Smith, 1880).. ..A regal spiny margarlte 

Cittarium pica (Linnaeus, 1758) A West Indian topsnall 

Dentistyla asperr lma (Dall, 1881) A rough topsnail 

Euchelus guttarosea Dall, 1889 A red-spot eucheluo 

Gaza superba (Dall, 1881) A superb gaza 

Halistylus pupoldes (Carpenter, 1864) P pupold halistyle 

Llrularia acutlcostata (Carpenter, 1864) P sharp-rib llrularla 

Llrularia dlscors J.H. McLean, 1984 P different llrularia 

Llrularla parclpicta (Carpenter, 1864) P few-spotted lirularla 

Llrularia succlncta (Carpenter, 1864) P girdled llrularia 

Llschkela balrdii (Dall, 1889) P Baird spiny margarlte 

Llschkeia carlotta (Dall, 1902) P. .. .Charlotte Island spiny 

margarlte 

Llschkela cldaris (Carpenter, 1864) P Adams spiny margarlte 

Llschkela imperialiB (Dall, 1881) A.. ..Imperial spiny margarlte 

Margarltes althorpensis Dall, 1919 P Port Althorp margarlte 

Margarltes bicostatus J.H. McLean, 1964 P two-rib margarlte 

Margarltea costalis (Gould, 1841) A,P boreal rosy msrgarite 

Margarltes frlgldus Dall, 1919 P,Ac polar margarlte 

Margarltes giganteus (Leche, 1878) P,Ac giant margarlte 

Margarltes groenlandlcus (Gmelln, 1791) A, Ac Greenland margarlte 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(11):199 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 



COMMON NAME 



Margarltea healyi Pall, 1919 Ac Healy margarite 

HargarlteB heliclnua (Phippa, 1774) A.P.Ac spiral margarite 

Hargaritea hlckmanae J.H. McLean, 1984 P Hickman margarite 

Hargaritea keep! A.G. Smith and Gordon, 1948 P Keep margarite 

Hargaritea lirulatus (Carpenter, 1864) P lirulate margarite 

Hargaritea mlnutiaalmua Mighels, 1843 A miniature margarite 

Hargaritea multlllneat.ua De Kay, 1843 A many-lined margarite 

Hargaritea olivaceua (Brown, 1827) A.P.Ac olive margarite 

Hargaritea optabilla (Carpenter, 1864) P choice margarite 

Hargaritea dudUIub (Gould, 1849) P little margarite 

Margarltea rhodia Pall, 1920 P Pacific rosy margarite 

Hargaritea aslmoneus (Carpenter, 1864) P aalmon margarite 

Hargaritea Blmbla Dall, 1913 P beehive margarite 

Margarltea Bmlthl Bartach, 1927 P Smith margarite 

Margarltea vahlll (Moller, 1842) A,P,Ac Vahl margarite 

Hargaritea vorticlferua (Dall, 1873) P.Ac vortex margarite 

Hicrogaza rotella Pall, 1881 A Dall dwarf gaza 

Microgaza rotella inornate Cm inn, 1979 A 

Hlrachelus cllnocnemua Qulnn, 1979 A stooped mirachelus 

Hirachelus corbla (Pall, 1889) A basket mirachelus 

Norrlala norriai (Sowerby, 1838) P Norria topanail 

Paeudostomatella erythrocoma (Dall, 1889) A Dall false atomatella 

Solarlella IntermediuB (Leche , 1878) P intermediate aolarelle 

Solarlella lacunella (Dall, 1881) A channeled aolarelle 

Solarlella laevls Friele, 1886 A smooth aolarelle 

Solarlella lamellosa 

A.E. Verrlll and S.I. Smith, i860 A lamelloae aolarelle 

Solarlella lewlaae Willett, 1946 P Lewis aolarelle 

Solarlella mlcraulax J.H. HcLean, 1964 P fine-groove aolarelle 

Solarlella nuda Dall, 1896 P naked aolarelle 

Solarlella obscur a (Couthouy, 1838) A.P.Ac obacure aolarelle 

SolarlelTa perlscopla (Dall, 1927) A look-around aolarelle 

Solarlella permabllls Carpenter, 1864 P. ...lovely Pacific aolarelle 

Solarlella rhyasa Dall, 1919 P wrinkled aolarelle 

Solarlella" trlplostephanus Dall, 1910 P three-ring solarelle 

Solarlella varicosa 

(Hlghels and C.B. Adams , 1842), ,. A, P varicose solarelle 

Synaptocochlea picta (d'Orbigny, 1842) A. ...painted false atomatella 

Tegula aureotlncta Forbes, 1850 P gilded tegula 

Tegula brunnea Philippi, 1848 P brown tegula 

Tegula elseni Jordan, 1936 P western banded tegula 

Tegula excavate (Lamarck, 1822) A .....green-base tegula 

Tegula faaciata (Born, 1778) A smooth Atlantic tegula 

Tegula funebralis (A. Adama , 1855) P black tegula 

Tegula gallina Forbea, 1850 P speckled tegula 

Tegula hotesBlerlana (d'Orbigny, 1842) A Caribbean tegula 

Tegula llvidoraaculats (C.B. Adama, 1845) A West Indian tegula 

Tegula tnontereyl (Kiener, 1850) P Monterey tegula 

Tegula pulligo (Gmelin. 1791) P dusky tegula 

Tegula reglna Stearns, 1892 P queen tegula 

Turcica caffea (Gabb, 1865) P two-tooth topanail 

Seguenzlldae 

Ancistrobasia depreaaa Dall, 1889 A depreaaed baBilisaa 

Seguenzla glovla Dall, 1919 P California seguenzia 

Seguenzla monocingulata Seguenza, 1876 A girdle seguenzia 

Cyclostreraatidae 

Arene bairdll (Dall, 1889) A Baird cycloatrerae 

Arene briareua (Dall, 1881) A briar cyclostreme 

Arene cruentata (Miihlfeld, 1829) A star cycloatrerae 

Arene dlegenale J.H. McLean, 1964 P San Diego cyclostreme 

Arene larallonenaia (A.G. Smith, 1952) P Farallon Island 

cyclostreme 

Arene trlcarinata (StearnB, 1872) A gem cycloatrerae 

Arene variabilia~ (Dall , 1889) A variable cyclostreme 

Arene venustula Aguayo and Rehder, 1936 A venuste cycloetreme 

Coronadoa slmoneae Bartach, 1946 P Simona cyclostreme 

Cyclostrema cancellatum Marry at, 1818 A cancellate cycloatreme 

Cycloetrema huesonicum Dall, 1927 A Key West cyclostreme 

CycloBtrema tortuganum (Dall, 1927) A Tortugaa cycloatreme 

Liotla feneatrata Carpenter, 1864 P California cycloatreme 

Macrarene cookeana (Dall, 1918) P Cook cycloatreme 

Parviturbo acutlcoatatuB (Carpenter, 1864) P sharp-rib cycloatrerae 

Parviturbo calidlmaria Pllabry and HcGinty, 1945. .A tropical cyclostreme 

Parviturbo francesae Pllabry and HcGinty, 1945.. ..A Frances cyclostreme 

Parviturbo render! Pllabry and HcGinty, 1945 A Rehder cyclostreme 

Parviturbo weberi Pllsbry and HcGinty, 1945 A Weber cycloatrerae 

Sanaonia tuberculata (WatBon, 1886) A tuberculate cycloatreme 

Skeneidae 

Skenea californica (Bartach, 1907) P California skenea 

Skenea carmelensls A.G. Smith and Gordon, 1948.. ..P Carrael akenea 

Skenea concordlaT Bartach, 1920) P beaded skenea 

Skenea coronadoensia (Arnold, 1903) P Coronado iBland akenea 

Turbinidae 

Aatralium phoebla (Boding, 1798) A long-epine Btarsnall 

Homalopoma albldum (Dall, 1881) A white dwarf turban 

Homalopoma baculum Carpenter, 1864 P berry dwarf turban 

Homalopoma" carpenter! (Pllsbry, 1888) P Carpenter dwarf turban 

Homalopoma draperl J.H. McLean, 1984 P Draper dwarf turban 

Homalopoma" engbergl (Willett, 1929) P Engberg dwarf turban 

Homalopoma grlppl CDall, 19U) P Crlpp dwarf turban 

Homalopoma indutum (Wataon, 1879) A two-faced dwarf turban 

Homalopoma juanensia (Dall, 1919) P northwest dwarf turban 

Homalopoma lurldum (Dall, 1885) P..... dark dwarf turban 

Homalopoma pauclcostatum (Dall, 1871) P few-ribbed dwarf turban 

Homalopoma radlatum (Dall, 1918) P radiate dwarf turban 

Lithoporaa amerlcana (Gmelin, 1791) A American ataranall 

Lithopoma caelata (Gmelin, 1791) A carved ataranall 



Llthopoma glbberosa (Di.ll.wyn, 1817) P red turban 

Lithopoma tecta (Llghtfoot, 1786)....., ....A Weat Indian Btarsnall 

Lithopoma tuber (Linnaeus , 1767)..... A green Btarsnall 

Lithopoma undoBa (W. Wood, 1828) P wavy turban 

Moellerla costulata (Moller, 1842) A.Ac 

Hoellerla druslana Dall, 1919 , P 

Hoellerla quadrae Dall, 1897 P 

Turbo cailletii P. Fischer and Bernardl , 1856 A filose turban 

Turbo canallculatus Hermann, 1761 ,A,, ......... .channeled turban 

Turbo caatanea Gmelin, 1791 



.A.... chestnut turban 



Phaaianellldae 



Tricolla af finis (C.B. Adama, 1850) A checkered pheaaant 

Trlcolla bella (H. Smith, 1937) A shouldered pheaaant 

Tricolla compta (Gould, 1855) P banded pheasant 

Tricolla cruenta Robertson, 1958 ■•■■•■••■■••* A, stained pheaaant 

Tricolla pterocladlca Robert a on, 1958 A rhodophy re pheasant 

Tricolla pulloldea (Carpenter, 1865) P sullied pheaaant 

Tricolla rubrilineata (Strong, 1928) P red-line pheaaant 

Tricolla subs tr lata (Carpenter, 1864) P low-line pheaaant 

Tricolla thalaaaicola Robertson, 1958 A turtlegrass pheasant 

Tricolla varlegata (Carpenter, 1864) P Pacific micro pheaaant 



Nerlta fulgurana Gmelin, 1791 A Ant 11 lean nerlte 

Nerita peloronta Llnnaeua, 1758 A bleeding tooth 

Nerita tesaellata Gmelin, 1791 A teasellate nerlte 

Ne r 1 1 a versicolor Gmelin, 1791. •..,.....,.,.■..... A four-tooth nerlte 

Nerltina~clenchi Russell, 1940 A(E,F) Clench nerlte 

Neritlna recllvata (Say, 1822) A(E,F) olive nerlte 

Neritina vlrglnea (Linnaeua, 1758) A(E) virgin nerite 

Puperita pupa (Linnaeua , 1767) ...A..... zebra nerite 

Smaragdia vlridis (Linnaeua, 1758) A emerald nerlte 

Phenacolepadldae 

Phenacolepas h ami 1 lei (P. Fiacher, 1857) A 



.Harallle limpet 



ORDER HES0GASTR0P0DA 



Lacunldae 



Haloconcha minor Dall, 1919 P leaser lacuna 

Haloconcha reflexa (Dall, 1884) P reflexed lacuna 

Lacuna caTlnata Gould, 1848 P carinate lacuna 

Lacuna craBBior (Hontagu, 1803) A.P thick lacuna 

Lacuna mar mo rat a Dall, 1919 P chink anall 

Lacuna pallidula (E.H. da Coata, 1778) A pale lacuna 

Lacuna parva (E.H. da Coata, 1778) A tiny lacuna 

Lacuna aucclnea S.S. Berry, 1953 P amber lacuna 

Lacuna unlfaaciata Carpenter, 1856 P one-band lacuna 

Lacuna vaglnata Dall, 1918 P delightful lacuna 

Lacuna varlegata Carpenter, 1864 P variegate lacuna 

Lacuna vlncta (Hontagu, 1803) A,P,Ac northern lacuna 

Llttorinidae 

Algamorda newcombiana (Hemphill, 1876) P Newcomb periwinkle 

Llttorina angustlor (Morch, 1876) A slender periwinkle 

Llttorina irrorata (Say, 1822) A marsh periwinkle 

Llttorina keenae Rosewater, 1978 P eroded periwinkle 

Llttorina llneolata d'Orbigny, 1840 A Uneolate periwinkle 

Littorlna llttorea (Linnaeus, 1758) A common periwinkle 

Littorlna meleagria (Potiez and Mtchaud, 1838). ...A whlte-epot periwinkle 

Llttorina mespillum (Muhlfeld, 1824) A dwarf brown periwinkle 

Llttorina nebulosa (Lamarck, 1822) A cloudy periwinkle 

Littorlna neglecta Bean, 1844 A obacure periwinkle 

Llttorina obtusata (Linnaeua, 1758) A yellow periwinkle 

Littorlna saxatills (Olivi, 1792) A.P, Ac rough periwinkle 

Llttorina scabra angulifera (Lamarck, 1822) A mangrove periwinkle 

Llttorina scutulata Gould, 1849 P checkered periwinkle 

Llttorina sltkana Philippi, 1846 P Sitka periwinkle 

Llttorina ziczac (Gmelin, 1791) A zebra periwinkle 

Nodllittorlna tuberculata (Henke, 1828) A pricklywinkle 

Tectariua murlcatus (Linnaeua, 1758) A beaded periwinkle 

TectininuB nodulosua (Pfelffer, 1839) A false pricklywinkle 

Rlsaoidae 

Alvania acutlcoBtata (Dall, 1889) A sharp-rib alvanla 

Alvanla alaskana Dall, 1886 ............P 

Alvania a Imp Bartach, 1911 P 

Alvania areolata Stlmpson, 1851 ••■•■.A ■• ••• 

Alvania auberlana (d'Orbigny, 1842) A West Indian alvania 

Alvania aurlvlllil Dall, 1886 P 

Alvanla baker! Bartach, 1910 P 

Alvanla bartolomenaia Bartach, 1917 ...P. •• 

Alvanla brychia (aTeT Verrill, 1884) A, Ac Jan-mayan alvania 

Alvania burrardensls Bartach, 1921 P.... 

Alvania carpenterl (Weinkauff, 1885) P 

Alvanla caatanea Holler, 1842 A, 

Alvania cagtanella Dall, 1886 P 

Alvania dalll Bartsch, 1927 P 

Alvanla dinora Bartsch, 1917,.., ,P 

Alvanla exarata Stlmpson, 1851 A 

Alvania f ilosa Carpenter, 1865 P » »•• 

Alvanla keenae Gordon, 1939 P 

Alvanla kyskaenaia Bartsch, 1917 P 

Alvanla latior (Hfghels and C.B, Adama, 1842) A 

Alvanla mlcroglypta Haas, 194 3 P microglypta alvania 

Alvanla montereyensla Bartach, 1911 P.. \ 

Alvanla multilineata (Stlmpson, 1851) A 

Alvania pedroana Bartach, 1911 P 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(11):200 



Joel Greene Tours 1985 

The Philippines 
Thailand Hong Kong 

Come join us this year . . . 

join us and voyage to the world's richest shelling 

locales '. . . 

join the more than 100 others who have already 

shared with us the excitement of new experiences on 

exotic shores. Return with rich memories, marvelous 

shells, new-found friends. 

If you've been on a JOEL GREENE TOUR, you know 

what we mean. 

If you haven't, ask someone who has and then, 

COME JOIN US! 

All our tours are fully escorted, comprehensive and 
include most everything you could wish for. 

• International Economy Class air ticket 

• All air flights, tours, excursions and boat cruises 
as listed. 

• First Class hotel accommodations with private 
facilities. 

• Most meals, including American breakfast every 
day. 

• All transfers and all porterage. 

• All hotel service charges and room/meal taxes. 

• Many other extras and surprises. 

Joel Greene Tours 

P.O. Box 99331 

San Francisco, CA 94109 

(4150 922-9441 

)oel Greene, Ph.D., art historian, conchologist and shell dealer, 
has visited the Philippines and South Pacific more than 30 times 
in the past decade. He has personally escorted several shelling 
groups with 1 00+ participants through the area. His knowledge 
and expertise on the countries and their seashells will be at your 
disposal throughout the tour. 




1985 

SEASHELL 

TOURS 




Thailand and Hong Kong 
A Shelling Adventure 



ITIC711JG 



18 Days 



Departure 
March 18, 1985 



All-inclusive fare: $2650 from West Coast 
$2875 from New York 



Day 15 to Day 18: Three exciting days in this fabulous port city-state. 
Included are a Hong Kong Island tour and a memorable Chinese 
Farewell Banquet. Great opportunities for duty-free shopping and 
tailor-made clothing. 

Day 18: Depart for the United States and home! Cross Date Line and return 
home the same day. 



Featuring: 

— Roundtrip Economy Class Airfare • 

— First Class and Deluxe Accommodations 

— Breakfast and Dinner everyday in Thailand 

— Breakfast everyday and Farewell Banquet in Hong Kong 

— All Tours and Boat Cruises as listed 

Day 1 : Depart United States bound for Thailand. 

Day 2: Overnight in Taipei. 

Day 3: Flight to Bangkok, short domestic flight to Phuket. 

Day 3 to Day 8: Shelling the rich waters of the Andaman Sea. Boat trips 
included to choice shelling locales and the bizarre limestone 
islands of Phangnga. 

Day 8 to Day 10: Return to Bangkok. City tour, including the Grand Palace 
and the Temple of the Emerald Buddha. Festive Banquet with Folk 
Dance Performance. Time for shopping and visiting the famous 
"klongs," or canals. 

Day 10 to Day 13: Transfer by motor coach to Hua Hin on the Gulf of Thailand 

for 3 days of productive shelling. 

Day 13 to Day 15: Short flight to Chiang Mai in the hill country noted for its ref- 
reshing clime. We will tour this beautiful area with its temples, 
palaces, gardens, and handicraft villages. 

Day 15: Return to Bangkok and transfer to flight for Hong Kong. 



The Philippines — 
A Shelling Adventure 

15 Days 



ITAP711JG 

Departure 
May 11, 1985 




All-inclusive fare: $1995 from San Francisco 

Featuring: 

— Roundtrip Economy Class Airfare 

— First Class and Deluxe Accommodations 

— Breakfast and Dinner everyday including Welcome Ban- 
quet and Gala Farewell Dinner Show 

— All Tours and Boat Cruises as listed 



Day 1: Depart United States bound for Manila. 

Day 3: Crossing the International Date Line, we arrive 2 days later in 
Manila. Transfer to the Manila Holiday Inn, overlooking 
Manila Bay and the Cultural Center. Welcome Dinner at 
Josephine's Restaurant, one of Manila's finest. 

Day 4: Morning tour of Manila City and Suburbs. Afternoon flight to 
Zamboanga with accommodations at the Lantaka Hotel on 
the Sulu Sea. Dinner on the verandah, where Morro water 
gypsies offer their shells, corals and handicrafts from boats 
moored right next to your table. 

Day 5 thru Day 8: Days of shelling and exploring Zamboanga, 
including 2 boat trips to Little and Big Santa Cruz Islands off 
the coast. These are coral reefs and offer wonderful opportu- 
nities for snorkeling, reefwalking and beachcombing.. We 
also visit local shell dealers, the Barter Trade Market, and 
antique dealers to view a great selection of Muslim antiquities 
and handicrafts. 

Day 9: Flight toMactan, Cebu. Transfer to the Tambuli Beach Resort 
on Mactan Island, in close proximity to the fabled shelling 
village of Puente Engano. 

Day 10 thru Day 12: We will be enjoying both a full-day and a half- 
day cruise to some of the best shelling spots on the Visayan 
Sea. There is also excellent intertidal collecting on the 
beachfront of the Resort and mud-flat collecting nearby. 
Visits to Puente Engano By Jeepney to bargain directly with I 
the fishermen for their rare and choice specimen shells. Tour t 
of the historic Magellan and LapuLapu monuments. Optional ' 
watersports include windsurfing and hobycatting. 




Day 13: Flight back to Manila and return to Manila Holiday Inn. 
Afternoon free for shopping, exploring, relaxing or visiting 
local shell dealers. 

Day 14: A 5-hour tour to Tagaytay, overlooking one of the world's 
wonders-Taal Volcano. This incredible formation consists of 
a volcano within a lake within a volcano! Gala Farewell Dinner 
and Show this evening at the Sulo Restaurant. 

Day 15: Depart this morning for return flight back to the United 
States. Crossing the International Date Line once more, we 
gain a day and arrive the same afternoon. 



Joel Greene Tours 

P.O. Box 99331 

San Francisco, CA 94109 

(415) 922-9441 



Reservations Application 



Return to: 

Joel Greene Tours 

P.O. Box 99331 

San Francisco, CA 94109 



Name _ 
Address. 



City, State & Zip 
Telephone 



I have read and accept the General Conditions and I understand 
the cancellation rules with regards to the trip. 



Signature:. 



Date:_ 



Thailand and Hong Kong — March 18, 1985 

My/our deposit is enclosed in the amount of $250. per person. 
With regards to accommodations, I request the following: 

□ Twin room □ Single room (supplement $350) 

□ Willing to share if possible 

The Philipines — May 11, 1985 

My/our deposit is enclosed in the amount of $250. per person. 
With regards to accommodations, I request the following: 

□ Twin room □ Single room (supplement $200.) 

□ Willing to share if possible 



RESPONSIBILITY: Joel Greene Tours and its designated Travel Agency 
act only in the capacity of agents in making arrangements for transportation, hotels 
and other tour reservations and does not assume liability whatsoever for any injury, 
damage, death, loss, accident or delay to person or property due to any act of default 
of carrier, hotel, restaurant, company or person rendering any of the services 
included on the tour, or by force majeure. Furthermore, no responsibilities are 
accepted for any damage or delay due to sickness, pilferage, labor dispute, 
machinery breakdown, quarantine, government restraints, weather or other causes 
beyond their control. No responsibility is accepted for any additional expenses, 
omission, delays, rerouting or other events resulting from improper documentation 
or acts of any government authority. The right is reserved to decline to accept any 
person as a tour member or refuse to retain any member on a tour. The schedules 
contained herein are subject to change without notice. The right is reserved to 
adjust the itinerary or substitute hotels in similar categories. Neither the airlines 
and/or public carriers concerned are to be held responsible for any act, omission or 
event during the time the passenger(s) is not aboard their plane or conveyance. 
Passenger contract in use by the airlines and public carrier, when issued, shall be 
the sole contract between the carrier and the passenger. All tour prices quoted in 
this brochure are based on current tariffs and exchange rates. 
Prices subject to change should there by any revisions in exchange rates or 
operational costs. 



Places pictured are in the geographical area but may 
not be included in specific tours described herein. 



Printed in U.S.A. 



DR 1 00-3/78 



GENERAL INFORMATION AND CONDITIONS 

HOTELS: Selected First Class hotels are based on two persons sharing twin-bedded 
room with private bath. Single rooms are subject to availability at the time of booking at 
the quoted supplement. If ever necessary, alternate hotels of equal quality may be pro- 
vided. Every effort will be made to accommodate singles who wish roommates. If this 
cannot be done, single supplement will be required. 
MEALS: Full American breakfast daily plus lunches and dinners as indicated. 
TRANSFERS: Included for all movements between airports and hotels while on tour. 
BAGBA6E: Tour members are requested to limit themselves to one checked suitcase 
per person, plus one flight bag. Porterage is included with all transfers. IATA 
regulations limit checked baggage to a maximum of 2 pieces, 
DOCUMENTATION: A valid passport is required. 
RESERVATIONS: Reservations will not be considered firm until a deposit of $250 
is received. Full payment is due no later than 60 days prior to departure. Tour mem- 
bers joining less than 60 days prior to departure must enclose full payment with 
reservation application. 

CANCELLATIONS: There is a $25 non-refundable registration fee. Within 60 days 
prior to departure, all monies will be refunded, less any charges imposed by hotels or 
suppliers, and a nominal $200 handling fee. Within 30 days of departure, a 
forfeiture of 50% of the Special airfare may apply. Once travel has commenced, no 
refund will be made for any portion of the tour package that the tour member does 
not utilize. An application for trip cancellation insurance will follow upon receipt of 
your deposit 

OUR TOUR PRICE DOES NOT INCLUDE: Additional air transportation not specified in 
tour feature or itinerary, pre^departure costs, documentation, vaccinations or 
inoculations, foreign airport taxes, and expenses for services obviously not included 
such as excess baggage charges, additional meals, beverages or spirits, accident 
and baggage insurance, laundry, phone calls and items of a personal nature. 




SCIENTIFIC NAME 



OCCURRENCE 



COMMON NAME 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 



COMMON NAME 



Alvanla pelagica (Stimpson, 1851) A carinate alvania 

Alvania precipitate (Dall, 1889) A precipitate alvania 

Alvania roBana Bartsch, 1911 P. Santa Rosa alvanla 

Alvanla sanjuanenBla Bartsch, 1920 P 

Alvinia compacta (Carpenter, 1864) P compact alvanla 

Alvinia oldroydae (Bartsch, 1911)..,.. P Oldroyd alvanla 

Alvinia purpurea (Dall, 1871) P. purple alvania 

Amphi thalamus lncluaua Carpenter, 186 A. P.. 

Amphi thalamus lacunatus Carpenter, 1864...... P... , 

Amphithalamus tenuis Bartsch, 1911 P.. 

Amphl thai ami a vallei Aguayo and Jaume, 1947,. A .del Valle tiny snail 

Anabathron murlel Bartsch and Render, 1939 P Muriel anabathron 

Benthonella gsza Dall, 1889 .A 

Benthonella niaonla Dall, 1889. ....... A, nlson benthonella 

Clngula aculeua Gould, 1841 A... pointed clngula 

Clngula alaskana Bartsch, 1912 P „ 

Clngula aleutica Dall, 1886 P 

Clngula asser (Bartsch, 1910) P 

Clngula castanea (Holler, 1842) A, Ac 

Clngula cerinella (Dall, 1887) P 

Clngula eyerdami Willett, 1934 P Eyerdam clngula 

Clngula forresterensls Willett, 1934 P 

Clngula globula (Holler, 1842) A 

Clngula globuloidea WarSn, 1972 P 

Clngula Jackson! Bartsch, 1953. A... Jackson clngula 

Clngula katherinae Bartsch, 1912 P 

Clngula kyskensis (Bartsch, 1911) P 

Clngula martyni Dall, 1887,. .' P 

Clngula moerchi Collin, 1887 ,..A,P,Ac 

Clngula montereyenals Bartsch, 1912. .. .P.. Monterey clngula 

Clngula palmer! (D"alT, 1919) P 

Clngula robuata sclpio Dall, 1887 P 

Crepitacella vestalia Rehder, 1943 A 

Floridlscroba dysbatus 

(Pilsbry and McGinty, 1949)...A 

Merelina aequisculpta (Keep, 1887) P evenly-sculpted alvania 

Merellna cosmla (Bartsch, 1911) P cosmic alvania 

Microdochus f loridanus Rehder, 1943 ■••., A. ........... .Florida clngula 

Nannoteretisplra kelseyi (Bartsch, 1911) P..,,.. ...Kelsey alvanla 

Rissoa bermudezl Aguayo and Rehder, 1936 A Bermudez rlsso 

Rissoa toroensls Olsson and McGinty, 1958 A 

Rissolna bakeri Bartsch, 1902 P 

Rlssoina bryerea (Montagu , 1803) A. 

Rissolna californica Bartsch, 1915 P 

RiBsolna cancellata Phllippl, 1847 A 

Rlssoina catesbyana d 'Orbigny , 1842 A Catesby risso 

Rlssoina cleo Bartsch, 1915 , P 

Rlssoina coronadoenais Bartsch, 1915.. P 

Rlssoina dalli Bartsch, 1915 P 

Rlssoina decussata (Montagu , 1803) .....A. ..* 

Rlssoina hannai A.G. Smith and Gordon, 1948 P 

Rissolna keenae A.G. Smith and Gordon, 1948 ..P..... 

Rlssoina kelseyi (Dall and Bartsch, 1902).... P 

Rissolna mayor! Dall, 1927 A 

Rissolna multicostata (C.B. Adams, 1850) A 

Rissolna newcombei Dall, 1897 P 

Rissolna sagraiana d 'Orbigny, 1842 .....A. 

Rlssoina striosa (C.B. Adams, 1850) A 

Zebina brown tana (d'Orblgny, 1842) A smooth rlsso 

Barleeidae 

Barleeia acuta (Carpenter, 1864) P acute barleysnail 

Barieela aldert (Carpenter, 1864) P Alder barleysnail 

Barleeia bentleyi Bartach, 1920 P Bent ley bar ley anal 1 

Barieela californica Bartsch, 1920 P California barleysnail 

Barleeia carpenter! Bartach, 1920 P Carpenter barleysnail 

Barieela hallotlphila Carpenter, 1864 P abalone barleysnail 

Barieela gubtenula Carpenter, 1864 P fragile barleysnail 

Assimineldae 

Assimlnea californica (Tryon, 1865) P(E) California asslmlnea 

Assimlnea succinea (Pfelffer, 1840) A(E) Atlantic assimlnea 

Hydrobiidae 

Hydrobia booneae Morrison, 1973 A(E) Boone hydrobla 

Hydrobla tottenl Morrison, 1954 A(E) minute hydrobia 

Littoridina sphlnctostoma Abbott and Ladd, 1951,..A(E) smallraouth hydrobia 

Truncatellldae 

Truncatella californica Pfelffer, 1857 P California truncatella 

Truncatella carlbaeensis Reeve, 1842 A Caribbean truncatella 

Truncatella pulchella Pfelffer, 1839 A beautiful truncatella 

Truncatella" scalarla (Michaud, 1830) A ladder truncatella 

Rissoellidae 

Rissoella caribaea Rehder, 1943 A Caribbean risso 

Rlssoella hertlelnl A.G. Smith and Gordon, 1948. ..P Monterey risso 

Skeneopsldae 

Skeneopsis alaskana Dall, 1919 P Alaska skenea 

Skeneopsis planorbla (F-abrlclus, 1780) A .- ...flat skenea 

Omalogyridae 

Omalogyra a tonus (Philippi, 1841) A atom snail 

Vitrlnellidse 

Anticlimax athleenae Pilsbry and McGinty, 1946. ...A Athleen vitrinella 



Anticlimax pilabryl HcGlnty, 1945 A cupola vitrinella 

Aorotrema clstronlum (Dall, 1889) A 

Aorotrema erratlcum Pilsbry and McGinty, 1945 A 

Aorotrema pontogenea 

fSchwengel and HcGlnty, 1942).. .A 

Clrculus cosmius Bartsch, 1907 p 

Clrculus dalli Bush, 1897 A Dall vitrinella 

Clrculus multlstriatus (A.E. Verrill, 1884) A threaded vitrinella 

Clrculus rosselllnus Dall, 1919 P 

Clrculus semiaculptus (Olsson and McGinty, 1958). .A 

Clrculus auppressus (Dall, 1889) A suppressed vitrinella 

Cyclostremiscus beauli (P. Fischer, 1857) A Beau vitrinella 

CyclostremiBcus jeannae 

(Pilsbry and McGinty, 1945J...A 

Cyclostremiscus ornatus Olsson and McGinty, 1958. .A 

Cyclostremiscus pentagonus (Gabb, 1873) A trillx vitrinella 

Didlanema paull Pilsbry and McGinty, 1945 A 

Eplcynia devexa Keen, 1946 P devex vitrinella 

Eplcynia lnornata (d'Orblgny, 1842) A hairy vitrinella 

Eplcynia multlcarinata (Dall, 1889) A fringed vitrinella 

Parvlturboides interruptus (C.B. Adams, 1850) A Interrupted vitrinella 

Pleuromalaxla bales! Pilsbry and McGinty, 1945.. ..A Bales vitrinella 

Sclssilabra dalli Bartach, 1907 P split lip vitrinella 

Solariorbis" arnoldl Bartsch, 1927 P 

Solarlorbls blakei Rehder, 1944 A 

Solariorbis inf racarlnata Gabb, 1881 A Gabb vitrinella 

Solariorbis roooreana Vanatta, 1904 A 

Teinostoma blbblana Dall, 1919 P 

Teinostoma biBcaynenae Pilsbry and McGinty, 1945. .A Biscayne vitrinella 

Teinoatoma carlnlcallua 

Fllsbry and McGinty, 1946. ..A 

Teinostoma clavlum Pilsbry and McGinty, 1945 A 

Teinostoma" cocolitoris Pilsbry and McGinty, 1945.. A 

Teinostoma cryptoapira A.E. Verrill, 1884 A 

Teinostoma gonlogyrus Pilsbry and McGinty, 1945... A 

Teinostoma lerema Pilsbry and McGinty, 1945 A 

Teinostoma lituepalmarum 

PTlsbry and McGinty, 1945.. .A 

Teinostoma megaBtoma (C.B. Adams, 1850) A 

Teinostoma minuscule (Bush, 1897)...., A 

Teinostoma tnultistrlata A.E. Verrill, 1884 A 

Teinostoma nesaeum Pilsbry and McGinty, 1945 A 

Teinostoma obtectum Pilsbry and McGinty, 1945 A 

Teinostoma parvlcallum Pilsbry and McGinty, 1945.. A 

Teinostoma pilsbryl HcGlnty, 1945 A 

Teinostoma reclusa (Dall, 1889) A 

Teinostoma aalvanla Dall, 1919 P 

Teinostoma saplella Dall, 1919 P 

Teinostoma semlstrlsta (d'Orblgny, 1842) A 

Teinostoma supravallatum (Carpenter, 1864) P upright vitrinella 

Vitrinella alaskensls Bartach , 1907 P 

Vitrinella berryl (Bartsch, 1907) P 

Vitrinella bicaudata Pllebry and McGinty, 1946. ...A two-tall vitrinella 

Vitrinella carlnata (d'Orblgny, 1842) A 

Vitrinella Columbians Bartsch, 1921 P 

Vitrinella dlaphana (d'Orblgny, 1842) A 

Vitrinella eshnaurae Bartach, 1907 •••?••• 

Vitrinella" fllifera Pilsbry and McGinty, 1946 A threaded vitrinella 

Vitrinella florldana Pilsbry and HcGlnty, 1946. ...A Florida vitrinella 

Vitrinella' helicoidTa C.B. Adams, 1850 A helix vitrinella 

Vitrinella hemphilll Vanatta, 1913 A Hemphill vitrinella 

Vitrinella oldroydl Bartsch, 1907 P Oldroyd vitrinella 

Vitrinella praecox Pilsbry and McGinty, 1946 A premature vitrinella 

Vitrinella smith! Bartach, 1927 P • 

Vitrinella stearnsl Bartsch, 1907 P Stearns vitrinella 

Vitrinella terminally Pilsbry and McGinty, 1946.. .A terminal vitrinella 

Vitrinella texana Moore, 1965 A Texas vitrinella 

Vitrinella thomaal (Pilsbry, 1945) A Tom McGinty vitrinella 

Vitrinella tryoni Bush, 1897 A 

Vitrinella willlamsonl Dall, 1892 P 

Vltrinorbls diegensis (Bartach, 1907) P San Diego vitrinella 

Tornidae 

Cochllolepis parasitica Stimpson, 1858 A parasitic scalesnail 

Cochliolepls atriata Dall, 1889 A striate scaleBnall 

Tornus callanus (Dall, 1919) P 

Caecldae 

Caecum antlllarum Carpenter, 1858 A Antlllean caecum 

C aecum blpartitum De Pol In, 1870 A 

Caecum calif ornicum Dall. 1885 P California caecum 

Cae^Tm - carollnlanum Dall, 1892 A Carolina caecum 

cTe^uT carpenterl Bartach, 1920 P Carpenter caecum 

Caecum clava De Folln, 1867 A blade caecum 

Caecum " c^dTlum Moore, 1969 A bone caecum 

Caecum cooperl S .I. Smith, 1860 A Cooper Atlantic caecum 

Caecum co rnucoplae Carpenter, 1858 A horn-of-plenty caecum 

Caecum cTeTrTcinTFum Carpenter, 1864 P many-named caecum 

Caecum TuTTtatum De Folln, 1868 A smooth caecum 

Caecum cycloferum. De Folin, 1867 A fatllp caecum 

CaeW dtlir BTrTach, 1920 ? ;» D *11 Cflecua 

Caecum MoTTdanum Stlmpaon, 1851 A Florida caecum 

Ca^Jm" iuTjuTiQ- Carpenter, 1858 A .windpipe caecum 

Caecum Reladum O laaon and Harbison, 1953 A fine-line caecum 

Caecum I^ brTcTtum Carpenter, 1858 A imbricate caecum 

Cle^m" loTnTo^T winkley, 1908 A Johnson caecum 

cTe^ nJtTdu^ Stlmpson, 1851 A little horn caecum 

Caecum p llcatum Carpenter, 1858... A plicate caecum 

Cae^m" ^o Tul^icolum Bartach, 1920 P deepwater caecum 

Caecum pulchellum Sti mpson, 1851 A beautiful caecum 

CaTcW ryTs^tTt^ De Folin, 1867 A -inute caecum 

C7e^ textile "^ Folin, 1867.... A textile caecum 

Cae^Tm- tortile Dall, 1892 A twisted caecum 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(11):201 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 



OCCURRENCE 



COMMON NAME 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 



COMMON NAME 



Caecum veBtltun De Folin, 1870 A Vera Cruz caecum 

Fartulum occldentale (Bartsch, 1920) P western caecum 

Fartulum orcutti (Dall, 1885) P Orcutt caecun 

Turrltellldae 

Tachyrhynchus eroaus (Couthouy, 1838) A.P.Ac eroded turretsnail 

Tachyrhynchua lacteolua (Carpenter, 1865) P milky turretsnail 

Tachyrhynchus pratomus Dall, 1919 P 

Tachyrhynchus retlculatus 

(Mlghels and C.B. Adama, 1842). .A, P.Ac 

Tachyrhynchus stearnail Dall, 1919 P 

TurrlteIla~~a7ropora Dall, 1889 A boring turretsnail 

Turrltella cooperl Carpenter, 1864 P Cooper turretsnail 

Turrltella exoleta (Linnaeus, 1758) A eastern turretsnail 

Turrltella marlsna Dall. 1908 P Maria turretsnail 

Turrltella" orthosymmetrlca S.S. Berry, 1953 P symmetrical turretsnail 

Turrltella varlegata (Linnaeus, 1758) A variegate turretsnail 

Turrltellopsla acicula (Stimpson, 1851) A.P.Ac needle turretsnail 

Vermlcularla fargol Olsson. 1951 A Fargo wormsnail 

Vermlcularla fewkeal Yates, 1890 P Fewkes wormsnail 

Vermlcularla knorrii (Deshayes, 1843) A Florida wormsnail 

Vermlcularla radicula Stimpson, 1851 A... northern wormsnail 

Vermlcularla splrata (Philippl, 1836) A West Indian wormsnail 

Slllquarildae 

Siliquaria squamata Blalnville, 1827 A silt wormsnail 

Vermetldae 

Dendropoma lituella (Morch, 1861) P flat wormsnail 

Petaloconchus compactus (Carpenter, 1864) P compact wormsnail 

PetaloconchuB erectus (Dall, 1888) A erect wormsnail 

Petaloconchus montereyensis Dall, 1919 P Honterey wormsnail 

Petaloconchus varians (d'Orbigny, 1841) A variable wormsnail 

Serpulorbls aecus9atus (Gmelin, 1791) A decussate wormsnail 

Serpulorbls squamlgerus (Carpenter, 1857) P scaled wormsnail 

Splroglyptua annulatus Daudln, 1800 A ringed wormsnail 

Splroglyptus irregularia (d'Orbigny, 1842) A irregular wormsnsil 

Spiroglyptus raaTrus (Morch, 1861) P California wormsnsil 

Plansxldae 

Planaxls llneatus (E.M. da Costa, 1778) A dwarf planaxls 

Planaxls nucleus (Bruguie're, 1789) A black planaxls 

Modulidae 

Modulus modulus (Linnaeus , 1758) A buttonsnail 

Potamididae 

Batillarla minima (Gmelin, 1791) A. ...West Indian false certth 

Batlllaria zonalia (Bruguie're, 1792) P[I] ... .Japanese false cerith 

Cerlthldea callfornica (Haldeman, 1840) P(E) California hornsnail 

Cerlthldea costata (E.M. da Costa, 1778) A(E) costate hornsnail 

Cerithidea pliculosa (Menke, 1829) i.A(E) plicate hornsnail 

Cerlthldea" scalarlf ormls (Say, 1825) A(E) ladder hornsnail 

Cerlthildae 

Alaba catalinensls Bartsch, 1920 P 

Alaba lncerta (d'Orbigny, 1842) A varicose cerith 

Alsba jeanettae Bartsch, 1910 P 

Alaba serrana' A.C. Smith and Gordon, 1948 P 

Blttlum alternatum (Say, 1822) A alternate cerith 

Blttlum armlllatum (Carpenter, 1864) P 

Blttlum asperum Gabb, 1861 P 

Bittium attenuatum Carpenter, 1864 P slender cerith 

Bittium challisae Bartsch, 1917 P 

Bittium eachrlchtll (Hiddendorf f , 1849) P threaded cerith 

Blttlum faetlglatum Carpenter, 1864 P 

Bittium fetellum Bartsch, 1911 P 

Bittium interfossum (Carpenter, 1864) P white cancellate cerith 

Bittium johnstonae BartBch, 1911 P 

Bittium latum Bartsch , 1911 P 

Blttlum aunltum (Carpenter, 1864) P 

Blttlum oldroydae Bartsch, 1911 P 

Bittium purpureum (Csrpenter, 1864) P 

Bittium quadrifilatum Carpenter, 1864 P four-thread cerith 

Bittium rugatum (Carpenter, 1864) P 

Blttlum sanjuanense Bartsch, 1917 P 

Bittium serra Bartsch, 1917 P 

Bittium tumldum Bsrtach, 1907 P 

Bl ttlum vancouverense Dall and Bartsch, 1910 P 

Bittium varlum (Pfeiffer, 1840) A grasa cerith 

Cerlthium stratum (Born, 1778) A dark cerith 

Cerithium eburneum Brugul^re, 1792 A ivory cerith 

Cerlthium gulnalcum Phillppi, 1849 A Guinea cerith 

Cerithium lltteratum (Born, 1778) A stocky cerith 

Cerlthium lutosum Menke, 1828 A vsrlable cerith 

Cerlthium muscarum Say, 1822 A flyspeck cerith 

Flnella adamsl (Dall, 1889) A Adams cerith 

Flnella blrWensis Bartsch, 1911 P Santa Barbara cerith 

Flnella callfornica (Dall and Bartsch, 1901) P California cerith 

Flnella dubia (d'Orbigny, 1842) A dubious cerith 

Flnella hamlini Bartsch, 1911 P 

Flnella lo Bartsch, 1911 P 

Flnella phanea Bartsch, 1911 P 

Flnella tenuisculpta (Carpenter, 1864) P fine-sculpted cerith 

Litlopa melanostoma Rang, 1829 A sargassum snail 



Cerlthlopsidae 



Cerlthlopsis aid ma Bartsch, 1911 P. 

CerlthlopBls antefl loBum Bartsch, 1911 P. 



CerithiopBis sntemundum Bartsch, 1911 P. 

Cerlthlopsis arnoldi Bartsch, 1911 P. 

Cerithiopsls berryi Bartsch, 1911 P. 

CerithiopBis carpenterl Bartsch, 1911 P. 



■...Carpenter miniature 

cerith 

Cerlthlopsis cesta Bartsch, 1911 P 

CerithiopBis charlottensls Bartsch, 1917 P 

Cerlthlopsis columnum Carpenter, 1864 P 

CerithiopBis cosmia Bartsch, 1907 P 

Cerlthlopsis costu latum Holler, 1842 A 

Cerlthlopsis crystsllinum Dall, 1881 A. ...crystal miniature cerith 

CerithiopslB diegensis Bartsch, 1911 P. 

Cerlthlopsis diomedea Bartsch, 1911 P. 



A. ...... .awl miniature cerith 

P 



....Adama miniature cerith 
.Monterey miniature cerith 



Cerlthlopsis emersonii (C.B. Adams, 1838) 

CerlthlopBla frsserl Bartsch, 1921 

CerithiopslB fualforme (C.B. Adams, 1850) A 

CerithiopslB glorlosum Bartsch, 1911 P 

CerithiopBis green! (C.B. Adams, 1839) A Green miniature cerith 

Cerlthlopsis grippi Bartsch, 1917 P 

Cerlthlopsis ingens Bartsch, 1907 P 

CerithiopBis montereyensis Bsrtsch, 1911 P 

CerithiopslB onealense Bartsch, 1921 P 

Cerlthlopsis paramoea Bartsch, 1911 P 

CerithiopBis pedroanum Bartsch, 1907. P. 

Cerlthlopsis pulchellum 

Jeffreys, 1858 (non C.B. Adama, 1850).. .A 

Cerlthlopsis r owe 111 Bartsch, 1911 P 

Cerlthlopsis elgna Bartsch, 1921 P 

CerithiopBis stejnegerl Dall, 1884 P 

CerithiopslB stephensae Bartsch, 1909 P 

CerithiopslB truncatum Dall, 1886 P 

Cerlthiopsla tubercularls f lorldanum Dall, 189 2... A 

CerithiopBis tumldum Bartsch, 1907.. P 

CerithiopslB vanhynlngi Bartsch, 1918 A 

Cerlthlopsis virglnicum 

Henderson and Bartsch, 1914.. .A 

CerithiopBis wllletti Bartsch, 1921 P. 

Sella adamsl (H.C. Lea, 1845) A. 

Sella montereyensis Bartsch, 1907 P. 

Mathlldidae 

Mathilda barbadensis Dall, 1889 A Barbados math 1. Ida 

Mathilda henderaoni Dall, 1927 A Henderaon raathilda 

Mathilda yucatecana (Dall, 1881) A Yucatan mathllda 

Archltectonicidae 

Architectonics disca (Philippl, 1844) A,(P) keeled sundial 

Archltectonlca nobills Roding, 1798 A,(P) common sundial 

HellacuB alleryi (Monterosato, 1873) A 

HellacuB architae (O.G. Costa, 1830) A,(P) noduled sundial 

Hellacus bisulcatus (d'Orbigny, 1842) A,(P) beaded sundial 

Hellacus borealis 

(A.E. Verrill and S.I. Smith, 1880) A boreal sundial 

Hellacus cyllndrlcus (Gmelin, 1791) A. ..Atlantic cylinder sundisl 

Hellacus perrleri (Rochebrune, 1881) A,(P) channeled sundial 

Philippia krebsil (Morch, 1875) A Bioooth sundial 

PBeudomalaxis lamelllfera Rehder, 1935 A lamellate false dial 

Pseudomalaxls nobills A.E. Verrill, 1885 A noble false dial 

Splrolaxls centrlfuga (Monterosato, 1890) A exquisite false dlsl 

Triphoridae 

Metsxis abrupt a (Watson, 1880) A 

Me t a x 1 a convexa (Carpenter, 1857) P.. .... 

Metaxla metaxae (Delia Chiaje, 1829) A 

Metaxla rugulosa (C.B. Adama, 1850) A 

Metaxla taenloiata (Dall, 1889) A 

Trlphora callipyrga (Bartsch, 1907) P 

Triphora carpenter! (Bartsch, 1907) P 

Triphora catalinensls (Bsrtsch, 1907) P 

Triphors decorata (C.B. Adama, 1850) A mottled triphora 

Triphora Intermedia (Dall, 1881) A 

Triphora lilacina foall, 1889) A 

Triphora longlBSima (Dall, 1881) A 

Triphora melanura (C.B. Adams, 1850) A white Atlantic triphora 

Triphora montereyenBia (Bartsch, 1907) P 

Triphora nlgroclncta (C.B. Adams, 1839) A black-line triphora 

Triphora ornata (beshayes , 1832) A 

Triphora pedroana (Bartsch, 1907) P San Pedro triphora 

Triphora penlnaularis (BartBch, 1907) P 

Triphora pulchell a (C.B. Adams, 1850) A beautiful triphora 

Triphora pyrrha Henderaon and Bartsch, 1914..... ..A. .. • . * 

Triphora steams! (Bartsch, 1907) P 

Triphora turrlathomae (Holten. 1802) A St. Thomaa triphora 

Janthinidae 

Janthlna exigua Lamarck , 1816 A dwarf j anthina 

Janthina globosa Swainson, 1822 A elongate janthlna 

Janthlna janthlna (Linnaeus, 1758) A common janthlna 

Janthina pallida (Thompson, 1840) A pale janthlna 

Recluzla rollandiana Petit de la Sauasaye, 1853.. .A, (P) brown janthina 

Epitonlidae 

Aclrsa borealis (Lyell, 1841) A,P chalky wentletrap 

Alexania floridana (Pilsbry, 1945) A. ..smooth Florida wentletrap 

Amaea mltchelll (Dall, 1896) A Mitchell wentletrap 

Amaea retifera (Dall, 1889) A reticulate wentletrap 

Aaperiacala bellastrlata (Carpenter, 1864) P. .. .well-threaded wentletrap 

Asperlacala" cookeana" T^a"ll, 1917) P Cooke wentletrap 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(11):202 






SCIENTIFIC NAME 



OCCURRENCE 



COMMON NAME 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 



COMMON NAME 



Aaperiacala lowel (Dall, 1906) P Lowe wentletrap 

Boreoscala greenlandlca (G. Perry, 1811) A,P Greenland wentletrap 

Clrsotrema dalll Rehder, 1945 A Dall wentletrap 

Clrsotrema pllabryl (McGlnty, 1940) A Pil'sbry wentletrap 

Couthouyella Btriatula (Couthouy, 1839) .A. . .northern rough wentletrap 

Depresslscala nautlae (Morch, 1874) A slender wentletrap 

Depresslscala nltldella (Dall, 1889) A mottled wentletrap 

DepreBBlscala pollta (Sowerby, 1844) .P. ..polished wentletrap 

Epltonlum albidum (d 'Orblgny, 1842). .....A .bladed wentletrap 

Epltonlum angulatum (Say, 1830). .A angulate wentletrap 

Epltonlum aplcu latum (Dall, 1869) A semismooth wentletrap 

Epltonlum babylonlum (Dall, 1889) A tower wentletrap 

Epltonlum blalnel Clench and Turner, 1953 A Blaine wentletrap 

Epltonlum candeanum (d'Orblgny, 1842) A Cande wentletrap 

Epltonlum champlonl Clench and Turner, 1952.......A Champion wentletrap 

Epltonlum dentlculatum (Sowerby, 1844) A tooth-rib wentletrap 

Epltonlum echlnat lcostum (d'Orblgny, 1842) A.. wide-coil wentletrap 

Epltonlum f ollacelcostum (d'Orblgny, 1842) A.. ... .wrinkle-rib wentletrap 

Epltonlum f ractum Dall, 1927 A humble wentletrap 

Epltonlum frielel (Dall, 1889) A Friele wentletrap 

Epltonlum Humphreys 11 (Kiener, 1838) A Humphreya wentletrap 

Epltonlum krebail (Morch, 1874) A Krebs wentletrap 

Epltonlum lamellosum (Lamarck, 1822) *. A. ...... .lamellose wentletrap 

Epitoniuro matt hews ae Clench and Turner, 1952 A Matthews wentletrap 

Epltonlum dhj It 1 striatum (Say, 1826) A many-ribbed wentletrap 

Epltonlum novangliae (Couthouy, 1838) A New England wentletrap 

Epltonlum occldentale (Nyst, 1871) A fine-ribbed wentletrap 

Epltonlum pourtaleaii 

(A.E. Verrill and S.I. Smith, 1880) A Pourtale's wentletrap 

Epltonlum rupicolum (Kurtz, I860)... A.. brown-band wentletrap 

Epltonlum rushll (Dall, 1889) A frosted wentletrap 

Epltonlum serlcifllum (Dall, 1889) A silky wentletrap 

Epltonlum tollini Bartsch, 1938 A Tollln wentletrap 

Epltonlum unifaaciatum (Sowerby, 1844). .....A. one-band wentletrap 

Nitldiscala caamanoi (Dall and Bartsch, 1910) P tabulate wentletrap 

NitldlacalT callfornica (Dall, 1917) P California wentletrap 

Nltidiacala catalinae (Dall, 1908) P 

Nitldiscala catallnensls (Dall, 1917) P 

Nltidiacala hlndsli (Carpenter, 1856) P Hinds wentletrap 

Nitldiscala Indianorum (Carpenter, 1865) .....P... money wentletrap 

Nitldiscala" sawlnae (Dall, 1903) P Sawln wentletrap 

Nitldiscala tlncta (Carpenter, 1864) P tinted wentletrap 

Nystiella atlantis Clench and Turner, 1952 A Atlantic wentletrap 

Nystiella concava (Dall, 1889) A concave wentletrap 

Opalia abbotti Clench and Turner, 1952 A Abbott wentletrap 

Opalla andrewsii (A.E. Verrill, 1882) A Andrews wentletrap 

Opalia aurifilia (Dall, 1889) A fine-mesh wentletrap 

Opalia borealis~ Keep, 1881 P boreal wentletrap 

Opalia burryi Clench and Turner, 1950 A Burry wentletrap 

Opalia crenata (Linnaeus , 1758) A coarse wentletrap 

Opalia eolis Clench and Turner, 1950 A cancellata wentletrap 

Opalla funiculata (Carpenter, 1857) P scalloped wentletrap 

Opalia hotessieriana (d'Orblgny, 1842) A pitted wentletrap 

Opalla lnfrequens (C.B. Adams, 1852) P sparse wentletrap 

Opalla montereyensis (Dall, 1907) P Monterey wentletrap 

Opalla pumilio (Morch, 1874) A dwarf wentletrap 

Opalia sponglosa (Carpenter, 1866) P spongy wentletrap 

Sthenorytls pernobills 

(P. Fischer and Bernardi, 1857) A noble wentletrap 

Aclldldae 

Aclis carollnensis Bartsch, 1911 A Carolina aclis 

Aclls eolis Bartsch, 1947 A Eolls aclla 

Aclia hypergonla Schwengel and McGinty, 1942 A angular aclla 

Aclis lata Dall, 1889 A wide aclis 

Aclis occldentalis Hemphill, 1894 P Pacific aclia 

Aclls Bhepardiana Dall, 1919 P Shepard aclls 

Aclls striata A.E. Verrill, 1880 A striate aclia 

Aclls tenuis A.E. Verrill, 1882 A thin aclls 

Aclls turrita Carpenter, 1864 P turret ed aclis 

Aclis underwoodae (Bartsch, 1947) A Underwood aclis 

Bermudaclis tampaensis Bartsch, 1947 A Tampa Bay aclia 

Henrya morrlaoni Bartsch, 1947 A Morrison aclis 

Schwengelia hendersoni (Dall, 1927) A ...Henderson aclis 

Eulimidae 

Balcis thersites (Carpenter, 1864) p 

Cythnia alblda Carpenter, 1864 P 

Ersllla stancyki Waren, 1980 A. ..eastern brittlestar snail 

Eullraa fulvocincta C.B. Adams, 1850 A brown-varice eulima 

Eulima schwengelae (Bartsch, 1938) P 

Eullmostraca hemphilli (Dall, 1884) A brown eulima 

Eullmostraca subcarlnata (d'Orblgny, 1842) A brown-line eulima 

Melanella arcuata (C.B. Adams, 1850) A twisted eulima 

Helanella bakerl Bartsch, 1917 P 

Melanella berry! Bartsch, 1917 p 

Helanelfa" callfornica Bartsch, 1917 P 

Melanella catalinenBis Bartach, 1917 P Catallna eulima 

Helanella columbiana Bartsch, 1917 P 

Helanella comoxenBis Bartach, 1917 P 

Melanella compacta Carpenter, 1864 P 

Helanella conoldea Kurtz and Stimpson, 1851 A conoidal eulima 

Melanella delmontensls 

(A.G. Smith and Gordon, 1948). ,P 

Melanella elongata 

Buquoy, DollfuB and Dautzenberg, 1883... A 

Melanella eulimoides (C.B. Adams, 1850) A grooved eulima 

Melanella gibba De Folin, 1867 A 

Melanella gracilis (C.B. Adams, 1850) A 

Melanella grippi Bartach, 1917 P 

Melanella Jamalcenals (C.B. Adams, 1845) A Jamaica eulima 

Melanella lastra Bartach, 1917 P 

Melanella ma era Bartsch, 1917 „....P 



Melanella mlcans (Carpenter, 1864) P Carpenter eulima 

Helanella montereyensis Bartsch. 1917 p Monterey eulima 

Melanella oldroydi Bartsch, 1917 p 

Melanella penlnsularls Bartsch, 1917 p ...."Bal a eulima 

Melanella randolphl Vanatta. 1899 p 

Melanella rutila (Carpenter, 1864) P ,..!!!"".auburn"eulima 

Helanella tacomaensis Bartsch, 1917 p Tacoraa eulima 

Helanella titubans (S.S. Berry, 1956) P. 

Niso aegfees Bush, 1885 A. 

Nlao hendersoni Bartsch, 1953. A. 

Niso hipolltensia Bartsch, 1917 p. 

Niso lomana Bartsch, 1917 ,,p. 

Qceanlda graduate De Folin, 1871 A. 

Oceanida lnglel Lyons, 1978 A. 

Pelseneeria stimpsoni (A.E. Verrill, 1872) A. 



.brown-line niso 
..Henderson niso 
...Hipolito niso 



•shouldered eulima 



Sablnella troglodytes (Thiele, 1925) A pencll-epine eulima 

Scalenostoma " babylonia Bartsch. 1912 p keeled eulima 

Strombiformls alaskensis Bartsch, 1917 p Alaska eulima 

Stromblformls almo Bartsch, 1917 p ximo eulima 

Strombiformls auricinctuB Abbott. 1958 A gold-stripe eulima 

StromblformiB bifasciatus d'Orblgny. 1842 A two-band eulima 

Strombiformls bilineatuB Alder. 1848 A two-line eulima 

Strombiformls callfornicuB Bartach. 1917 P California eulima 

Strombiformls patula (Dall and Simpson, 1901) A largemouth eulima 

Entoconchidae 

Enteroxenos parasitlchopoli (Tikasingh, 1961) P 

Entocolax ludwlgli Voigt , 1888 p ,..[',. ','. 

Thyonlcola amerlcana Tikasingh, 1961 P ..."!!!!!""!1!I! 



Aporrhaidae 

Aporrhats occldentalis Beck. 1836 A ,Ac American pelicanfoot 

Strombidae 

S trombus alatua Gmelln, 1791 A Florida fighting conch 

Strombus costatus Gmelin, 1791 A milk conch 

S trombus gallua Linnaeus, 1758..... A..*. ■•■■• ..rooster tail conch 

Strombus glgas Linnaeus , 1758 ••••A .pink o£ queen conch 

Strombus pu gills Linnaeus, 1758 A. .West Indian fighting conch 

Strombus ranlnus Gmelln, 1791 A. hawkwing conch 

Hlpponlcidae 

Hipponix antiquatus (Linnaeus, 1767) ...A,P white hoof snail 

Hjpponix subrufus (Lamarck, 1819) A,(P) orange hoofsnail 

Hi pponix tumens Carpenter, 1864 P ribbed hoofanail 

Fosaaridae 

FosBarus bellus (Dall, 1889) A beautiful fossarus 

Fossarus compactus (Dall, 1889) A compact foasarus 

FoBBaruB elegana 

A.E. Verrill and S.I. Smith, 1882 A elegant fossarus 

Macromphallna adamsli (Fischer, 1857) A Adams macromphaline 

Macromphallna callfornica Dall, 1903 P.. . .Calif ornia macromphaline 

Macromphallna floridana Moore, 1965 A Florida macromphaline 

Macromphallna palmalitoris 

Pilebry and McGlnty, 1950. ..A.. Palm Beach macromphaline 
Macromphallna plerrot Gardner, 1948 A Pierrot macromphaline 

Vanlkoroidae 

Vanlkoro oxychone Morch, 1877 A West Indian vanikoro 

Capulidae 

CapuluB calif ornicus Dall, 1900 P California capanail 

Capulus lncurvatus (Gmelin, 1791) A incurved capsnail 

Capulus ungarlcua (LinnaeuB, 1767) A, Ac fool's capsnail 

Trichotropidae 

Torellia ammonia Dall, 1919 P 



Torellla f imbriata 

A.E. Verrill and S.I. Smith, 1882 A. 

Torellia vallonia Dall, 1919 P. 



torellia" vestlta Jeffreys, 1867 

Trlchotropis blcarlnata (Sowerby, 1825) A.P.Ac two-keel hairyanall 

Trichotropls borealls 

Broderlp and Sowerby, 1829. . .A, P, Ac boreal hairysnall 

Trichotropls cancellata (Hinds, 1843) P cancellate hairyanall 

Trichotropls co rona t a Gould, 1860 P.Ac 

Trlchotropis I nsigni a Mlddendorf f , 1849 . ...P gray hairysnall 

Trichotropls kroyeri Philippi, 1848 P,Ac 

Trlchotropis migrans Dall, 1881 A 

Calyptraeldae 

Calyptraea burchi A.G. Smith and Gordon, 1948 P Burch Chinese hat 

Calyptraea centralis (Conrad, 1841) A circular Chinese hat 

Calyptraea fastlgiata Gould, 1856 P Pacific Chinese hat 

Chellea equestris (Linnaeus, 1758) A, (P). . . .f alse cup -and -saucer 

Crepldula aculeata (Gmelin, 1791) A,P Bplny slippersnail 

Crepidula" adunca Sowerby, 1825 P hooked Blippersnail 

Crepldula convexa Say, 1822 A, [P(I)].. convex slippersnail 

Crepidula" fornicata (Linnaeus, 1758) A,[P(I)j common Atlantic 

allppersnail 

Crepidula grandls Middendorff, 1849 P great slippersnail 

Crepldula maculosa Conrad, 1846 A spotted slippersnail 

Crepldula naticarum Williamson, 1905 P 

Crepldula norrlsiarum Williamson, 1905 



Crepidula nu miliaria Could, 1846. 



.P... Norrla slippersnail 

.P. .western white slippersnail 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(11):203 




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Terry Gosliner's book on South African opisthobranchs will not be 
published by Verhoef in South Africa. An agreement is working 
with Dan Gotshall to publish it with Sea Challengers. 

Scott Johnson did a good review of Jeff Hamann's nudibranch 
calendar in the November issue of Hawaiian Shell News . The 
calendar is both beautiful and functional. See ad in this issue for 
more details. [STB#90692] 

Abbott, R. Tucker. 1984. Collectible Shells of Southeastern U.S., 
Bahamas, and Caribbean. Amer. Malacologists, Inc., Melbourne, 
Florida, 64 pp., many colorphotos. [Formanyyears therehas beena 
need for a really excellent and inexpensive all-color guide to the 
readily collected shells of the southeastern United States and the 
Caribbean. With his latest book Dr. Abbott has filled this need and 
provided the person new to shells and shelling an authoritative 
booklet that gives common name, scientific name (with author and 
date), habitat, and relative availability of 300 species of mollusks. 
It is important to note that a special edition of this book has been 
issued for the Florida tourist trade under the name Collectible 
Florida Shells . Both titles are also available printed on a special 
waterproof, tearproof plastic paper. — Walter Sage; STB#90816& 
STB#90817] 

Vokes, Harold E. & Emily H.Vokes, 1983. Distribution of Shallow- 
Water Marine Mollusca, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Meso- 
american Ecology Institute Monograph 1, Middle American 
Research Institute, Tulane Univ., New Orleans, Louisiana, 183pp., 
50 pis. [Illustrates nearly 800 species of mollusks from Isla Carmen on 
the Gulf of Mexico to Belize on the Caribbean coast of the Yucatan 
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NOTES FROM HANS BERTSCH: 

AN INTERNATIONAL RECONNAISSANCE 
EXPEDITION TO BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR, 
MEXICO: PART II. 



Last month I confessed my love affair with 
Baja California and described some of the 
logistics of the recent research expeditions 
sponsored by the California Academy of Sciences. 
In that column we concentrated on a "peripatetic" 
survey of the southern coastline of Baja 
California completed during January. This 
month's column discusses the June-July trip we 
made, and describes some of the mollusks we 
found on both trips. 

The June-July expedition explored one of the 
more isolated regions of Baja California — the 
western-protruding Punta Eugenia peninsula. 
We left the paved road at Crucero del Pacif ico, 
about 10 miles north of San Ignacio and drove 
nearly 500 miles over washboard scrapings;across 
dry, desolate fossil-laden terraces; through 
narrow canyons gouged out by flash floods and 
past hillsides covered with pink-blooming 
elephant trees. We travelled through small 
fishing villages where the only drinking water 
available is either hauled to town in rusty 55 
gallon drums on exhaust-spewing trucks or is 
made from ocean water at a local desalination 
plant. There are no telephone wires or electric 
lines between towns. Communication is by radio 
or microwave; electricity is made at local diesel- 
powered generating stations. 

One of the most bizarre driving experiences I 
have ever had was on the broad salt marsh flats 
northwest of Punta Abreojos. The road liftsover 
a small sand hill leaving town, then crosses 
hardpan that parallels a mangrove-lined estuary. 
The road is a hard-packed scar crossing a salt 
marsh that divides and rejoins itself. One must 
choose carefully .... the"main road"can becovered 
with hypersaline water while some of the detours 
are dry! Surrealistic mirages completely sur- 
rounded us. Wedrove straightacross aconstantly 
changing island of sand, keeping our eyes close in 
front of us. The dry road was only immediately 
around us. Everywhere else we looked, we saw 
water. One could understand the source of those 
ancient cosmological myths that described the 
earth as an island surrounded by a flat sea. To 
our vision, we were driving right into the sea, and 
straight out of it! It would have inspired even 



The roads were hard on the vehicles. We had 5 
flat tires, two broken bodyframes (thesupporting 
chassis of Dave's Landrover had to be welded at 
Bahfa Tortugas and at Guerrero Negro), and a 
broken radiator that quickly fumed out all its 
water. It had to be removed, repaired and 
reinstalled in the jeep at San Ignacio! Ah, the 
rigors of Baja California.... 

We finally did get into the water, sampling 
intertidal and subtidal locations in the Punta 
Eugenia area. The biological data we gathered 
gave us a much better perspective on the 
zoogeographic relationships of opisthobranchs 
located along the outer coast of Baja California. 

While at Bahfa Tortugas, we stayedat Centrode 
Acuacultura, the Centro Regional de Investiga- 
ciones Pesqueras, which is under the directorship 
of Biol. Armando Vega Velazquez. He was most 
courteous to us and, along with his staff, 
accompanied us on severalsubtidal researchdives 
at the southeast entrance to the bay. We were 
most grateful for his hospitality and sent him 
copies of some of our publications on Baja 
California marine life when we returned to the 
U.S. 

On both trips we were interested mainly in the 
opisthobranch mollusk fauna (Gosliner,Ghiselin, 
and Bertsch, in press). Our January expedition 
had concentrated on the extreme southern tip of 
Baja California Sur, from Bahia Magdalena, to 
Cabo San Lucas, to Las Cruces. We also made a 
collecting stop at Loretto, about one-third of the 
way into the Gulf of California along the Baja 
California coastline. The animals were nearly all 
Panamic species; we found very few Californian 
species. 

This Panamic dominance can be seen from the 
chromodorid nudibranchs that we collected. 
Chromodorids were not seen at Bahia Magdalena. 
At Loreto and 5 sites between CaboSan Lucasand 
Las Cruces, we collected over 40 specimens of 7 
species of these colored nudibranchs: Chromodoris 
baumanni Bertsch, 1970, C. norrisi Farmer, 1963,C 
sp., Glossodoris sedna (Marcus & Marcus, 1967), G. 
dalli (Bergh, 1879), Hypselodoris agassizii (Bergh, 
1894) and H. ghiselini Bertsch, 1978. The 
Hypselodoris ghiselini was the most common 
species we found, and totalled nearly 50% of the 
chromodorids we encountered. These are all 
tropical eastern Pacific species; we did notcollect 
any of the three Californian temperate species 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(11):206 




Glossodoris sedna, underwater photo at 18.3 m 
depth, Cabo San Lucas, 19 January, 1984. 



Sclerodoris tanya, collected intertidally at Bahia 
Tortugas, 29 June, 1984. 




Hypselodoris agassizii, underwater photo, Puerto 
Chileno, 20 January, 1984. 



Copulating pair of Hypselodoris ghiselini, Puerto 
Chileno, 20 January, 1984. 




Chromodoris baumanni, 30 mm, 17 m depth, at 
Cabo San Lucas, 19 January, 1984. 



Polycera atra (11 mm) and P. hedgpethi (12 mm), 
collected 28 June, 1984, from Bahia Tortugas. 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(11):207 



during the January trip. These data tell us that 
the southern Gulf of California coast of Baja 
California Sur isdistinctly Panamic tropical inits 
faunal composition. The zone of overlap 
between the temperate and tropical waters is 
restricted to the outer coast of the Baja California 
peninsula. 

Our second expedition, collecting in the 
immediate environs of Punta Eugenia, gave us 
totally different results. We collected 51 species, 
4-7 of which are probably unnamed species. The 
named species were either Panamic tropical, 
Californian warm temperate, or shared Cali- 
fornian-Panamic species. For instance, Chromo- 
doris norrisi Farmer, 1963, Polycera alabe Collier 
& Farmer, 1964, and Tambjaeliora (Lance, 1968) 
are distinctly tropical species (Keen, 1971), at the 
northern margin of their normal distribution. 
Chromodoris macfarlandi Cockerell, 1901, and 
Polycera atra MacFarland, 1905, are Californian 
species near their known southern distributional 
limits (Bertsch, 1978 and Bertsch, 1983). Spurilla 
chromosoma Cockerell in Cockerell & Eliot, 1905, 
and Sclerodoris tanya (Marcus, 1971) are species 
that are fairly well known from southern 
California and from the Gulf of California. 

Polycera hedgpethi Marcus, 1964, has been 
reported from Marin County, California, toBahia 
de los Angeles in the Gulf of California (Behrens, 
1980), but its distribution along the outer coast of 
Baja California has not been documented often. 
It is of note that Behrens (1983) reports P. 
hedgpethi from Bahia Sebastian Vizcaino, and 
that we found this species at Bahia Tortugas, La 
Balisa south of Punta Abreojos, and at Campo 
Rene, along the entrance to Estero Coyote. This 
species has recently been reported from South 
Africa (Gosliner, 1982), Australia and New 
Zealand (Willan & Coleman, 1984). 

The history of our knowledge of Sclerodoris 
tanya is most revealing. It was originally named 
from one specimen collected at Newport Bay, 
California. During the next ten years, it was 
found frequently in the San Diego area, and 
collected at various times throughout the Gulf of 
California (Bertsch, 1981). Since then it has been 
collected along the northeastern coastline of Baja 
California (Bertsch, 1983). We found Sclerodoris 
tanya at Bahia Tortugas, a significant midpoint 
between its previously disjunct known collecting 
sites from northwestern Baja California and Isla 
San Jose in the southern Gulf of California. 



Sclerodoris tanya emphasizes the importance of 
research along the outer Baja California coastline 
as there are many gaps in our knowledge of 
species' distributions. Many species are known 
only from either the adjacent northern or 
southern faunal regions. Probably many more 
species will be found to occur along the central 
Baja California coastline. Panamic species are 
regularly being reported from the outer coast of 
Baja California Sur. Based on our collections of 
opisthobranchs it appears the southern Pacific 
coastline of the Baja California peninsula is a 
major provincial ecotone. EugeneP. Odum(1971: 
157) defined ecotone as a boundary region 
between two communities: 

An ecotone is a transition between two or more diverse 
communities as, for example, between forest and 
grassland or between a soft bottom and hard bottom 
marine community. It is a junction zone or tension belt 
which may have considerable linear extent but is narrower 
than the adjoining community areas themselves. The 
ecotonal community commonly contains many of the 
organisms of each of the overlapping communities and, in 
addition, organisms which are characteristic of and often 
restricted to the ecotone. Often, both the number of 
species and the population density of some of the species 
are greater in the ecotone than in the communities 
flanking it. The tendency for increased variety and 
density at community junctions is known as the edge 
effect . 

It is certainly not an inappropriate broadening of 
the term to apply it to the overlapping area 
between two marine faunal provinces. 

Having two different bodies of water so close 
together gives Baja its own unique zoogeography. 
I am reminded of Panama and Hawaii. Panama is 
bounded by two tropical seas: the Caribbean and 
the eastern Pacific. Although the shores are a 
scant 90-minute train ride apart, the animalshave 
been separated for a million or more years and 
have speciated into two major faunal assem- 
blages. There is very little faunal interchange 
between these two regions today. On the 
Hawaiian Island of Oahu, different species of 
chromodorids occur in different leeward and 
windward habitats (Bertsch & Johnson, 1980). 
But all the animals are basically tropical central 
Pacific or Indo-Pacific species. By contrast, 
animals from the eastern coast of Baja California 
Sur are Panamic in nature whereas animals from 
the outer coast of Baja California area mixtureof 
Californian temperate water and Panamic 
tropical water species, and a large percentage of 
shared species. There are very different 
isolating barriers operating in these areas with 
varying efficiencies. The excitement of zoogeo- 
graphic studies is discovering the many ways 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(11):208 



different animals have evolved and adapted to 
different geographic regions. 

There will be lots to write about Baja 
California in future columns. In fact, as I write 
these paragraphs, I am planning a research trip to 
Bahia de los Angeles with Drs. Terrence M. 
Gosliner and Antonio J. Ferreira; possibly, 
David Mulliner will be there. It should be a 
productive trip. 

REFERENCES 

Behrens, David W. 1980. Pacific coast nudibranchs: aguide to the 

opisthobranchs of the northeastern Pacific. Sea Challengers, Los 

Osos, Calif., 112 pp. 
Behrens, David W. 1983. Report on the 1982 Outer Baja California 

Expedition. Opisthobranch Newsletter, 1<5(4): 18-19. 
Bertsch, Hans. 1978. The Chromodoridinae nudibranchs from the 

Pacific coast of America. — Part II. The genus Chromodoris . 

Veliger, 20(4):307-327. 
Bertsch, Hans. 1981. Rectification of the generic placement of 

Sclerodoris tanya (Marcus. 1971), comb. nov.,a nudibranchfrom 

southern California, with a range extension to the Gulf of 

California, Mexico. Veliger, 23(3):217-220. 
Bertsch, Hans. 1983. Estudios de ecosistemas bentonicosa lo largo 

delacosta noroccidentalde Baja California, Mexico: Distribucion 

y presa de varios invertebrados marinos. Ciencias Marinas, 

8(2):91-123. 
Gosliner, Terrence M. 1982. A new record of the nudibranch 

gastropod Polvcera hedgpethi Marcus, from the Indian Ocean of 

South Africa. Jour. Moll. Stud., 48:30-35. 
Gosliner, Terrence M., Michael T. Ghiselin & Hans Bertsch. In press. 

Opisthobranch mollusks of the Punta Eugenia region (Baja 

California Sur, Mexico), with a discussion of biogeographical 

affinities. Western Soc. Malacologists, Ann. Rept., 17. 
Keen, A. Myra. 1971. Sea shells of tropical west America. Marine 

mollusks from Baja California to Peru. 2nd edition. Stanford 

Univ. Press, Stanford, Calif., xiv + 1064 pp. 
Odum, Eugene P. 1971. Fundamentals of ecology. 3rd edition. 

W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 574 pp. 
Willan, Richard C. & Neville Coleman. 1984. Nudibranchs of 

Australasia. Australasian Marine Photographic Index, Sydney, 

Australia, 56 pp. 

All photographs by Hans Bertsch. 

Dr. Hans Bertsch, 4444 W. Pt. Loma Blvd. #83, San 
Diego, CA92107 



YOUR COLLECTION - A HOW TO 

COLUMN: No. 4. about collecting. 

by Susan J. Hewitt 

If you have a desire to collect, try to specialise 
in something local to your area. Consider landor 
fresh water species if you don't live near the coast. 
Many of theseare quitefascinating, especially the 
smaller forms. If you find it hard to get oriented 
in these more unusual areas of collecting, contact 
your nearest Natural History Museum. The staff 
are usually more than happy to help a keen 
enthusiastic amateur who is interested in a 
scientific approach, especially if you offer to 
donate some of the results of your endeavors to 
the Museum. 

Try not to think of collecting as simply 
accumulating objects. If you cannot add some- 
thing to the total sum of biological information 
by making a collection, then taking live animals, 
disturbing local ecology and threatening 
population levels of rare species, is really only a 
form of vandalism. Unfortunatly, buying shells 
is very often a way of encouraging thisvandalism 
in others. 

Use collecting to develop your interest, toteach 
yourself about the local fauna, and to learn to 
observe and record. That way you can start to 
amass ideas and information. There is enormous 
scope for amateurs to do excellent origional 
research infield biology. Forexample thedetails 
of the life, reproductive behavior, and growth of 
many common species are virtually unknown. A 
careful amateur making notes over a few years 
can make discoveries well worth publishing. 

The science of malacology (the study of mol- 
lusks), originally called conchology (the study of 
shells), was born out of the efforts of amateurs. 
Amateurs have sustained it throughout itshistory 
and still have a most important role to play. 



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SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(11):209 



COMPARISON OF THE 
MURICIDAE OF THE EASTERN 
PACIFIC AND WESTERN 
ATLANTIC, WITH COGNATE 
SPECIES. 

by Emily H. Vokes 

The subject of cognate species between the 
eastern Pacific and western Atlantic molluscan 
fauna has been the object of much study over the 
years. The most detailed was that of the late 
George Radwin, who in 1969, attempted a 
complete list of cognates (and, incidentally, 
coined the word "cognate" at that time) based on 
material sent to the U.S. National Museum by 
Robert H. Stewart from Payardi Island, on the 
Atlantic coast of Panama. On the basis of his 
count, he arrived at a figure of 29% cognate 
species between the two regions. He suggested 
that, because his study was based upon a single 
collecting site in the Atlantic, the number wasnot 
surprisingly low. 

Since 1969 we have gained a great deal of 
knowledge concerning the two faunas. Keen's 
second edition of Seashells of Tropical West 
America (1971) almost doubled the number of 
species in the first edition (1958), going from 
approximately 1700 to 3300 between the two 
volumes. But the increase in knowledge con- 
tinues. In 1982 a Symposium "updating Keen" 
was held at the 15th Annual Meeting of the 
Western Society of Malacologists, at which time I 
added another ten species to the Muricidae alone 
(Vokes, 1983). 

Much the same sort of "information explosion" 
has been taking place in the western Atlantic, 
even though we have nothingso comprehensive as 
Keen to help us keep track. In an attempt to 
better comprehend the degree of similarity 
between the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific 
faunas I undertook to make a thorough list of all 
known species on both coasts, but only for the 
gastropod family Muricidae. Because of the use 
of Keen as a baseline for the Pacific, I limited the 
western Atlantic fauna to the tropical area also, 
excluding those species endemic to the temperate 
regions. In the Northern Hemisphere, due to the 
Gulf Stream, there is only one (Urosalpinx cinera) 
but in the temperate zone of South America, from 
Rio de Janiero south, there areseveral species that 
are excluded, just as there are numerous species 
both north and south of Keen's tropical zone on 
the West Coast. 



Likewise, the members of the subfamily 
Trophoninae are excluded for they are so poorly 
known as to be almost meaningless. Except for 
these, we find a total of 96 taxa on the eastern 
Pacific coast, and 110 taxa on the Atlantic side. 
But, of this total number, only 36 may be 
considered cognates. So, the figure arrived at by 
Radwin was actually not too far off the mark. 

The following list is based upon many sources 
and includes several species known to me but as 
yet undescribed. There are a number of cases 
where some explanation is due the reader and soa 
series of notes is appended. Cognate species are 
adjacent on same line. Names not listed are 
considered to be synonyms of some listed taxon. 

PACIFIC ATLANTIC 

Family MURICIDAE 
Subfamily Muricinae 

Genus Murex 



lividus tricoronis 

Berry 
elenensis Dall 



anniae Smith* 
bellegladeensis Vokes* 
blakeanus Vokes 



lividus Carpenter 



recurvirostris 
Broderip 



cabritii Bernardi 
chrysostoma Sowerby 
donmoorei Bullis 
messorius 

Sowerby 
olssoni Vokes 
rubidus Baker 
sallasi Rehder & 

Abbott 
tryoni Hidalgo 

in Tryon 
surinamensis Okutani 
sp. cf. elenensis 

Genus Chicoreus 
Subgenus Chicoreus s.s. 

brevifrons (Lamarck) 
bullisi Vokes 
cosmani Abbott & 

Finlay 
dilectus (A. Adams) 
florifer (Reeve) 
mergus Vokes 
spectrum (Reeve) 
Subgenus Siratus 

aguayoi (Clench & 

Perez Farfante) 
articulatus (Reeve) 
beauii (Fischer & 

Bernardi) 
cailleti (Petit de 

la Saussaye) 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(11):210 



%■/ 1 







Plate 1 -- MURICINAE, TYPHINAE 

1. Murex lividus tricoronis 2. M. blakeanus 3. M. lividus 4. M. messorius 5. Poirieria (Pazinotus) advenus 6. P.(P.) bowdenensis 7. 
Aapella pollux 8. A, castor 9. A. pyramidalis 10. A. cryptica 11. A. hastula 12. A. morchi 13. Dermomurex ( Dermomurex ) indentatus 
14. D.(D.) alabastrum 15. D.(D.) obeliscus 16. D.(D.) pauperculua 17. D.( Gracilimurex ) bakeri 18. D.(G.) elizabethae 19. 
D.( Trialatella ) cunninghamae 2Q.D.(T.l abyssicola 21. Attiliosanodulosa 22. A. philippiana 23. Calotrophon turritus 24. C. ostrearum 
25. Typhis ( Talityphis ) latipennis 26. T.(T.) expansus 27. Pterotyphis ( Pterotyphis ) fimbriatus 28. P.(P.) pinnatus 29. Pterotyphis 
( Tripterotyphis ) lowei 30. P.(T.) triangularis 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(11):211 



ciboney (Clench & 
Perez Farfante) 
consuela (Verrill) 
formosus (Sowerby) 
gundlachi (Dunker) 
motacilla (Gmelin) 
perelegans Vokes 
springeri (Bullis) 
thompsoni (Bullis) 
Subgenus Phyllonotus 
brassica (Lamarck) 

erythrostoma globosus (Emmons)* 

(Swainson) 

margaritensis 
(Abbott) 
n. sp. oculatus (Reeve) 

peratus (Keen) pomum (Gmelin) 

regius (Swainson) 

Genus Hexaplex 
Subgenus Muricanthus 
ambiguus (Reeve) 
callidinus (Berry) 
nigritus (Philippi) 

princeps (Broderip) fulvescens (Sowerby) 

radix (Gmelin) 

Genus Pterynotus 
Subgenus Pterynotus s.s. 

guesti Harasewych & 

Jensen 
lightbourni Hara- 
sewych & Jensen 
phaneus (Dall) 
phyllopterus (Reeve) 
radwini Harasewych 

& Jensen 
xenos Harasewych 
Subgenus Pterochelus 

ariomus (Clench & 
Perez Farfante) 
Subgenus Purpurellus 
macleani Emerson 

& D'Attilio 
pinninger (Broderip) 

Genus Poirieria 
Subgenus Poirieria s.s. 

actinophorus (Dall) 
Subgenus Paziella 

atlantis (Clench & 
Perez Farfante) 
nuttingi (Dall) 
oregonia (Bullis) 
pazi (Crosse) 
galapagana (Emerson 
& D'Attilio) 

Subgenus Pazinotus 



advenus (Poorman) 



bowdenensis Vokes* 
hystricinus (Dall) 
stimpsonii (Dall) 
Subgenus Panamurex 

carnicolor (Clench & 

PSrez Farfante) 
velero Vokes 
Genus Aspella 



pollux Radwin & 

D'Attilio 
pyramidalis (Broderip) 

hastula (Reeve) 



castor Radwin 
& D'Attilio 
cryptica Radwin & 

D'Attilio 
morchi Radwin 

& D'Attilio 
senex Dall* 
n. sp. Vokes, in press 

Genus Dermomurex 
Subgenus Dermomurex s.s. 
indentatus (Carpenter) alabastrum (A. 



obeliscus (A. Adams) 



Adams) 
pauperculus (C.B. 
Adams) 



n. sp. Vokes, in press 

Subgenus Gracilimurex 
bakeri (Hertlein & Strong)elizabethae (McGinty) 

Subgenus Trialatella 
cunninghamae (Berry) abyssicola (Crosse) 

oxum Petuch 
Subgenus Takia 
myrakeenae (Emerson 
& D'Attilio) 

Genus Calotrophon 

andrewsi Vokes 
turritus (Dall) ostrearum (Conrad) 

Genus Attiliosa 

aldridgei (Nowell- 
Usticke) 
nodulosa (A. Adams) philippiana (Dall) 

Subfamily Muricopsinae 
Genus Murexiella 



diomedaea (Dall) 
exigua (Broderip) 
humilis (Broderip) 
keenae Vokes 
lappa (Broderip) 
laurae Vokes 
mildredae Poorman 

7 

minuscula (Smith) 
perita (Hinds) 
radicata (Hinds) 
radwini Emerson 

& D'Attilio 
santarosana (Dall) 
venustula Poorman 
vittata (Broderip) 



hidalgoi (Crosse) 
levicula (Dall) 
macgintyi (Smith)* 
n. sp. 1 

glypta (Smith)* 
n. sp. 2 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(11):212 




■ # 25b 

Plate 2 - MURICOPSINAE, OCENEBRINAE 

l. Murexielladiomedea 2. M.hidalgoi 3. M. exigua 4. M. levicula 5.M. humilis 6. M. macgintyi 7. M. lappa 8.M. gIypta 9. M. laurae 
10.M.n.sp.2 11. Fa vartia ( Favartia ) incisa 12. F. (F.) nucea 13.F. (Canbiella) erosa 14. F. (C.) alveata 15. F. ( Pygmaepterys ?) peasei 
16.F. (P.?)j uanitae 17. Acanthotrophon sentus 18. A. striatoides 19. Eupleura muriciformis 20. E. sulcidentata 21. E. triquetra 22. E. 
*L audata 23. Trachypollia lugubris 24. T. sclera 25. Murexsul dirjsacus (Broderip) [Murex] syntype BM(NH); height 27.3mm; St. Elena, 
Ecuador. 26. Trachypolliaferru ginosa (Reeve) [ Ricinulal .svntypes BMfNH) 198462; a& b) height 17.4mm (Reeve's figured specimen);c) 
height 14.0 mm. [Added on board - "W. Indies - nodulosa C. B. Ad."] 27. Trachypollia nodulosa (C.B. Adams) [ Purpura !, lectotype 
Harvard MCZ 177045; height 15.7 mm; Jamaica. 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(11):213 



Genus Murexsul 

g 

dipsacus (Broderip) 
jacquelinae Emerson 
& D'Attilio 

emipowlusi (Abbott) 
Genus Maxwellia 
angermeyerae (Emerson & 
D'Attilio) 

Genus Homalocantha 
oxyacantha (Broderip) 
tortuus (Broderip 
in Sowerby 

Genus Muricopsis 
Subgenus Muricopsis s.s. 
armatus (A. Adams) oxytata (Smith)* 

jaliscoensis Radwin 

& D'Attilio 
pauxillus (A. Adams) 

praepauxillus 
(Maury)* 
tulensis Radwin & D'Attilio 
zeteki Hertlein & Strong 

huberti Radwin & 

D'Attilio 
oxossi Petuch 
Subgenus Risomurex 

caribbaeus (Bartsch 

& Rehder) 10 
deformis (Reeve) 
gilbertharrisi 

(Weisbord)* 
roseus (Reeve) 1 
n. sp., Vokes & 
Houart, in press 
Genus Favartia 
Subgenus Favartia s.s. 

cellulosa (Conrad) 
minirosea (Abbott) 
incisa (Broderip) nucea (Morch) 

Subgenus Caribiella 
erosa (Broderip) alveata (Kiener) 

purdyae Vokes & D'Attilio 

Subgenus Pygmaepterys? 

germainae (Vokes & 
D'Attilio) 



>12 



„13 



peasei (Tryon) 



14 



juanitae (Gibson- 
Smith & Gibson- 
Smith) 
lourdesae (Gibson- 
Smith & Gibson- 
Smith) 
Genus Acanthotrophon 
carduus (Broderip) 

sentus Berry striatoides Vokes 

sorenseni Hertlein & Strong 



Subfamily Ocenebrinae 

Genus Ocenebra 
fontainei (Tryon) 
lugubris (Broderip) 

Genus Ceratostoma 
monoceros (Sowerby) 
unicorne (Reeve) 

Genus Pteropurpura 
Subgenus Pteropurpura s.s. 
centrifuga (Hinds) 
deroyana Berry 

erinaceoides bequaerti (Clench 

(Valenciennes) & P6rez Farfante) 

Subgenus Calcitrapessa 
leeana (Dall) 

Genus Pterorytis 
hamatus (Hinds) 

Genus Eupleura 
muriciformis (Broderip) sulcidentata Dall 
nitida (Broderip) 
pectinata (Hinds) 

triquetra (Reeve) caudata (Say) 

Genus Urosalpinx 

perrugata (Conrad) 
tampaensis (Conrad) 
Genus Trachypollia 

didyma (Schwengel) 
nodulosa (C.B. Adams) 
lugubris (C.B. Adams) sclera Woodring* 

Subfamily Ergalataxinae 
Genus Cytharomorula 

grayi (Dall) 
Genus Bizetiella 
carmen (Lowe) 
micaela Radwin & D'Attilio 
shaskyi Radwin & D'Attilio 

Genus Pascula 

15 

rufonotata (Carpenter) 
"ferrugitiosa (Reeve)" 

Genus Phyllocoma 
scalariformis (Broderip) 

Genus Ergalatax 
buxeus (Broderip) 

Genus Xanthochorus 
broderipii (Michelotti) 

Genus Vitularia 
salebrosa (King & Broderip) 

Subfamily Typhinae 
Genus Typhis 
Subgenus Haustellotyphis 
cumingii Broderip 

Subgenus Talityphis 
latipennis Dall expansus Sowerby 

Subgenus Typhisopsis 
clarki Keen & Campbell 



17 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(11):214 



,18 



coronatus Broderip 
grandis A. Adams 

Subgenus Rugotyphis 

puertoricensis 
Warmke 
Subgenus Typhinellus 

sowerbii Broderip 
Genus Cinclidotyphis 
myrae DuShane 

Genus Distichotyphis 
vemae Keen & Campbell 

Genus Siphonochelus 
Subgenus Siphonochelus s.s. 

longicornis (Dall) 
radwini Emerson 

& D'Attilio 
riosi (Bertsch 

& D'Attilio)' 
tityrus (Bayer) 
Subgenus Laevityphis 

bullisi Gertman 

19 

Genus Pterotyphis 
Subgenus Pterotyphis s.s. 
fimbriatus (A. Adams) pinnatus (Broderip) 

Subgenus Tripterotyphis 
arcana DuShane 
fayae Keen & Campbell 
lowei (Pilsbry) triangularis (A. 

Adams) 

Notes 

* Originally described as a fossil, but now known to be living in the 
western Atlantic. 

1. In a study of the genus Murex in the Indo-Pacific (to be published 
in Records of the Australian Museum , with Winston Ponder), it 
became painfully obvious that there are no members of Murex s.s. 
in the New World, all should be referred to the subgenus 
Haustellum . 

2. This recently described (1982, Venus, v. 41, p. 102, pi. 1, figs. 1-2; 
text figs. 1,2) taxonis a Murex s.s., with small secondary spines at 
right angles to the major spines, and an operculum with a central 
nucleus, like that in M. nigrispinosus (Radwinand D'Attilio, 1976, 
textfig.42). Iseriously doubt that it is a western Atlantic species. 

3. The species from the Gulf of California that iscalled M.elenensis 
(e.g., Keen, 1971, fig. 975) is not the same as the typical form, which 
is confined to the coast of Ecuador. I know of no occurrences ofthe 
species between Ecuador and the Gulf of California and would 
appreciate hearing of any. 

4. I have no knowledge of any specimens of this species ever having 
been found since it was described in 1945. It is probably an 
adventitious specimen of Pterochelus triformis from Australia. 

5. D'Attilio (1980, Festivus, v. 12, no. 8, p. 95, fig. 1) has referred 
hvstricinus to Paziella . The laminate varices suggest that perhaps 
Pazinotus is a better placement, but I am not certain. 

6. The recently described M. iemania (Petuch, 1979, Proc. Biol. 
Soc. Wash., v. 92, p. 518, figs. 1-1, 1-J) is a synonym. 

7. I have yet to see a specimen that matches Smith's type (re- 
figured in Keen, 1971, fig. 992). I assume it is a valid taxon. 

8. Examination ofthe types of dipsacus in the BM(NH) revealsthat 
it is a Murexsul , not Murexiella . I have not seen any specimens 
from West America that match it, but I assume it is valid, (see pi. 2, 
fig. 25) 



9. The correct name for Murex crispus Broderip non Lamarck, is 
tortuus Broderip in Sowerby , 1834;M. multicrispata is asynonym. 

10. The correct name for Fusus muricoides Adams non Deshayesis 
caribbaeus . 

11. Unfortunately, study of the type collection in the BM(NH) 
disclosed that Ricinula deformis Reeve, 1846, is the correct name 
for the shell usually cited as Engina schrammi Crosse, 1863, the 
type of Risomurex . 

12. Although Cernohorsky (1978, Rec. Auckland Inst . Mus., v. 15, p. 
76, fig. 23) apparently confirmed Reeve's original locality of 
"Philippine Islands" for Ricinula rosea , examination of numerous 
specimens, in addition to the types in the BM(NH), verified that 
rosea is the Caribbean species usually called by that name.Vokes 
and Houart have a paper in press on all of the species of Risomurex 
in which this will be documented. 

13. It is still not certain that the East African type of Pygmaepterys 
is congeneric with the several Favartia -like species placed therein. 
If not, then a new taxon will be necessary as they do form avalid 
group. 

14. Although Radwin and D'Attilio (1976, p. 231) rejected peasei for 
the West Coast species long known by that name, their 
identification of an Indo- Pacific specimen as the "holotype" is 
incorrect and the new name proposed by them as poormani is 
unnecessary, (see Shells and Sea Life 16(10):160) 

15. Regrettably , the genus Evokesia Radwin and D'Attilio, 1972, is a 
synonym of Pascula Dall, 1908. 

16. The type specimens of Ricinula ferruginosa Reeve, 1846, in the 
BM(NH) all prove to be specimens of the Atlantic Trachypollia 
nodulosa (C.B. Adams). This leaves the Pacific species usually 
called " ferruginosa " without aname thatl know of. (see pi. 2, figs. 
26, 27) 

17. Radwin and D'Attilio (1976, p. 201) concluded that T. 
puertoricensis was actually the species usually called T. expansus 
in the western Atlantic and renamed the later T. pe r chardei (p. 
236, figs. 190-193). However, Sowerby's type specimen at the 
National Museum of Wales is indeed that form always so 
considered and T. puertoricensis is not the same. This will be 
discussed in more detail, and the holotype figured, in a forthcoming 
paper by Vokes. 

18. Originally described asoccuring only off southern Brazil, this is 
the same species figured by Bayer (1971, Bull. Mar. Sci.,v. 21, p. 
161, figs. 31, 34A, 35A, 36B) as " longicornis Dall" from the 
Bahamas and Jamaica. Although atypical, it is a Siphonochelus , 
as Bayer indicated, rather than a Typhina , as it was named by 
Bertsch and D'Attilio. 

19. D'Attilio (1982, Festivus, v. 14, no. 8, p. 94) has presented 
convincing evidence that Pterotyphis , Tripterotyphis , and 
Cinclidotyp his are muricine rather than typhine. I agree 
completely, but will leave them in the accustomed place pending a 
more complete review of the problem. 

Literature Cited 

Keen, A.M. 1958. Sea Shells of Tropical West America. Stanford 

Univ. Press, Stanford, Calif., xi+ 624 p., 10 color pis., 1709 figs., 6 

text figs. 
Keen, A.M. 1971. Sea Shells of Tropical West America, Marine 

Mollusksfrom BajaCalifornia toPeru. Second Edition. Stanford 

Univ. Press, Stanford, Calif., xiv + 1064 p., 22 colorpls., ca.4000 

figs., 6 maps. 
Radwin, G.E. 1969. A Recent Molluscan Fauna from the Caribbean 

Coast of Southeastern Panama. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist., Trans., 

15(l4):229-239, 1 text fig. 
Vokes, E.H. 1983. Update of Muricidae for "Sea Shells of Tropical 

West America." Western Soc. Malac, Ann. Rep., 15:10-12. 

All photos with the exception of front cover top left photo by Emily 
H. Vokes. 

Dr. Emily H. Vokes, Department of Geology, 
Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118. 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(11):215 




PACIFIC - Murex elenensis 

Murex cabritii 



PACIFIC 



ATLANTIC 



Murex recurvirostris 
Murex sallasi ■ 



ATLANTIC 




PACIFIC - Muricopsis {Muricopsis) armatus 

M. (M.) oxytata - ATLANTIC 



PACIFIC - Murexiella keenae 

Murexiella n.sp. 



ATLANTIC 




PACIFIC 



Pteropurpura {Pteropurpura) erinaceoides 
P. (P.) bequaerti - ATLANTIC 



PACIFIC - Hexaplex {Muricanthus) princeps 

H. (M.) fulvescens - ATLANTIC 



\dfe 



SHELLS AND SEA LIFE 

A MONTHLY PUBLICATION ON MOLLUSKS AND MARINE LIFE 



$2.50 DECEMBER, 1984 



VOLUME 16, NUMBER 12 




Flabellina trilineata (left), 10 mm long, and the amphipod Podocerus sp. 
(body length, 5 mm) found 30 June, 1984, Middle Cove, Cape Arago, 
Oregon. Jeff Goddard photo. See article starting page 20 of this issue. 

IN THIS ISSUE: Amphipods, Nudibranchs, Gorgonians, Marginellids, 
Anemones and Index to Volume 16. 



INDEX TO SHELLS 
and SEA LIFE 

Volume 16, 1984 

American Malacological Union. 1984. Princi- 
ples G overning Selection of Common Names of 
Aquatic Invertebrates from America North of 
Mexico. S&SL, 16(9):143-145. 
American Malacological Union. 1984. Common 
Names List of North American Terrestrial 
Mollusks. S&SL, 16(10):167-174. 
American Malacological Union. 1984. Common 
Names List of North American Marine 
Gastropods. S&SL, 16(11):199. 
American Malacological Union. 1984. Common 
Names List of North American Marine 
Gastropods, Part 2. S&SL, 16(12):227-230, 
235-238. 
Anderson, Roland. 1984. An Alternate Food for 
some Captive Nudibranchs. S&SL, 16(12):- 
224, 2 photos. 
Behrens, David W.1984. Lamellariids: Masters 
of Disguise. Opisthobranch, 16(4):42-44, 4 
photos. 
Behrens, David W. 1984. Mollusks: A Look at 
their Ecological Importance. S&SL, 16(7):- 
106-108, 1 tbl., 1 photo. 
Behrens, David W. 1984. A Marginellid 
Dilemma. S&SL, 16(12):240-242,2 photos, 4 
figs. 
Behrens, David W.& HansBertsch, 1984. Hid- 
ing the Shell: an -old Twist on the old Shell 
Game. S&SL, 16(8):112-115, figs. 1-7. 
Bernard, John. 1984. Collecting on the Great 
Barrier Reef (Capricornia Section). S&SL, 
16(10):163. 
Bertsch, Hans. 1984. Notes from HansBertsch: 
The Inside-Out Clam: Chlamvdoconcha . 
Opisthobranch, 16(l):7-8, 1 photo. 
Bertsch, Hans. 1984. Notes from HansBertsch: 
Jenneria pustulata , the Pustulate "Cowrie." 
Opisthobranch, 16(2):9-10, figs. 1-3. 
Bertsch, Hans. 1984. Notes from HansBertsch: 
Hawaii's Checkered Cowrie. Opisthobranch, 
16(3):31-32, figs. 1-5. 
Bertsch, Hans. 1984. Notes from HansBertsch: 
Just Living Together: Pecten and Capulus . 
S&SL, 16(4):38-39, figs. 1-4, tbl. 1. 
Bertsch, Hans. 1984. Notes from HansBertsch: 
How Many Species in the Cypraea teres "Com- 
plex"? S&SL, 16(5):62-64, figs. 1-6. 
Bertsch, Hans. 1984. Notes from HansBertsch: 
Cyphoma : The Hump Shells. S&SL, 16(6):- 
85-88, 7 photos. 
Bertsch, Hans. 1984. Notes from HansBertsch: 
The Feeding, Anatomy and Reproductive 
Biology of Cyphoma gibbosum . S&SL, 16- 
(7):89, 100-101, 1 photo. 
Bertsch, Hans. 1984. Notes from HansBertsch: 
The Anatomy and Reproductive Biology of 
Cyphoma gibbosum . S&SL, 16(8):119-122, 
figs. 1-6. 
Bertsch, Hans. 1984. Notes from HansBertsch: 
Deep-Water Rarities: Calliostoma platinum 
and Lima sphoni . S&SL, 16(9):140-142. 
Bertsch, Hans. 1984. Notes from HansBertsch: 
An International Reconnaissance Expedition 
to Baja California Sur, Mexico: Parti. S&SL, 
16(10):182-184, 4 photos. 
Bertsch, Hans. 1984. Notes from HansBertsch: 
An International Reconnaissance Expedition 
to Baja California Sur, Mexico: Part II. 



S&SL, 16(ll):206-209, 6 photos. 
Bertsch, Hans. 1984. Notes from HansBertsch: 
Gorgonians: TheOceans's Fanciful Menorahs 
and Christmas Trees. S&SL, 16(12):246-248, 
2 text figs, 9 photos. 
Bertsch, Hans & Terrence Gosliner, 1984. Tri- 
tonia pickensi (Nudibranchia: Tritoniidae) 
from Baja California, Mexico. S&SL, 16(9):- 
138-139, 5 photos. 
Brookshire, Jack W.1984. Dr. S. Stillman Berry 

1887-1984. S&SL, 16(5):58-59, 1 photo. 
Carmichael, Pete. 1984. Donax variabilis Say, 

1822. S&SL, 16(7):94-95, 1 photo. 
DeLucia, David. 1984. Dealing with Dealers: 
Those Exasperating One-of-a-Kind Shells. 
S&SL, 16(11):197. 
DeLucia, David. 1984. Dealing with Dealers: On 

Returning Shells. S&SL, 16(12):244. 
Donaldson, Sven& SandraMillen, 1984. Float- 
ing Docks: Unique Microcosms lie just 
Beneath YourFeet. S&SL, 16(5):52-53, lfig. 
Donaldson, Sven& SandraMillen, 1984. Wood- 
Wrecking Worms are Actually Calamitous 
Clams. S&SL, 16(9):136-137, 2 photos, lfig. 
Dullas, Norma. 1984. One Way to Start a Shell 

Collection. Opisthobranch, 16(2):13. 
DuShane, Helen. 1984. Casmaria vibex- 
mexicana (Stearns, 1894). Opisthobranch, 
16(4):48, 1 photo. 
Edmunds, Malcolm. 1984. Beginner's Luck. 

Opisthobranch, 16(4):36-37, figs. 1-2. 
Farmer, Wesley M. 1984. Note on Tambja 

eliora. Opisthobranch, 16(2):16, 1 photo. 
Farmer, Wesley M. 1984. The Apricot Slug. 

S&SL, 16(6):79, 1 fig. 
Goddard, Jeff. 1984. Presumptive Batesian 
Mimicry of an Aeolid Nudibranch by an 
Amphipod Crustacean. S&SL, 16(12):217, 
220-222, 3 photos. 
Goldberg, Richard L. 1984. A Species of 
Placostylus from the Solomon Islands. S&SL, 
16(10):162, 2 photos. 
Hamann, Jeff. 1984. New Cadlina from Saudi 

Arabia. S&SL, 16(5):68, 1 photo. 
Hewitt, Susan J. 1984. Your Collection — A 
How-To Column: #1, What Makes a Good 
Collection. S&SL, 16(8):124-125. 
Hewitt, Susan J. 1984. Your Collection ~ A 
How-To Column: No. 2, Labels, Part 1. 
S&SL, 16(10):145. 
Hewitt, Susan J. 1984. Your Collection — A 
How-To Column: No. 3, Labels, Part 2. 
S&SL, 16(10):161. 
Hewitt, Susan J. 1984. Your Collection — A 
How-To Column: No. 4. About Collecting. 
S&SL,16(11):209. 
Hewitt, Susan J. 1984. Your Collection — A 
How-To Column: No. 5. Keeping a Field Note- 
book. S&SL, 16(12):243. 
Innocenti, Boris. 1984. The Intelligent Octopus. 

S&SL, 16(10):181, 3 photos. 
Jensen, KatheR. 1984. A Nomenclatural Prob- 
lem in the Ascoglossa — or: Why One Should 
Never Name a Green Sea-Slug "Viridis". 
S&SL, 16(11):188-190, 1 photo. 
Kerstitch, Alex. 1984. Killer Cone. Opistho- 
branch, 16(2):12-13, 2 photos. 
Kerstitch, Alex. 1984. The Predatory Murex . 

Opisthobranch, 16(3) :29, 2 photos. 
Kerstitch, Alex. 1984. A Threatened Giant. 

S&SL, 16(5):54-55, 4 photos. 
Kerstitch, Alex. 1984. Octopus, The Maligned 

Mollusk. S&SL, 16(6):72-73, 2 photos. 
Kerstitch, Alex. 1984. Partnerships in the Sea. 
S&SL, 16(8):130, 132, 5 photos. 



Liltved, Bill. 1984. Notes on Pedicularia 
elegantissima Deshayes, 1863. S&SL, 16- 
(11):194. 
McLean, James H. 1984. The World of Marine 
Micromollusks. S&SL, 16(9):152-156, 2 pis., 
1 photo. 
Millen,Sandra& Sven Donaldson. 1984. Living 

in Mud. Opisthobranch, 16(4):46-47, 1 fig. 
Mulliner, David K.Note on Haliotis . Orjistho- 

branch, 16(3):20-22, 11 photos. 
Mulliner, David K. 1984. Simnia . Opistho- 
branch, 16(4):33-34, 1 photo. 
Mulliner, David K. 1984. Oliva porphyria 

Linnaeus, 1758. S&SL, 16(8):103, 1 photo. 
Mulliner, David K. 1984. Tritons: the Trumpet 

Shells. S&SL, 16(8):109-110, 1 photo. 
Prince, Stephanie. 1984. Beach Surprises Come 
in Different Packages. S&SL, 16(5):64-65, 
figs. 1-3. 
Prince, Stephanie. 1984. Mitra idae : Califor- 
nia's only Miter Shell. S&SL, 16(6):74-75, 
figs. 1-3. 
Roginskaya, I.S. 1984. A New Record of a Rare 
Species — Tritonia septemtrionalis (Baba, 
1937). Opisthobranch, 16(3):31. 
Roginskaya, I.S. 1984. In Memoriam. Dr 
Zinaida A. Filatova 1905-1984. S&SL, 16- 
(8):118, 1 photo. 
Shasky, Donald R. 1984. A Redescription of 
Oliva foxi Stingley, 1984. S&SL, 16(8):128- 
129, 6 photos. 
Shasky, Donald R. 1984. Mollusks of Cocos 
Island — I: Olivella cocosensis . S&SL, 
16(9):151, 1 photo. 
Shells and Sea Life. 1984. Babelomurex 
ieanneae D'Attilio & Myers, 1984. S&SL, 
16(6):69-70, 1 photo. 
Shells and Sea Life. 1984. Catriona rickettsi 
Behrens, 1984. S&SL, 16(10):179, figs. 1-3. 
St. Jean, Kate. 1984. Xenophoridae Part I: 
Xenophora granulosa and Xenophora tenuis . 
S&SL, 16(7):104-105, 3 photos. 
Stewart, Katherine. 1984. Notes on Haliotis 
squamosa Gray. 1827. S&SL, 16(7):92-95, 2 
photos. 
Thompson, Iva S. 1984. An Unusual Cone. 

S&SL, 16(151):, 1 photo. 
Vaught, Kay C. 1984. Classification Notes: Out- 
line of the Classification of Living Mollusca. 
Opisthobranch, 16(2):15, figs. 1-4. 
Vaught, Kay C. 1984. Classification Notes: Out- 
line of the Classification of Living Mollusca, 
Part 2. Opisthobranch, 16(3):23, 7 figs. 
Vaught, Kay C. 1984. Classification Notes: Out- 
line of the Classification of Living Mollusca, 
Part 3. Opisthobranch, 16(4):45, 6 figs. 
Vaught, Kay C. 1984. Classification Notes: Out- 
line of the Classification of Living Mollusca, 
Part 4. S&SL, 16(5):61, 8 figs. 
Vaught, Kay C. 1984. Classification Notes: An 
Outline of Classification of Living Marine 
Mollusca. S&SL, 16(6):81-82. 
Vokes, Emily H. 1984. On the Identity of 
" Murex " peasei Tryon, and its Generic Place- 
ment. S&SL, 16(10):160-161, figs. 1-4. 
Vokes, Emily H. 1984. Comparison of the 
Muricidae of the Eastern Pacific and Western 
Atlantic, with Cognate Species. S&SL, 16- 
(11):185, 210-215, 4 pis. 
Willan, Richard C. 1984. The Guam Bubble 
Shell Micromelo undatus (Brugiere, 1792) is 
Australia. S&SL, 16(5):49-50, 1 photo. 
Wing, Marjorie. 1984. Shelling in the Maldives 
and Sri Lanka. S&SL, 16(9):148-149, 1 
photo, 1 fig. 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(12):218 



1985 
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SHELLS and SEA LIFE 

formerly the OPISTHOBRANCH 



Editorial Staff 

Managing Editor Steven J. Long 

Assistant Editor Sally Bennett 

Contributing Editor Hans Bertsch 

Photographic Editor David K. Mulliner 

Contributing Editor Tom Rice 



Editorial Review Board 



R. Tucker Abbott 
Hans Bertsch 
Walter O. Cernohorsky 
Eugene V. Coan 
Michael T. Ghiselin 
George L. Kennedy 
William G. Lyons 



David W.Behrens 

Kerry B. Clark 

Malcolm Edmunds 

Terrence Gosliner 

James R. Lance 

T.E. Thompson 



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© Copyright Steven J. Long & Sally Bennett 
1984 



CONTENTS -- DECEMBER, 1984 

Volume 16, Number 12 



218 
220 



224 

225 
227 



239 



240 



209 



246 



Index to Volume 16. 

Presumptive Batesian Mimicry of an Aeolid 

Nudibranch by an Amphipod Crustacean. 

Jeff Goddard. 
An Alternate Food for some Captive Nudibranchs. 

Roland Anderson 
PERSONAL NOTES 
Common Names List of North American Marine 

Gastropods, Part 2. 

American Malacological Union. 
DEALING WITH DEALERS: On Returning Shells 

David DeLucia 
A Marginellid Dilemma. 

David W. Behrens. 
YOUR COLLECTION - A HOW-TO COLUMN: 

No. 5. Keeping a Field Notebook. 

Susan J. Hewitt 
NOTES FROM HANS BERTSCH: Gorgonians: The 

Ocean's Fanciful Menorahs and Christmas Trees. 



EDITOR'S NOTES 

Shells and Sea Life has been growing and growing this 
year. Two hundred and fifty pages plus more than ten 
color photos per issue and many other illustrations. We 
owe a big thank-you to our subscribers, and to ouradverti- 
sers who have helped support the cost of producing the 
magazine. We hope that you will take the time to tell them 
you saw their ad in S&SL. If all of you resubscribe (and 
tell your friends about us) and our list of advertisers con- 
tinues to grow, we should be adding more color pages 
within the next few months. 

The coming year will bring even more with close to four 
hundred pages. We have articles in preparation on all of 
your favorite shells and sea life. Starting soon, we will 
have a series of "what is it" photos of all types of inverte- 
brates for you to identify. If you have a good photo of a 
species you cannot identify, send itin and we will try toget 
in a few each month. We hope that all of you who offered 
to send articles will send them in. We love to have short 
notes, especially field observations on shells and other 
invertebrates. 

Both November and December have been busy for us. 
You saw the results of many of our efforts in the 
November issue. A large (for us) investment in additional 
computer typesetting equipment to allow us more control 
and faster preparation for each issue (and less errors). 
The November issue was mailed out in paper envelopes to 
keep the issues as clean and safe as possible. The cost is 
higher (about $1.50/subscriber/year) but the issues will be 
ready for mailing earlier each month. Sally and I can cer- 
tainly use the time to do other things for the magazine. 

Stay with us and watch us grow! 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(12):219 



PRESUMPTIVE BATESIAN 
MIMICRY OF AN AEOLID 
NUDIBRANCH BY AN AMPHIPOD 
CRUSTACEAN. 

by Jeff Goddard 

Introduction 

Some organisms gain protection from predators 
by resembling conspicuous and unpalatable or 
offensive species that are avoided by predators. 
This resemblance is known as Batesian mimicry. 
The latter species are referred to as models, the 
former as mimics. Though common among some 
groups of terrestrial insects (Wickler, 1968;Owen, 
1980), few examples of Batesian mimicry are 
known to occur in marine invertebrate associa- 
tions (Crane, 1969; Field, 1974; Abbott & Hader- 
lie, 1980:257). 

As noted by Field (1974), opisthobranch mol- 
lusks should make good mimicry models: many are 
distasteful to predators, possess bright warning 
coloration, and are often quite abundant. Yet, to 
my knowledge, no examples of Batesian mimicry 
involving an opisthobranch have been reported in 
the literature. In this note I describe what 
appears to be Batesian mimicry of an aeolid nudi- 
branch Flabellina trilineata (O'Donoghue, 1921) 
by an intertidal amphipod crustacean from Cape 
Arago, Oregon. 

The Aeolid 

Flabellina trilineata is the most abundant aeolid 
nudibranch at Cape Arago (Goddard, 1984) and 
one of the most abundant nudibranchs in the 
northeastern Pacific (Nybakken, 1974; Beeman & 
Williams, 1980; pers. obs.). During low tide at 
Cape Arago, F. trilineata is usually found in 
shaded, rocky habitats feeding on its major prey, 
the hydroid Tubularia marina (Torrey, 1902), or is 
observed crawling in the open, presumably 
searching for Tubularia, other hydroids, or mates 
(pers. obs.). With its moderate size, bright orange 
to red cerata, white cephalic tentacles and rhino- 
phores, and three longitudinal,opaque white lines 
on its otherwise translucent body, F. trilineata is 
conspicuous even on Tubularia. The colors and 
color pattern of F. trilineata probably warn visual 
predators that it -is distasteful. As with many 
other aeolids, distastefulness is at least partially 
conferred by the presence of nematocysts 
acquired from its hydroid prey and stored in 
cnidosacs at the cerata tips (Beeman & Williams, 
1980). Noxious secretions are known to be pro- 
duced by some aeolids (Edmunds, 1966, cited by 



Thompson, 1976:52) and may also beutilized byF. 
trilineata. In the field I have occasionally 
observed F. trilineata crawling with seeming 
impunity directly in front of tidepool sculpin. 




Figure 1. Same individuals of Podocerus sp. and 
Flabellina trilineata as in cover photograph. 

Preliminary laboratory observations are con- 
sistent with previously published observations 
that Flabellina trilineata is distasteful to some 
predators. A potential visual predator of F. 
trilineata, and one of the more common tidepool 
fishes at Cape Arago, is the rosylip sculpin 
Ascelichthys rhodorus Jordan & Gilbert, 1880 (D. 
Varoujean, pers. comm.). Six of these, ranging in 
length from 8 to 1 1 cm, were collected from inter- 
tidal pools at Cape Arago and maintained in an 
aquarium with flowing seawater for one week. 
During their second week of captivity, the sculpin 
were fed bits of clam meat at the same time each 
day. The fish approached and rapidly ingested 
the meat either after it had reached bottom or as it 
was falling. At feeding time on day 15, 12 F. 
trilineata, instead of clam meat, were dropped one 
by one into the aquarium. With the exception of 
two fish that moved closer to inspect the aeolids, 
the sculpin showed no response. This suggests 
that either they recognize some aspect of F. 
trilineata and associate it with a bad meal or are 
indifferent. Further observations, using a 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(12):220 



number of potential predators, are needed to con- 
firm the unpalatability of F. trilineata. 

The Amphipod 

On 29 June, 1984, while searching for opistho- 
branchs in the semi-protected, rocky, low- 
intertidal at Middle Cove, Cape Arago, I turned 
over a submerged boulder and spotted what 
appeared to be an individual of Flabellina 
trilineata. F. trilineata often occur on Tubularia 
on the undersides of low-intertidal boulders at 
Cape Arago. Upon looking closer to see if the 
"aeolid" was on or near any hydroids I realized 
that I was looking at an amphipod crustacean and 
not a mollusk. The amphipod had a body length 
of about 5 mm and was clinging to the rock with 
its legs (posterior pereopods). With some diffi- 
culty the animal was removed from the rock and 
placed in a jar. I observed two more specimens on 
the side of the boulder and gently prodded one of 
them into crawling into another jar. 

As seen in the cover photograph and Figures 1 
and 2, there is a marked resemblance between the 
amphipod and Flabellina trilineata, a resemblance 
all the more remarkable in that it is between mem- 
bers of two phyla possessing very different basic 
structural designs. The white antennae of the 
amphipod resemble the cephalic tentacles and 
rhinophores of F. trilineata. The red-orange pig- 
ment is similar to the color of the cerata cores of F. 
trilineata and is positioned on the amphipod in a 
way that approximates two clusters of cerata with 
a few cerata on the side. The cerata of F. 
trilineata insert primarily on the sides of the body 
and occur in distinct clusters (cover photograph, 
Figure 1). 

When the body of the aeolid is arched, as when 
crawling over irregular surfaces, one often sees 
what appear to be two groups of cerata: the 
anterior clusters (one on each side of the body) 
separated by the bare cardiac region from the 
posterior clusters. The amphipod also possesses 
two opaque white lineson itsdorsal surfacewhich 
closely match the white lines on F. trilineata. 
Though F. trilineata has three white lines, from 
most angles of view, only one or two are usually 
visible (cover photograph, Figure 1). 

I noted, as did Field (1974) for the amphipod 
Stenopleustes sp. mimicking snails of the genus 
Lacuna, that the amphipod, unlike other inter- 
tidal gammarid amphipods, is not readily pro- 
voked into swimming. It usually crawls when 
prodded. This behavior is probably adaptive in 
that swimming would, in Field's words, "betray 
the ... disguise" of the amphipod. 

Three apparent flaws in the mimicry are noted: 



1) The second antennae are bent at two joints and 
thus angular in appearance. This contrasts with 
the smooth curve or straightness of the cephalic 
tentacles of F. trilineata. 2) Red pigment is 
present on the head of the amphipod, close to the 
base of the antennae, but on the aeolid the first 
cerata are some distance posterior to the head. 3) 
The white legs of the amphipod are conspicuous 
and almost give it an anterior-posterior sym- 
metry. However, the legs may not be as conspicu- 
ous in the wild, depending on what the amphipod 
usually clings to. For example, the legs would be 
camouflaged on white objects (such as Spirorbis 
tubes) or out of view if wrapped around narrow 
objects. Though not enough field observations 
were made to determine what substrates the 
amphipod usually attaches to, I did observe (see 
below) two individuals in the field clinging to the 
edge of small, pale salmon colored (almost white) 
alcyonacean soft coral colonies. 

On the basis of morphology, the amphipod keys 
to Podocerus cristatus (Thompson, 1879) in Smith 
and Carlton (1975). However, Dr. J.L. Barnard of 
the Smithsonian Institution informs me that the 
species of Podocerus are in need of clarification, 
and that the P. cristatus in Smith and Carlton 
(1975) probably includes a number of unde- 
scribed species, one of which could well be repre- 
sented by the above specimens from Cape Arago. 




Figure 2. Amphipod Podocerus sp. (body 5 mm 
long) clinging to a piece of Pista elongata tube. 
Note tiny juveniles also clinging to the substrate 
in lower left of photo. 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(12):221 



On 30 June and 1 July, 1984, 1 returned to Mid- 
dle Cove during minus tides specifically to look 
for Podocerus sp. One cluster of nine individuals 
(body lengths ranging from 2 to 5 mm) was found 
on 30 June just below the water surface on a small, 
shaded, vertical rock wall. A Flabellina trilineata 
was crawling about 30 cm away on the same wall. 
These specimens were found among the hydroids 
Tubularia marina and Abietinaria sp., sponges 
(especially lAstylinifer arndti de Laubenfels, 
1930), aggregations of low, round to bean shaped, 
undescribed, alcyonacean soft coral colonies 
(mentioned above), and tubes of the polychaete 
worm Pista elongata Moore, 1 909. The amphipods 
are apparently free-living, grasping the substrate 
with their posterior appendages and holding their 
bodies at an angle of about 45° into the water col- 
umn (as in the figures). 

Podocerus sp. is rare at Cape Arago. In three 
years of intensive searching for opisthobranchs 
(examining ledges, boulders, and pools) I have 
found 15 specimens of theamphipod (collected 6). 
Batesian mimicry should usually work better 
when the mimic is less abundant than the model. 
Otherwise, predators will not make as good an 
association between the unpalatability of the 
model and the appearance of the mimic. Other 
things being equal, the lower the relative abun- 
dance of the mimic, the better itschances of being 
actively avoided by a predator. 

Some of the larger Podocerus sp. I collected in 
June and July, 1984, were gravid. While in cap- 
tivity the eggs of one hatched, allowing me to 
make a few observations on the newly hatched 
juveniles. They are about 1 mm long, cling to the 
substrate like the adults, have a semi-translucent 
body with red and whiteeyes, and possess agranu- 
lar white pigment lightly scattered in two lines, 
one on each side of the gut. No other white or red 
pigmentation is present. It would be interesting 
to know at what size they acquire the adult colora- 
tion. 



Conclusions 

Wickler (1968) and Field (1974) have discussed 
some of the criteria necessary to establish casesof 
Batesian mimicry. The major ones are: 1) The 
model must be recognized by predators as being 
unpalatable or offensive and thus avoided by 
those predators. 2) The edible mimic should 
closely resemble the model. 3) Model and mimic 
should generally occupy the same habitat, with 
the mimic usually less abundant than the model. 
This criterion is not rigid, though, depending on 
predator distribution, behavior, and learning 



capabilities. 4) One should be able to demon- 
strate that, although edible, the mimic gains some 
protection from predators (and, thus, increased 
fitness) through its resemblance to the model. As 
seen above, the first three criteria appear to apply 
to Flabellina trilineata and Podocerus sp. The rar- 
ity of the amphipod precluded the observations 
and experiments necessary to determine the 
applicability of the fourth, and most important, 
criterion. Further work is thus needed to estab- 
lish the resemblance of Podocerus sp. to F. 
trilineata as a valid case of Batesian mimicry. 

More examples of Batesian mimicry involving 
opisthobranch models are likely to be found. 
However, the requirement that the model usually 
be more abundant that the mimic makes the role 
of model unlikely for many of the rarer opistho- 
branch species, as well as for some of the more 
common forms that undergo large and sustained 
fluctuation in population size in a given locality. 

Acknowledgements 

I thank Peter W. Frank for his helpful sug- 
gestions on the manuscript. 

Literature Cited 

Abbott, D.P. & E.C. Haderlie, 1980.ProsobranchJ: Marine Snails. 
In: R.H. Morris, D.P. Abbott & E.C. Haderlie (Eds.), Intertidal 
Invertebrates of California. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, Calif, 
[pp. 230-307] 

Beeman, R.D. & G.C. Williams, 1980. Opisthobranchia and Pul- 
rnonata: the Sea Slugs and Allies. In:R.H. Morris, D.P. Abbott, & 
E.C. Haderlie (Eds.), Intertidal Invertebrates of California. 
Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, Calif, [pp. 308-354] 

Crane, J. 1969. Mimicry of the Gastropod Mitrellacarinata by the 
amphipod Pleustes platypa. Veliger, 12:200. 

Field, L.H. 1974. A Description and Experimental Analysis of 
Batesian Mimicry Between a Marine Gastropod and an Amphipod. 
Pac. Sci., 28:439-447. 

Goddard, J.H.R. 1984. The Opisthobranchs of Cape Arago, Oregon, 
with Notes on Their Biology and a Summary of Benthic Opistho- 
branchs Known from Oregon. Veliger, 27:143-163. 

Nybakken, J. 1974. A Phenology of the Smaller Dendronotacean, 
Arminacean, and Aeolidacean Nudibranchs at Asilomar State 
Beach over a Twenty-Seven Month Period. Veliger, 16:370-373. 

Owen, D. 1980. Camouflage and Mimicry. Univ. Chicago Press, 
Chicago, 111., 158 pp. 

Smith, R.I. & J.T. Carleton (Eds.) 1975. Light's Manual. Intertidal 
Invertebrates of the Central California Coast. 3rd. ed. Univ. Calif. 
Press, Berkeley, Calif., 716 pp. 

Thompson, T.E., 1976. Biology of Opisthobranch Molluscs. Ray 
Soc, London, Vol. 1. 207 pp. 

Wickler, W. 1968. Mimicry in plants and Animals. McGraw-Hill, 
New York, 254 pp. 

Jeff Goddard, Oregon Institute Marine Biology, 
University Oregon, Charleston, OR 97420. 





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SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(12):223 



AN ALTERNATE FOOD FOR SOME 
CAPTIVE NUDIBRANCHS 

by Roland Anderson 




Dendronotus iris Cooper, 1863 eating split mussel. 
Seattle Aquarium display tank. Photo Buzz Shaw. 

As a whole nudibranchs, tend to be rather 
finicky eaters. Most are carnivorus; many are 
predators on a single species. The food of 
different groups of nudibranchs, many of which 
range in Puget Sound, has been studied and 
documented by various investigators, notably 
McDonald and Nybakkan (1978). 

At the Seattle Aquarium, a display tank is 
devoted to nudibranchs. It is stocked with a 
variety of species that are easily seen, brightly 
colored or have some have some curiosity value. 
A typical assemblage includes Melibe leonia, 
Archidoris montereyensis, A. odhneri, Tritonia 
diomeda and Armina californica. Occasionally 
our divers bring up an uncommon species such as 
Dendronotus iris but because of its unusual diet, 
the burrowing sea anemone, Pachycerianthus 
fimbriatus Behrens (1980), it can not be included. 



Continuously supplying some nudibranchs 
with their natural diet is difficult. Burrowing 
anemones are very hard to dig under water and 
hydroids and bryozoans are unavailable during 
certain times of the year. Collecting trips are 
both expensive and time-consuming and as a 
result cannot be solely devoted to finding food 
items for nudibranchs. Even if prey organisms 
can be found, maintaining them becomes a 
problem. Consideration must also be given to the 
fact that certain food items might clutter an 
already crowded display tank. 

An alternative food that is readily available is 
one solution to the problem. Dendronotus iris, 
Hermisseda crassicornis, Dirona albolineata and 
Triopha catalinae will accept the bay mussel, 
Mytilus edulis. These mussels are always avail- 
able in Seattle, either on local beaches or in local 
seafood markets. By cutting the mussel in half 
between the shells and placing each half on the 
bottom of the tank, the nudibranchs soon find it. 

Literature Cited 

McDonald, Gary R.& JamesW. Nybakken. 1978. Additional Notes 
on the Food of Some California Nudibranchs with a summary of 
Known Food Habits of California Species. TheVeliger, 21(1):110- 
119. 

Behrens, David W. 1980. Pacific Coast Nudibranchs. Sea 
Challengers, Los Osos, California. 112p. 

Roland Anderson, The Seattle Aquarium, Pier 59, 
Seattle, WA 98101 




Dirona albolineata Cockerell & Eliot, 1905 eating 
mussel. Photo Buzz Shaw. 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(12):224 



PERSONAL NOTES 

From Ben Hayes: We were up to Quebec 
[Canada] last year at Perce Rock for Devonian 
trilobites and visited another area recently dis- 
covered in the last few years. We plan a further 
trip — more extended and better prepared -- next 
summer. If something like this is of interest for 
an article, would be glad to write it up. [Ben 
Hayes, P.O. Box 1500, Portsmouth, New 
Hampshire 03801]. [Editor -- Yes, wewould liketo 
see many articles like this! ] 

From Winston A. Barney: While puttering with 
my computer the other day I wrote a very short 
program which I'm sure will interest some of our 
friends, especially shell dealers. This nifty pro- 
gram will whip out 20 to 40 data slips per minute, 
depending on whether you own a dot-matrix or 
daisy-wheel printer. The program is written in 
BASIC for my TRS-80, but may easily be adapted 
to other computers: 

10 CLS 

20 CLEAR 100 

30 INPUT "SHELL NAME, AUTHOR AND 

DATE ... ENCLOSE IN QUOTES";N$ 
40 INPUT "DATA ... ENCLOSE IN QUOTES";D$ 
50 INPUT "HOW MANY COPIES?";C 
60 FOR X=l TO C 
70 LPRINT N$ 
80 LPRINT D$ 
90 LPRINT:LPRINT 
100 NEXT X 
110 INPUT "DO YOU WANT TO RUN AGAIN? 

Y - N";R$ 
120 IF R$ = "Y" THEN GOTO 10 ELSE 130 
130 END 



In lines 30 and 40 data typed in must be in quotes 
if you want the program to print commas. You 
can add more space between data slips by adding 
more LPRINTs in line 90. Hope someone will 
find this program useful. [Winston A. Barney, 
2801 Clary, Fort Worth, Texas 76111] 



From Eveline Marcus: [September 4, 1984] It 
was nice to see you, and my whole trip was enjoy- 
able! Not many opisthos, but many opistho- 
friends. As I have broken my arm, I am for 4 
weeks restricted in many movements and cannot 
do more than writing for the next fortnight. I 
have just received the marvelous paper of Beatrix 
Sanders-Esser, Zool. Jahrb. Anat. 111:195-243. 
This is half of her thesis; she was promoted in 
Munster, 1983. The subject is comparative 
anatomy and histology of the anterior genital 
organs of Ascoglossans. She figures diagrams of 
24 species! Function, systematics, and phylogeny 
are discussed. 

[September 25, 1984] I got rid of the bandageon 
my arm and am beginning to work again, a paper 
on one specimen of Coriocella nigra from the Red 
Sea, not very exciting. Gosliner's and my paper 
on the Pleurobranchaeidae is out. My Pleuro- 
branchidae are in press. [Dr. Eveline Marcus, 
Caixa Postal 6994, Sao Paulo, Brazil 01051] 



From Dale Walker: I am happy you use scien- 
tific names as well as common. References at end 
of articles are helpful. I think you should con- 
tinue to concentrate on the how's and why's of 
biological interaction, and not just pictures of 
shell species. [D.C. Walker, M.D., Orlando Med- 
ical Office, Rt. 175, Orlando, ME 04472] 



Tom Shepherd 

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Virginia Beach, VA 23451 

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SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(12):226 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 



OCCURRENCE 



COMMON NAME 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 



OCCURRENCE 



COMMON NAME 



Crepldula onyx Sowerby, 1824 P onyx sllppersnall 

Crepldula perforans (Valenciennes, 1846) P white sllppersnall 

Crepldul a plana Say, 1822 A. .eastern white sllppersnall 

Crepldula strlolata Menke, 1851 P ridged sllppersnall 

Crepipatella charybdls (S.S. Berry, 1940) P greedy sllppersnall 

Creplpatella lingulata (Gould, 1846) P. ..Pacific half-slippersnail 

Crepipatella orbiculata (Dall, 1919) P round sllppersnall 

Cruclbulum auricula (Gmeltn, 1791) A. .West Indian cup-and-saucer 

Cruclbulum splnosum (Sowerby, 1824) P spiny cup-and-saucer 

Cruclbulum striatum Say, 1824 A striate cup-and-saucer 

Xenophoridae 

Xenophora caribaea Petit de la Saussaye, 1856 A Caribbean carriersnail 

Xenophora conchyliophora (Born, 1780) A, (P). . .American carriersnail 

Xenophora longleyi Bartsch, 1931 A Longley carriersnail 

Lamellariidae 



• A.P P£ron atlanta 



. ( A) , P, Ac. . . .widemouth 

....P San Diego 

. , ..P Diquet 

, .. .A Koto 

.. ..A white-ball 



Capulacmaea commodum (Hiddendorf f , 1851). 

Lamellar la dlegoensls Dall, 1885. 

Lamellarla digueti Rochebrune , 1895 

Lamellarla koto Schwengel, 1944 

Lamellarla leucosphaera Schwengel, 1942.. 

Lamellarla pelluclda A.E. Verrill, 1880 A trans luscent 

Lamellarla perspicua (Linnaeus , 1758) A, (P). .transparent 

Lamellarla rhombica Dall, 1871 P rhombic 

Lame liar fa stearnsil Dall, 1871 P Stearns 

Marsenina ampla A.E. Verrill, 1880 A great 

Harsenina glabra (Couthouy, 1832) A, Ac bald 

Marsenina globosa L. Perry, 1939 A rotund 

Marsenlopsis sharonae (Willett, 1939) P Sharon 

Onchldiopsis corys Balch, 1910 A 

Onchidiopsls glacialls (M. Sars, 1851) A.P.Ac Icy 

Onchldiopsis hannai Dall, 1916 P Hanna 

Onchldiopsis klngmaruensis H.D. Russell, 1942 A 

Velutlna conica Dall, 1887 P conical 

Velutina granulata Dall, 1919 P granular 

Velutlna lanlgera Mb'ller, 1842 A.P wooly 

Velutlna plicatilis (O.F. Muller, 1776) A.P.Ac oblique 

Velutina prolongata Carpenter, 1865 P elongate 

Velutina rubra Willett, 1919 P red 

Velutlna undata (Brown, 1839) A,P,Ac wavy 

Velutlna velutina (O.F. Mu'ller, 1776) A.P.Ac .smooth 

Trivildae 



lamellarla 
lamellarla 
lamellarla 
lamellarla 
lamellarla 
lamellarla 
lamellarla 
lamellarla 
lamellarla 
lamellarla 
lamellarla 
lamellarla 
lamellarla 



lamellarla 
lamellarla 



lamellarla 
lamellarla 
.lamellarla 
lamellarla 
lamellarla 
lamellarla 
lamellarla 
lamellarla 



Erato albescens Dall, 1905 P whitish erato 

Erato columbella Menke, 1847 P pigeon erato 

Erato maugerlae Gray, 1832 A green erato 

Erato vltelllna (Hinds, 1844) P appleseed erato 

Trivia antillarum F.A. Schilder, 1922 A Antilles trivia 

Trivia callfornlana (Gray, 1827) P California trivia 

Trivia candidula Gaskoin, 1835 A little white trivia 

Trivia maltbiana Schwengel and McGinty, 1942 A Maltbie trivia 

Trivia nix (F.A. Schilder, 1922) A white-globe trivia 

Trivia pediculus (Linnaeus, 1758) A coffeebean trivia 

Trivia quadripunctata (Gray, 1827) A four-spot trivia 

Trivia rltterl Raymond, 1903 P Ritter trivia 

Trivia solandrl (Sowerby, 1832) P Solander trivia 

Trivia suffusa (Gray, 1832) A pink trivia 



Cypraeldae 



Cypraea cervus Linnaeus, 1771,.., 

Cypraea clnerea Gmelln , 1791... 

Cypraea spadlcea Swainson, 1823........ 

Cypraea spurca actcularls Gmelin, 1791. 
Cypraea surlnamensls G. Perry, 1811. 



.A...... ..Atlantic deer cowrie 

.A. ...... .Atlantic gray cowrie 

. P chestnut cowrie 

■A. ... . .At lantlc yellow cowrie 

. A. . . , ..Surinam cowrie 

measled cowrie 



Cypraea zebra Linnaeus, 1758 A.. 

Ovulidae 

Aperiovula abbotti C.N. Cate. 1973 A Abbott miniovula 

Cymbula acicularls (Lamarck, 1810) A West Indian slmnia 

Cyphoma alleneae C.N. Cate, 1973 A Allene cyphoma 

Cyphoma aureocinctum (Dall, 1899) A gold-line cyphoma 

Cyphoma glbbosum (Linnaeus, 1758) A flamingo tongue 

Cyphoma macglntyl Pilsbry, 1939 A McGinty cyphoma 

Cyphoma rhomba C.N. Cate, 1978 A bullroarer cyphoma 

Cyphoma slgnatum Pilsbry and McGinty, 1939 A fingerprint cyphoma 

Delonovolva aequalls vldleri (Sowerby, 1881) P Vidler simnia 

Neoslmnla avena ruthturnerae C.N. Cate, 1973 A Ruth Turner slmnia 

Neosimnla spelata capltia C.N. Cate, 1973 A Keys slmnia 

Pedlcularla californlca Newcomb. 1864 p California pedlcularia 

Pedlcularla decussat a (Gould. 1855) A cross-hatch pedlcularla 

Phenacovolva piragua (Dall. 1889) A slender slmnia 

Prlmovula soleml C.N. Cate, 1973 A robust miniovula 

Pseudocyphoma glbbulum C.N. Cate, 1978 A plump cyphoma 

Pseudocyphoma intermedium (Sowerby. 1828) A Intermediate cyphoma 

Pseudoslmnla pyrlfera C.N. Cate, 1973 A pear simnia 

Pseudosimnla sphoni C.N. Cate, 1973 A Sphon simnia 

Pseudoslmnla vanhynlngl (M. Smith, 1940) A Van Hynlng slmnia 

Simnialena marferula C.N. Cate, 1973 A sea-whip simnia 

Simnialena unlplicata (Sowerby, 1848) A one-tooth simnia 

Spiculata advena C.N. Gate, 1978 A 

Splculata barbarensls (Dall, 1892) P Santa'Barbara 'simnia 

Spiculata loebbeckeana (U e Lnkauff, 1881) P Loebbeck slmnia 

Subslmnla bellamaris (S.S. Berry, 1946) P Pacific slmnia 

Volva volva striata (Lamarck. 1810) A lined egg spindle 



Atlantidae 



Atlanta lesueuri Sou le yet , 1852 

Atlanta peronli Lesueur , 1817 

Atlanta pulchella A.E. Verrill, 1884...... 

Atlanta quoyll Gray, 1850 A,(P) 

Oxygyrus keraudrenil (Lesueur, 1817) A,P Keraudren atlanta 

Protatlanta souleyetl (E.A. Smith, 1888) A,(P) 

Carlnariidae 

Cardiapoda placenta (Lesson, 1830) A.P flat card! apod 

Carlnaria clthara Benson , 1835 P harp carlnaria 

Carlnarla galea Benson, 1835 P helmet carlnaria 

Carlnaria lamarcki Plron and Lesueur, 1810 A,(P) Lamarck carlnaria 



Pterotracheidae 

Firoloida deroarestla Lesueur, 1817 ,A,(P). 

Pterotrachea keraudrenil 

Eydoux and Souleyet, 1832.,, A 

Pterotrachea scutata Gegenbaur, 1855 A,(P). 



Atlanta brunnea Gray, 1850 A.,... 

At lanta heliclnoldes Souleyet , 1852 A,(P). 

Atlanta lncllnata Gray, 1850 A.P.... 



.brown atlanta 



Naticidae 

Amauropsls islandica (Gmelln, 1791) A.Ac Iceland moonsnail 

Amauropsis purpurea Dall , 1871 P. purple moonsnail 

Bulbus fragllls (Leach, 1819) P,Ac fragile moonsnail 

Bulbus smithil "(Brown. 1839) A Smith moonsnail 

Callnatlclna oldroydii (Dg.ll, 1897) P Oldroyd moonsnail 

Cryptonatica clausa 

(Broderip and Sowerby, 1829) A.P, Ac Arctic moonsnail 

Elachlsina grlppi Dall, 1918 P Gripp moonsnail 

Euspira heros (Say, 1822) A northern moonsnail 

Euspira lmmaculata (Totten, 1835) A Immaculate moonsnail 

Euspira levlcula (A.F.. Verrill, 1880) A lightweight moonsnail 

Euspira lewisii (Gould , 184 7) ..P. Lewis moonsnail 

Euspira nana (Moller, 1842) A.P.Ac tiny moonsnail 

Euspira pallida (Broderip and Sowerby, 1829) A.P.Ac pale moonsnail 

Euspira polltlana (Dall, 1919) p polished moonsnail 

Euspira tenuis (Recluz, 1850) A thin moonsnail 

Euspira trlseriata (Say, 1826) A spotted moonsnail 

Gyrodes depressa Seguenza, 1874 A 

Haliotinella patinaria (Guppy, 1876) A fingernail moonsnail 

Natica af finis Gmelln, 1791 A.P.Ac 

Natica canrena (Linnaeus, 1758) A colorful moonsnail 

Natica castrensls Dall, 1889 A netted moonsnail 

Natica f lorldana (Rehder, 1943; non Dall, 1890)... A Florida moonsnail 

Natica janthostoma Deshayes, 1841 p purplemouth moonsnail 

Natica llvlda Pfetffer, 1840 A livid moonsnail 

N atlca marochlensls (Gmelln, 1791) A Morocco moonsnail 

Natica sagralana d'Orblgny, 1842 A lined moonsnail 

Naticarlus verae Rehder , 1947 .A... 

Neverlta dupllcata (Say, 1822) A shark eye 

Neverlta reclusiana (Deshayes, 1839) P Recluz moonsnail 

Pollnices altus (Pilsbry, 1929) P tall moonsnail 

Pollnlces draconls (Dall, 1903) p Drake moonsnail 

Pollnices hepatlcus (Rodlng, 1798) A brown moonsnail 

Pollnlces lacteus (Gullding, 1834) a milk moonsnail 

Pollnices uberinus (d'Orblgny, 1842) A dwarf white moonsnail 

Sigatica carollnensls (Dall, 1889) A Carolina moonsnail 

Slgatica semlsulcata (Gray, 1839) A semisulcate moonsnail 

Slnum deblle Gould, 1853 p slight baby ear 

Slnum keratium Dall, 1919 p wax y haby ear 

Slnum maculatum (Say, 1831) A brown bahy ear 

Slnum minor (Dall, 1889) A dwarf baby ear 

Si"""* perspectivum (Say, 1831) A white baby ear 

Slnum scopulosum (Conrad, 1849) P.. . . . . fat baby ear 

Stigmaulax sulcatus (Born, 1778) A grooved moonsnail 

Tectonatlca pusilla (Say, 1822) A miniature moonsnail 

Cassldae 

Casmarla ponderosa atlantlca Clench. 1944 A Atlantic casmaria 

Cassis flammea (Linnaeus, 1758) A. .. .princess or_ flame helmet 

Cassis madagascarlensis Lamarck, 1822 A queen or emperor helmet 

Cassis madagascarlensis eplnella Clench, 1944 A 77 

Cassis tuberosa (Linnaeus, 1758) A king helmet 

Cypraecassls testlculus (Linnaeus, 1758) A.. . .reticulate cowrie-helmet 

Morum dennisonl (Reeve, 1842) A Dennison morum 

Morum lamarcki (Deshayes, 1844) A rose-mouth morum 

Ho rum onlscus (Linnaeus , 1767) A Atlantic morum 

Phallum coronadol (Crosse, 1867) A Coronado bonnet 

Phallum granulatum (Born, 1778) A,(P) Scotch bonnet 

Sconsia striata (Lamarck , 1816) A royal bonnet 

Cymatlldae 

Charoni3 varlegata (Lamarck, 1816) A trumpet triton 

Cymatium amlctum tremperl Dall, 1907 P Tremper triton 

Cymatium clngulatum (Lamarck, 1822) A ringed triton 

Cymatium " corrugata tremperl Dall, 1907 P 

Cymatium femorale (Linnaeus, 1758) A , angular triton 

Cymatium krebsll Morch, 1877 A Krebs triton 

Cymatium labiosum (W. Wood, 1828) A,(P) lip triton 

Cymatium morltlnctum carlbbaeum 

Clench and Turner, 1957., , A dog -he ad trito. 

Cymatium muriclnum (Rodlng, 1798) A,(P) knobbed triton 

Cymatium nicobarlcum (RSding, 1798) ,„...A,(P) gold-mouth triton 

Cymatium parthenopeum (von Sails, 1793) A,(P) giant triton 

Cymatium pharcldutn Dall , 1889 A slender triton 

Cymatium plleare (Linnaeus, 1758) A,(P) hairy triton 

Cymatium rubeculum occidentale 

Clench and Turner, 1947, ,,A Atlantic ruby triton 

Cymatium testudlnarium rehderl A.H. Verrill, 1950. A twisted triton 

Cymatium vespaceum (Lamarck , 1822) A.. dwarf triton 

Dlstorslo clathtata (Lamarck, 1816) A Atlantic distorslo 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(12):227 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 



OCCURRENCE 



COMMON NAME 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 



OCCURRENCE 



COMMON NAME 



Distorslo constricta macglntyl 

Emerson and Puffer, 1953...A McGlnty distorslo 

Distorslo perdlstorta Fulton, 1938 A, (P) Quasimodo distorslo 

FuHitriton oregonenals (Redfield, 1848) P Oregon trlton 

Bursidae 

Bufonarla bufo (Bruguiere, 1792) A chestnut frogsnail 

Bursa cormgata (G. Perry, 1811) A,(P) gaudy frogsnail 

Bursa finlayl McGlnty, 1962 A Finlay frogsnail 

Bursa granularla cubanlana (d'Orblgny, 1842) A granular frogsnail 

Bursa pacamoni Matthews and Coelho, 1971 A elegant frogsnail 

Bursa rane Iloldes tenulsculpta 

(Dautzenberg and P. Fischer, 1906).. .A fine-sculpted frogsnail 

Bursa thomae (d'Orblgny, 1842) A St. Thomas frogsnail 

Crossata callfornlca (Hinds, 1843) P California frogsnail 



Eudolium croBseanum (Monterosato, 1869) . 



.A Crosse tun 



Eudolium thompsoni McCinty, 1955 A Thompson tun 

Tonna galea (Linnaeus, 1758) A,(P) giant tan 

Tonna maculosa (Dillwyn, 1817) A Atlantic partridge tun 



Oocory thidae 



Oocorys bartschl Render, 194 3. .. . 
Oocorys sulcata P. Fischer, 1883. 



.A. Bart sen false tun 

.A sulcate false tun 



Flcus carolae Clench, 1945 A Carol f igsnail 

Flcus communis Roding, 1798 A Atlantic f Igsnail 

ORDER NEOCASTROPODA 

Muricidae 

Acanthlna lugubrls (Sowerby, 1821) P dark unicorn 

Acanthlna pauclllrata (Stearns, 1871) P checkered unicorn 

Acanthlna punctulata (Sowerby, 1825) P spotted unicorn 

Acanthlna splrata (Blainville, 1832) P angular unicorn 

Acanthotrophon strlatoldes E.H. Vokes, 1980 A knobbed trophon 

Aspella senex Dall, 1903 A graybeard as pel la 

AttlllQBa phlllpplana (Dall, 1889) A 

Auatrotrophon cerrosensis catalinensis 

I. Oldroyd, 1927 P Catallna forrerla 

Boreotrophon albosplnosus (WiUett, 1931) P white-spine trophon 

Boreotrophon avalonensls (Dall, 1902) P Avalon trophon 

Boreotrophon bentleyi (Dall, 1908) , 

Boreotrophon berlngl (Dall, 1902) 

Boreotrophon cepulus (Sowerby, 1880) 

Boreotrophon clathratus (Linnaeus , 17 58) A, Ac clathrate trophon 

Boreotrophon cymatus (Dall, 1902) P wavy trophon 

Boreotrophon dlsparllls (Dall, 1891) P girdled trophon 

Boreotrophon eucymatus (Dall, 1902) P grooved trophon 

Boreotrophon macounl TPall, 1910) P corded trophon 

Boreotrophon multlcostatus (Eschscholtz , 1829). ...P ribbed trophon 

Boreotrophon orpheus (Gould, 1849) P threaded trophon 

Boreotrophon paclf leus (Dall, 1902) P.Ac elegant trophon 

Boreotrophon rotundatus (Dall, 1902) P rotund trophon 

Boreotrophon staphylinus (Dall, 1919) P carrot trophon 

Boreotrophon stuartl (E.A. Smith, 1880) P winged trophon 

Boreotrophon trlangulatus (Carpenter , 1864) P triangular trophon 

Boreotrophon truncatus (Strrfm, 1768) A,P bobtail trophon 

Calotrophon andrewsl E.H. Vokes, 1976 A Andrews drill 

Calotrophon ostrearum (Conrad, 1846) A mauve-mouth drill 

Ceratostoma foliatum (Gmelin, 1791) P foliate thornraouth 

Ceratostoma nuttalll (Conrad, 1837) P Nuttall purpura 

or Nuttall thornmouth 



. P, Ac tabulate trophon 

.P sea 11 Ion trophon 



Chicoreus florifer dllectus (A. Adams. 
1974..... 



1855) A lace 



Chicoreus mergus E.H. Vokes, 

Dermomurex ellzabethae (McGlnty, 1940) A Elizabeth aspella 

Dermornurex pauperculue (C.B. Adams, 1850) A beggar aspella 

Eupleura caudata (Say, 1822) A thick-lip drill 

Eupleura sulcldentata Dall, 1890 A sharp-rib drill 

Favartla alveata (Kiener, 1842) A frilly dwarf trlton 

Favartla cellulosa (Conrad, 1846) A pitted murex 

Favartla mlnlrosea (Abbott, 1954) A rosy drill 

Forrerla belcherl (Hinds, 1843) P Belcher murex 

Maxwellia gemma (Sowerby, 1879) P gem murex 

Haxwellia santarosana (Dall, 1905) P Santa Rosa murex 

Murex annlae M. Smith, 1940 A Annie murex 

Murex bellegladeensis E.H. Vokes, 1963 A Belleglade murex 

Murex cabrltll Bernard!, 1859 A Cabrit rourex 

Murex rubldus F.C. Baker, 189 7 A rose murex 

Murex tryoni Hidalgo in Tryon, 1880 A Tryon rourex 

Murexiella glypta (M. Smith, 1938) A carved murex 

Hurexiella hldalgol (Crosse, 1869) A Hidalgo murex 

Murexiella levlcula (Dall, 1889) A lightweight murex 

Murexiella macglntyi (M. Smith, 1938) A McGlnty murex 

Muricanthus fulyescens (Sowerby, 1834) A giant eastern murex 

Mil r 1 cops 1 s oxytat a (M. Smith, 19 38) A hexagonal murex 

Njppono trophon f abricli • A 

Nlpponotrophon lasius (Dall, 1919) P sandpaper trophon 

Nipponotrophon scltulus (Dall, 1891) P spiny trophon 

Nodu lotrophon dal 1 1 (Kobe It , 18 78) P,Ac crown trophon 

Nucella can all cu lata (Duclos, 1832) P channeled dogw Inkle 

Nucel la emarglnata (Deshayes , 1839) P emarglnate dogw inkle 

Nucella lamellosa (Gmelin, 1791) P frilled dogwlnkle 

Nucella laplllus (Linnaeus, 1758) A Atlantic dogwlnkle 

Nucella lima (Gmelin, 1791) P file dogwlnkle 

Ocenebra at ropurpurea Carpenter, 1865 P purple rocksnail 

Ocenebra barbarensls (Gabb, 1865) P Santa Barbara rocksnail 

Ocenebra beta (DalT7 1919) P beta rocksnail 

Ocenebra clrcumtexta (Stearns, 1871) P circled rocksnail 



Ocenebra crlspatlssima S.S. Berry, 1953 P curly rocksnail 

Ocenebra foveolata (Hinds, 1844) P dim rocksnail 

Ocenebra gracllllma Stearns , 1871 P graceful rocksnail 

Ocenebra grlppl (Dall, 1911) P Grlpp rocksnail 

Ocenebra inornata (Recluz, 1851) P Japanese rocksnail 

Ocenebra interfossa Carpenter, 1864 P Carpenter rocksnail 

Ocenebra lurlda (Mlddendorf f , 1848) P lurid rocksnail 

Ocenebra minor Dall, 1 91 9 P minor rocksnail 

Ocenebra painei (Dall, 1903) P ribbed rocksnail 

Ocenebra squamulifera (Carpenter in Gabb, 1869).. .P scaly rocksnail 

Ocenebra trachela Dall, 1919 P 

Oclnebrina emlpowlusi (Abbott, 1954) A Powlus drill 

Pazlella nuttlngl (Dall, 1896) A 

Pazlella pazl (Crosse, 1869) A 

Pazlonotus stimpsonil (Dall, 1889) A 

Phyllonotus pomum (Gmelin, 1791) A apple murex 

Pterochelus arlomus 

(Clench and Pfrez Farfante, 1945) A 

Pteropurpura bequaertl 

(Clench and P£rez Farfante, 1945) A Bequaert murex 

Pteropurpura festlva (Hinds, 1844) P festive murex 

Pteropurpura macroptera (Deshayes, 1839) P frill-wing murex 

Pteropurpura trlalata (Sowerby, 1834) P. ...western three-wing murex 

Pteropurpura vokesae Emerson, 1964 P wrinkle-wing murex 

Pterotyphls triangularis (A. Adams, 1856) A 

Pterynotus phaneus (Dall, 1889) A shining murex 

Purpura patula (Linnaeus, 1758) A wide-mouth rocksnail 

Roperia poulsonl (Carpenter, 1864) P Poulson rocksnail 

Slratus beaull (P. Fischer and Bernard!, 1857)....A Beau murex 

Stratus callleti (Petit de la Saussaye, 1856) A 

Slratus consuela (A.H. Verrill, 1950) A 

Slratus forrooEus (Sowerby, 1841) A Antilles murex 

Thais deltoldea (Lamarck, 1822) A deltoid rocksnail 

Thais haemastoma canaliculata (Gray, 1839) A Hays rocksnail 

Thais haemastoma f loridana (Conrad, 1837) A Florida rocksnail 

Thais rustica (Lamarck , T8~22) A rustic rocksnail 

Trachypollla didyma (Schwengel, 1943) A twin drupe 

Trachypollia lugubrls (C.B. Adams, 1852) P dark drupe 

Trachypollla nodulosa (C.B. Adams , 1845) A blackberry drupe 

Trachypollla sclera Woodrlng, 1928 A 

Trophonopsis kamchatkanus (Dall , 1902) P Kamchatka trophon 

Trophonopsls keepl (Strong and Her tie in, 1937). . . . P 

Typhis sowerbii Broderip, 1833 A frilly typhis 

Urosalpinx clnerea (Say, 1822) A, [P(I)] .Atlantic oyster drill 

Urosalplnx macro A.E. Verrill, 1887 A waxy drill 

Urosalpinx perrugata (Conrad, 1846) A.. ...Gulf oyster drill 

Urosalpinx sclera Dall, 1919 P 

Urosalpinx subangulata (Stearns , 1873) P 

Urosalpinx tampaensls (Conrad , 1846) A Tampa drill 

Coralliophllldae 

Coralllophila abbrevlata (Lamarck, 1816) A short coralsnall 

Coralliophila aberrans (C.B. Adams , 1850) A globose coralsnall 

Coralllophila c ari bae a Abbott, 1958 A....... .Caribbean coralsnall 

Coralllophila scalarlf ormis (Lamarck, 1822) A staircase coralsnall 

Latlaxis costatus (Blainville, 1832) P California latiaxis 

Latlaxls dalli Emerson and D'Attlllo, 1963 A Dall latlaxis 

Latiaxis klncaldi Dall, 1919 P 

Latlaxis mansfleldl (McGlnty, 1940) A 

Latlaxis oldroydl (I. Oldroyd, 1929) P Oldroyd latlaxis 

Colurabellidae 

Aesopus chrysalloideus (Carpenter, 1864) P cocoon doves nail 

Aesopus eurytoldeus (Carpenter , 1864) P 

Aesopus goforthl Dall, 1912 P 

Aesopus" myrmecoon Dall, 1916 .....P.... ant -egg dovesnall 

Aesopus sanctus Dall, 1919 P Santa Monica dovesnall 

Aesopus stearnsll (Tryon , 1883) A 

Aesopus subturrltus (Carpenter, 1864) P graceful dovesnall 

Alia carlnata (Hind's , 1844) P carlnate dovesnall 

Amphissa blcolor Dall, 1892 P two-tone amphlssa 

Amphlssa columblana Dall, 1916 P wrinkled amphlssa 

Amphissa cymata Dall, 1916 P wavy amphissa 

Amphlssa hallaeetl (Jeffreys , 1867) A Atlantic amphlssa 

Amphlssa reticulata Dall, 1916 P reticulate amphissa 

Amphlssa undata (Carpenter, 1864) P Carpenter amphlssa 

Amphlssa versicolor Dall, 1871 P variegate amphlssa 

Anachls avara (Say, 1822) A greedy dovesnal I 

Anachls catenata (Sowerby, 1844) A chain dovesnall 

Anachis f loridana Rehder, 1939 A Florida dovesnall 

Anachls hoteBslerlana (d'Orblgny, 1842) A Hotessler dovesnall 

Anachls lontha (Ravenel , 1861) A. llneate dovesnall 

Anachls laf resnayl 

JTT FTscher and Bernard 1 , 1856) A we 11 -ribbed dovesnall 

Anachls obesa (C.B. Adams, 1845) A fat dovesnall 

Anachls pulchella (Blainville, 1829) A beautiful dovesnall 

Anachls semipllcata Stearns, 1873 A .....Gulf dovesnall 

Anachls sparsa (Reeve, 1859) A sparse dovesnall 

Anachis subturrlta Carpenter, 1866 P 

Columbella mercatorla (Linnaeus , 1758). A West Indian dovesnall 

Columbella ruBtlcoldes Heilprin, 1887 A rusty dovesnall 

Cosmloconcha calllglypta 

(Dall and Simpson , 1901). ..A flame dovesnall 

Mltrella amlantls (Dall, 1919) P 

Mltrel la argus d 'Orblgny , 184 2 A argus dovesnal 1 

Mltrella aurantlaca (Dall, 1871) P golden dovesnall 

Mltrella calllmorpha (Dall, 1919) P 

Mltrel la clementensls Bartsch, 1927 P San Clemente dovesnall 

Mltrella diaphana (A.E. Verrill, 1882) A translucent dovesnall 

Mltrella hypodra (Dall, 1916) P 

Mltrella idallna (Duclos, 1840) A 

Mltrella lunata (Say, 1826) A lunar dovesnall 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(12):228 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 



OCCURRENCE 



COMMON NAME 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 



OCCURRENCE 



COMMON NAME 



Nassa 



la lutulenta (Dall, 1919) P muddy 

la tniltllineata (Dall, 1889) A brown-band 

la nyctels (Duclos, 1846) A fenestrate 

la ocellata (Ctnelin, 1791) A,(P) white-spot 

la permo desta (Dall, 1890) P 

.deep water 



dovesnall 
dovesnall 
dovesnall 
dovesnall 



profundi (Dall, 1889) A. 



la pura (A.E. Verrlll, 1882) A simple 

la raveneli (Dall, 1889) A Ravenel 

la rosacea (Gould, 1841) A, P. ...rosy northern 

la tuberosa (Carpenter, 1864) P variegate 



dovesnall 
dovesnall 
dovesnall 
dovesnall 
dovesnall 



ina bushlae (Dall, 1889) A. 



lna glypta (Bush, 1885) A engraved 



dovesnall 



lna grayl Dall, 1889. 

lna minor (C.B. Adams, 1845) A banded 

ina monllifera (Sowerby, 1844) A many-spotted 

lna penlclllata (Carpenter, 1864) P penciled 



Nltldella gausapata Gould, 1850 P shaggy 

Nitidella gouldl (Carpenter, 1857) P Gould 

Nitidella laevigata (Linnaeus, 1758) A smooth 

Nitidella nitida (Lamarck, 1822) A glossy 

Nitidella parva Dunker, 1847 A 



dovesnall 
dovesnall 
dovesnall 
dovesnall 
dovesnall 
dovesnall 
dovesnall 



Bucclnldae 



1842). 



Antlllophos candel (d'Orblgny 

Ballya lntricata (Dall, 1884) 

Bartschla slgnlf leans Rehder, 1943 

crebricostatus (Dall, 1877) P 

Smith, 1959 P 

P 



A beaded phos 

A Intricate phos 



, thick-cord whelk 



Berlnglus 

Beringius eyerdami A. 1 
Berlnglus frlelel (Dall, 1894). 

Beringius indentatus (Dall, 1919) P 

Beringius kennicottTl (Dall, 1907) P Kennicott whelk 

Beringius malleatus (Dall, 1884) P,Ac hammered whelk 

Berlnglus marshalll (Dall, 1919) P 

Berlnglus stlmpsoni (Gould, 1860) P,Ac 

Beringius turtonl (Bean, 1834) A, Ac 

Buccinum abyssorum A.E. Verrlll, 1884 A shingled whelk 

Bucclnum aleutlcum Dall, 1894 P Aleut whelk 

Buccinum angulosum Gray, 1839 Ac angular whelk 

Bucclnum angulosum subcostatum Dall, 1885 Ac 

Buccinum angulosum trans 11 raturo Da 11, 1919 P,Ac 

Bucclnum baerll (Middendorf f , 1848) P Baer whelk 

1877 

1919 



im Dall, 

ira fluctuatum Dall, 



P chestnut whelk 

P 



Bucclnum castane 

BuccinunT castane _ 

Buccinum castaneum trlplostephanum Dall, 1919 P > • 

Bucclnum chlshimanum Pilsbry, 1904 P 

Bucclnum cillatum Fabrlctus, 1780 A,P 

Bucclnum cyaneum Brugulere, 1 792 A bluish whelk 

Bucclnum cyaneum patulum G.0. Sars, 1878 A 

Bucclnum cyaneum perdlx Morch, 1868 A 

Bucclnum eugrammatum Dall, 1907 P Urate whelk 

Buccinum f ischerianum Dall, 1871 P 

Bucclnum frlngillum Dall, 1877 P finch whelk 

Buccinum glaclale Linnaeus , 1761 A,P,Ac glacial whelk 

Bucclnum gouldii A.E. Verrlll, 1882 A 

Bucclnum hertzenstelnl Verkriizen, 1882 P 



Buccinum humphreysianum Bennett, 1825 A,P •••• 

Bucclnum hydrophanum Hancock, 1846 A, Ac 

Bucclnum Inexhaustum Verkruzen, 1878 A 

Bucclnum kadlakense Dall, 1907 P Kodlak whelk 

Bucclnum micropoma Thorson, 1944 A, Ac berry whelk 

Buccinum normale Dall, 1885 Ac 

Buccinum ochotense (Middendorf f , 1848) P.Ac Okhotsk whelk 

Bucclnum oedematum Dall, 1907 P swollen whelk 

Bucclnum onlsmatopleura Dall, 1919.. P,Ac 

Buccinum pemphigus major Dall, 1919 . P 

Bucclnum pemphigus orotundum Dall, 1907 P wide mouth whelk 

Bucclnum percrassum Dall, 1881 P,Ac crude whelk 

Buccinum physetnatum Dall, 1919. P, Ac 

Bucclnum plcturatum Dall, 1877 P painted whelk 

Buccinum planetlcum Dall, 1919 P wandering whelk 

Bucclnum plectrum Stlmpson, 186 5 A,P,Ac sinuous whelk 

Buccinum polare Gray, 1839 (A),P,Ac polar whelk 

Buccinum scalarlf orme Holler , 184 2 A.P.Ac ladder whelk 

Bucclnum serlcatum Hancock, 1846 A, P.Ac silkly whelk 

Buccinum simulatum Dall, 1907 P 

Bucclnum solenum Dall, 1919 P 

Bucclnum strlatlsslmum Sowerby, 1899 P 

Bucclnum strlglllatum fucanum Dall, 1907.. 

Bucclnum tenebrosum Hancock, 1846 

Bucclnum tenellum Dall In Kobelt, 1883.... 

Buccinum tot tenl Stimpson, 1865...., 

Bucclnum undatum Linnaeus, 1758 



..P Juanmore whelk 

.A.P dusky whelk 



.P.Ac 



Buccinum virldum Dall, 18 
Caducifer weberi Watters, 



1983. 



Cantharus cancel larius (Conrad, 1846) A. 

Cantharus multangulus (Phlllppi 

Colus barbarinus (Dall . 1919) P. 



.A, Ac thin whelk 

.A.Ac waved whelk 

.P turban whelk 

•banded phos 



•cancel late cantharus 

Cantharus m ultangulus (Phlllppi, 1848) A ribbed cantharus 

..Santa Barbara whelk 



Colus brlstolensls (Dall, 1919) P. 



wayward whelk 



Colus caelatus 

(A.E. Verrlll and S.I. Smith, 1880) A carved whelk 

Colus capponlus (Dall, 1919) P 

Colus errones (Dall, 1919) P. 

Colus esychus (Dall, 1907) P, 

Colus georglanus (Dall, 1920) P. 

Colus halldonus (Dall, 1919) P. 

Colus hallmerls (Dall, 1919) P. 

Colus halll (Dall, 187 3) P. 

Colus herendeenll (Dall, 1902) P. 

Colus hypollspus (Dall, 1891) 

Colus lslandlcus (Gmelln, 1791) 

Colus jordanl (Dall, 1913) P. 



• A, Ac .Iceland whelk 



Colus lividus (Mdrch, 1862). 

Colus martensl (Krause, 1885). 

Colus morditus (Dall, 1919) P. 



.A bruised whelk 

.P.Ac 



Lioim 

Macron llvldus (A. Adams, 



.P,Ac egg whelk 

.P livid macron 

.A Carolina whelk 



Colus nobilis (Dall, 1919) P noble whelk 

Colus obesus (A.E. Verrlll, 1884) A plump whelk 

Colus ombronius (Dall, 1919) P shady whelk 

Colus perlscelldus (Dall, 1891) ...P garter whelk 

Colus pubescens (A.E. Verrlll, 1882) A, Ac hairy whelk 

Colus pulcius CDall, 1919) P.Ac 

Colus pygmaeus (Could, 1841)., , A ,. .pygmy whelk 

Colus roseus (Dall, 1877) , P,Ac rosy whelk 

Colus sablnll (Gray, 1824) A 

Colus spitzbergensis (Reeve, 1855) A.P.Ac Spitzbergen whelk 

Colus stlmpsoni (Morch, 1867) A Stimpson whelk 

Colus timetus (Dall, 1919) P 

Colus trombinus (Dall, 1919) P 

Colus trophlus (Dall, 1919) P 

Colus ventricosus (Gray, 1839) A ventrtcose whelk 

Englna carlbbaea Bartsch and Rehder, 1939 A Caribbean engina 

Englna corlnnae Crovo, 1971 A. Corlnne englna 

Engina turblnella (Klener , 1835) A white-spot englna 

Exilioidea kelseyl (Dall, 1908) P 

Exllloldea rectlrostris (Carpenter, 1865) P 

Kelletla kelletl (Forbes, 1850) P Kellet whelk 

Llomesus nassuia Dall, 1901 P basket whelk 

Llomesus nux Dall, 1877 P nut whe 1 k 

oldes (Mlddendorff , 1848) 

1855) 

Mohnla carollnensls (A.E. Verrlll, 1884). 

Mobnia simplex (A.E. Verrlll, 1884) A 

Neptunea amlanta (Dall, 1890) P 

Neptunea behrlnglana (Mlddendorff , 1848) P 

Neptunea beringiana (Dall, 1919) P 

Neptunea communlsT Middendorf f , 1849) (A),P,Ac 

Neptunea despecta (Linnaeus, 1758) A. , 

Neptunea eucosmia (Dall, 1891) P corded whelk 

Neptunea insularis (Dall, 1895) P 

Neptunea lyrata lyrata (Gmelin, 1791) P,Ac lyre whelk 

Neptunea lyrata decemcostata (Say, 1826) .....A wrinkle whelk 

Neptunea lyrata turnerae A.H. Clarke , 1956 A 

Neptunea magna (Dall, 1895) P helmet whelk 

Neptunea pribllof f ensis (Dall, 1919) P Pribiloff whelk 

Neptunea smlrnia (Dall. 1919) P smlrnla whelk 

Neptunea stilesi A.G. Smith, 1968 P inflated whelk 

Neptunea tabulata (Baird, 1863) P tabled whelk 

Neptunea ventrlcosa (Gmelln, 1791) P,Ac fat whelk 

Neptunea vlnosa (Dall, 1919) P wine whelk 

Plsanla aurltula (Link, 1807) A gaudy cantharus 

Pisania puslo (Linnaeus, 1758) A. .. .miniature trumpet trlton 

Plsanla tincta (Conrad, 1846) A tinted cantharus 

Pllclfusus arcticus (Phlllppi, 1850) A.P.Ac arctic whelk 

Pliclfusus brunneus (Dall, 1877) P brown whelk 

Pllclfusus cretaceus (Reeve, 1847) A chalky whelk 

Pliclfusus griseus (Dall, 1890) P gray whelk 

Pllclfusus lnclsus Dall, 1919 P 

Pliclfusus johanseni Dall, 1919 Ac 

Pliclfusus kroyerl (Mo'ller, 1842) A.P.Ac 

Pliclfusus latlcordatus (Dall, 1907) P broad-cord whelk 

1919. 



Pliclfusus oceanodromae Dall, 1919 P. seahorse whelk 

PllcifusuT syrtensls (Packard, 1867) A 

Pliclfusus verkruzen! (Kobelt, 1876) (A), P.Ac 

Pliclfusus virens (Dall, 1877) P green whelk 

Ptychosalpinx globulus (Dall, 1889) A globose whelk 

Searlesia dira (Reeve, 1846) P dire whelk 

Volutharpa ampullacea (Mlddendorff, 1848) P paper whelk 

Volutopsius attenuatus (Dall, 1874) P,Ac elongate whelk 

Volutopsius behrlngl "TMiddendorf f , 1849) P.Ac 

Volutopsius callorhinus (Dall, 1877) P strombtform whelk 

Volutopsius callorhinus stejnegerl (Dall, 1884). ..P 

Volutopsius castaneus (Morch, 1858) P volute whelk 

Volutopsius deformis (Reeve, 1847) (A), P. Ac warped whelk 

Volutopsius f llosus Dall, 1919 P threaded whelk 

Volutopsius fragilis (Dall, 1891) P fragile whelk 

Volutopsius harpa (Morch, 1858) P left-handed whelk 

Volutopsius mlddendorffti (Dall, 1891) P tulip whelk 

Volutopsius norvegicus (Gmelln , 1791) A Norway whelk 

Volutopsius regularls (Dall, 1873) P regular whelk 

Volutopsius rotundus Dall, 1919 P rotund whelk 

Volutopsius simplex Dall, 1907 P simple whelk 

Volutopsius stef anssonl Dall, 1919 P,Ac shouldered whelk 

Volutopsius trophonlus Dall, 1902 P frilled whelk 

Colubrarlidae 

Colubraria lanceolata (Menke, 1828) A arrow dwarf trlton 

Colubrarla obscura (Reeve, 1844) A obscure dwarf trlton 

Melongenidae 

Busycon candelabrum (Lamarck, 1816) A splendid whelk 

Busycon carlca (Gmelln, 1791) A knobbed whelk 

Busycon laeostomum Kent, 1982 A snow whelk 

Busycon pulleyl Hoi lister, 1958 A prickly whelk 

Busycon slnistrum Ho Ulster, 1958 A lightning whelk 

Busycotypus canaliculars (Linnaeus, 1758) A, [P(I)] channeled whelk 

Busycotypus spiratus (Lamarck, 1816) A true pearwhelk 

Busycotypus plagosus (Conrad, 1863) A shouldered pearwhelk 

Melongena corona (Gmelln, 1791) A crown conch 

Nassarlidae 

Uyanassa obsoleta (Say, 1822) A,[P(I)I eastern mudsnail 

llyanassa trlvlttata (Say, 1822) A three-line mudsnail 

Nassarlus acutus (Say, 1822) A sharp nassa 

Nassarlus albus (Say, 1826) A white nassa 

Nassarlus antlllarum (d'Orblgny, 1842) A Antilles nassa 

Nassarlus consensus (Ravenel , 1861) A striate nassa 

Nassarlus fossatus (Could, 1849) P channeled nassa 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(12):229 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 



COMMON NAME 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 



COMMON NAME 



Nassarlus f raterculus (Dunker, 1860) P(I) Japanese nassa 

Nassarlus hotesslerl (d 'Orblgny, 1 8A5 ) A miniature nassa 

Nassarius insculptus (Carpenter, 1864) P smooth western nassa 

Nassarlus mendlcus (Gould, 1849) P lean western nassa 

Nassarlus" mendicus cooperl (Forbes , 1850) P lean nassa 

Nassarlus perplnguls (Hinds , 1844) P fat western nassa 

Nassarius polygonatus cinisculus (Reeve, 1853). ...A black-spot nassa 

Nassarlus rhlnetes S.S. Berry, 1953 P California nassa 

Nassarlus scissuratus (Dall, 1889) A carved nassa 

Nassarius tegula (Reeve, 1853) P western mud nassa 

Nassarlus" vibex (Say, 1822). 

Fasciolarlldae 



Turblnellidae 



• A bruised nassa 



Dollcholatlms cayohuesonicus (Sowerby, 1878) A Key West latlrus 

DolichQlatiruB pauli (McGlnty, 1955) A slender latlrus 

Fasciolaria bulllsl Lyons, 1972 A yellow tulip 

Fasciolaria lillum G. Fischer, 1807 A banded tulip 

Fasciolaria lillum branhamae 



Fasciolaria lllium 



Render and Abbott, 1951. ..A. 
unteria (G. Perry, 1811) A. 



Fasciolaria lillum tortugana Ho Ulster, 1957 A 

Fasciolaria tulipa (Linnaeus, 1758) A true tulip 

Fusinus aepynotus (Dall, 1889) A graceful spindle 

Fusinus alcimus (Dall, 1889) A stout spindle 

Fusinus amphiurgus (Dall, 1889) A slender spindle 

Fusinus barbarensls (Trask, 1855) P Santa Barbara spindle 

Fusinus benthalts {fall, 1889) A modest splnkle 

Fusinus couei (Petit de la Saussaye, 1853) A Coue spindle 

Fusinus eucosmlus (Dall , 1889) A apricot spindle 

Fusinus harfordll (Stearns, 1871) P Harford spindle 

Fusinus helenae Bartsch, 1939 A brown spindle 

Fusinus kobeltl (Dall, 1877) P Kobelt spindle 

Fusinus luteopictus (Dall, 1877) P painted spindle 

Fusinus monksae (Dall, 1915) P 

Fusinus stegeri Lyons , 1978 A ornamented spindle 

Heilprinla tlmesaus (Dall, 1889) A turnip spindle 

Latlrus angulatus (Rodlng, 1798) A short -tall lat 

Lat lrus carlnlferus Lamarck , 182 2 A yellow lat 

Latirus infundibulum (Gmelln , 1791) A brown-line lat 

Latlrus nematus Woodrlng, 1928 A threaded lat 

Leucozonla nassa (Gmel In, 1791) A chestnut lat 

Leucozonla ocellata (Gmelln, 1791) A white -spot lat 

Pleuroploca glgantea (Klener, 1840) 



rus 
rus 
rus 
A horse conch 



Olivldae 



Jaspldella blanesl (Ford, 1898).... 
Jaspldella jaspldea (Gmelln, 1791). 

Jaspldella mlris Olsson, 1956 

Oliva reticularis Lamarck, 1810... . 

Oliv 

CaTv" 



.A B lanes dwarf olive 

• A jasper dwarf olive 



0~XT^ 



Bayana Ravenel, 1834... 
a adelae Olsson, 1956, 



a baetlca Carpenter, 1864 P. 



.A netted olive 

•A............. .lettered olive 

■ A. Adele dwarf olive 

. . .beat 1c dwarf olive 



_ blpllcata (Sowerby, 1825) P purple dwarf olive 

7 bullula (Reeve, 1850) A* bubble dwarf olive 

a dealbata (Reeve, 1850) A whitened dwarf olive 

(Duclos, 1853) A rice olive 



floralia 



fuscoclncta Dall, 1889 A. 



a_ macglntyl Olsson, 1956 A. 



(Link, 1807) A minute dwarf olive 

a nutlca (Say, 1822) A variable dwarf olive 

a nlvea (Cmelln, 1791) 

a parva T.S. Oldroyd, 1921 P. 

a pedroana (Conrad, 1856) P. 

a_ perplexa Olsson, 1956 A. 



.A snowy dwarf olive 

.San Pedro dwarf olive 



pusilla (Marrat, 1871) A tiny dwarf olive 

£ rotunda Dall , 1889 A 

a stegeri Olsson, 1956 A 



thompsoni Olsson, 1956 A. 



a watermanl McGlnty, 1940. 



Mltridae 

Mltra barbadensis (Gmelln, 1791) A Barbados miter 

Mltra f lorlda Gould, 1856 A royal Florida miter 

Mltra fultonl E.A. Smith, 1892 P Fulton miter 

Mltra idae Melvlll, 1893 P Ida miter 

Mltra nodulosa (Cmelln, 1791) A beaded miter 

Mitra Btramlnea A. Adams , 1853 A Gulf Stream miter 

Mltra swainsonll antlllensis Dall, 1889 A Ant il lean miter 

Costellarlldae 

Thala f oveata (Sowerby, 1874) A beaded miter 

um dermestlnum (Lamarck, 1811) A mottled miter 

m epiphaneum (Render, 1943) A half-brown miter 

m exlguum (C.B. Adams, 1845). .> A Hanley miter 

um gemmatum (Sowerby, 1874) A gem miter 

um hendersonl (Dall, 1927) A Henderson miter 

um hlstrlo (Reeve, 1844) A harlequin miter 

um laterculatum (Sowerby, 1874) A pitted miter 

um puella (Reeve, 1845) A white-spot miter 

um pulchellum (Reeve, 1844) A beautiful miter 

um st yrla (Dall, 1889) A dwarf deepsea miter 



sykesl (Melvlll, 1925) A white-band miter 

' trophonium (Dall, 1889) A 

wandoense (Holmes, I860)..... A waxy miter 



Volutomltrldae 

Microvoluta blakeana (Dall, 1889) A 

Volutomitta groenlandlca (Holler , 1842) A false Greenland miter 



.P. ...California false spindle 



Hetzgeria californica Dall, 1903 

Metzgerla montereyana 

A.G. Smith and Gordon, 1948.. ,P Monterey false spindle 

Ptychatractus ligatus 

(Mighels and C.B. Adams, 1842).. .A llgate false spindle 

Ptychatractus occidentalis Stearns, 1873 P 

Vasum TTuricatum (Born, 1778) A Caribbean vase 



Volutidae 



.P Alaska 



Arc tome Ion stearnsli Dall, 1872 , 

Enaeta cyllenlf ormls (Sowerby, 1844) A sand lyria 

Scaphella dubla (Broderlp, 1827) A dubious volute 

Scaphella gouldlana (Dall, 1887) A banded volute 

Scaphella junonla (Shaw, 1808) A junonia 



Cystls 



Marglnellidae 
jewettl (Carpenter, 1857) P. 



Cystlscus pollta (Carpenter, 1857) P polished 

Cystlscus polltulus (Dall, 1919) P polite 

Cystlscus subtrlgona (Carpenter, 1864) P triangular 

Dent lmargo aureoclncta (Stearns, 1872) A gold-line 

Dentimargo eburneola (Conrad, 1834) A tan 

Granullna hadrla (Dall, 1889) A 

Granullna margarltula (Carpenter, 1857) P pear-shaped 

Granullna ovu LI f ormls (d 'Orblgny, 1841) A teardrop 

Marglnella amabllis Redfield, 1852 A queen 

Marglnella aplclna Menke, 1828 A. .common Atlantic 

Marglnella bella Conrad, 1868 A la belle 

Marglnella borealls (Verrill, 1884) A boreal 

Harglnella carnea (Store r, 1837) A orange 



marglnella 
marglnella 
marglnella 
marglnella 
marglnella 
marglnella 



marglnella 
marglnella 
marglnella 
marglnella 
marglnella 
marglnella 
marglnella 



Marglnella cassis Dall, 1 

Marglnella clneracea Dall, 1889 A gray marglnella 

Marglnella evelynae F.M. Bayer , 194 3 A 

Marglnella guttata (Dillwyn, 1817) A white-spot marglnella 

Marglnella hartleyanum Schwengel, 1941 A Hartley marglnella 

Marglnella hematlta Klener, 1834 A carmine marglnella 



Marglnella Idiochila Schwengel, 1943 A 

Marglnella lavalleeana d 'Orblgny, 1841 A snowf lake marglnell 

Marglnella noblllana F.M. Bayer, 194 3 A 

Marglnella perexllls Bavay, 1922 A 

Marglnella roosevelti Bartsch and Rehder, 1939. ...A Roosevelt 

Marglnella rosclda Redfield, 1860 A seaboard 

Harglnella virglnlana Conrad, 1868 A Virginia 

Marglnellopsls serrei Bavay, 1911 A Serre 

Persicula catenata (Montagu, 1803) A princess 

Persicula pulcherimma (Gaskoin, 1849) A decorated 



Volvarlna albollneata (d 'Orblgny, 1842) A white-line 

Volvarlna avena (Klener, 1834) A orange-band 

Volvarlna avenacea (Deshayes, 1B44) A little oat 

Volvarlna pallida (Linnaeus, 1758) A pallid 

Volvarlna subtriplicata (d 'Orblgny , 1842) A three-rib 

Volvarlna taenlolata (Horch, 1860) P California 

Volvarlna torticula (Dall, 1881) A knave 

Volvarlna veliel (Pilsbry, 1896) A Velle 

Cancellarlidae 



marglnella 
marglnella 
marglnella 
marglnella 
marglnella 
marglnella 
marglnella 
marglnella 
marglnella 
marglnella 
marglnella 
marglnella 
marglnella 
marglnella 



Admete californica Dall, 1908 P California 

Admete clrcumclncta (Dall, 1873) P corded 

Admete couthouyl (Jay, 1839) A,P,Ac northern 

Admete gract llor (Carpenter j_n Gabb, 1869 ) P slender 

Admete modesta (Carpenter, 1865) P modest 

Admete reglna Dall, 1911 P.Ac noble 

Admete rhyssa (Dall, 1919) P wrinkled 

Admete sef tonl S.S. Berry, 1956 P stubby 

Admete unalashkensis (Dall, 1873) P Aleutian 

Admete woodworthi (Dall, 1905) P graceful 

Agatrix agasslzli (Dall, 1889) A Agasslz 

Cancellarla cooperl Gabb, 1865 P Cooper 

Cancellarla corblcula Dall, 1908 P basket 

Cancellarla crawfordlana (Dall, 1891) P Crawford 

Cancellarla ret leu lata (Linnaeus , 1767) A common 

.A Adele 

Smith 



Cancellarla reticulata adelae Pilsbry, 1940. 

Olssonella smithli (Dall, 1888) A. 

Trlgonostoma rugosum (Lamarck, 1822) A. 

Trlgonostoma tenerum (Phlllppl, 1848) A. 

Conidae 



. . .rugose 
.Phlllppl 



admete 

admete 
admete 
admete 
admete 
admete 
admete 
admete 
admete 
admete 
nutmeg 
nutmeg 
nutmeg 
nutmeg 
nutmeg 
nutmeg, 
nutmeg 
nutmeg 
nutmeg 



.A Julia 

.A mace 

• A slender 

,P California 

.A cancel late 

.A carrot 



Conus amphiurgus Dall, 1889, .. . 

Conus armlger Crosse , 1858 

Conus attenuatus Reeve, 1844... 
Conus callfornlcus Hinds, 1844. 
Conus cancellatus Hwass, 1 792. . 

Conus daucus Hwass , 1792 

Conus delessertil Recluz, 184 3 A Sozon 

Conus ermlneus Born, 1778 A agate 

Conus flamingo Petuch, i960 A flamingo 

Conus f lavescens Sowerby, 1834 A flame 

Conus f loridanus" Gabb, 1868 A Florida 

Conus florldensis Sowerby, 1870 A , 

Conus granu latus Linnaeus , 1 7 58 A. .glory -of -the -At Ian t Ic 

Conus jaspldeus Gmelln, 1791 A jasper 



cone 
cone 
cone 
cone 
cone 
cone 
cone 
cone 
cone 



Conus macglntyl Pilsbry, 1955. 
Conus mind anus Hwass, 1792. .. . 



.McGlnty 
• Ber 



.A.. • sunrise 



Conus mis Hwass , 1 792 

Conus patae Abbott, 1971 

Conus perryae Clench, 1942 A 

Conus ralnesae McGlnty, 1953 A Raines 

Conus regius Gmelln, 1 79 1 A crown 

Conus sennottorum Rehder and Abbott, 1951 A speckled 

Conus spurlus Gmel in, 1 791 



cone 
cone 
cone 
cone 
cone 
cone 



.alpha 



cone 
cone 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(12):230 









TOM SHEPHERD 

m&$ 2222 Beech Street 
Virginia Beach, Va. 
23451 




I am starting a mail order business that offers marine specimen shells. Many of the shells that are 
offered were collected during my travels while in the Navy. In order for me to better serve you, please 
complete the following questionaire and return it to me at the above address. Upon receipt of the 
completed questionaire you will be sent a catalog and one free introductory shell (my choice). 

All orders placed before March 31st. will be entered into a drawing for a free Conus bengalensis.The 
larger the order, the more entries you receive; $25.00 or less = one entry, $25.01 to $50.00 = two entries 
and so on. The drawing will be held on April 2nd, 1985. The winner will be announced in Shells and 
Sea Life. 



(please print or type) 

NAME 

(last) (first) (middle) 

HOME ADDRESS: Street 

City 



(state and zip) 



YOUR SHELL CLUB NAME: 
Street _ 
City 



(state and zip) 



MEETINGS HELD AT: 

(location) 

MEETING HELD ON: 

(time of day and month) 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(12):231 



SHELL CLUB'S 
SECRETARY: 



ADDRESS: Street 

City 

State Zip code 



Phone Number ( ) 



NEXT SHELL SHOW WILL BE: 



(inclusive dates) 



LOCATION: 
STREET _ 
CITY 



r rf«S^*-i&!*ff^ -g 

Pv- ;:■'■■ a 

l»» 'i'r*-vi.»!" k »i',*i 




TELL ME ABOUT YOUR SHELL COLLECTION (give main emphasis, such as Conus, Voluta, fossils, 
self collected etc.): 



APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF SPECIES: 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(12):232 



SHELLS YOU HAVE FOR TRADE OR SALE (Give species, size, grade and method of collection): 



SHELLS YOU WANT FOR YOUR COLLECTION: 



FAVORITE REFRENCE BOOKS ARE: ^^St?^ 

JUtfrK-*«*sS£ ISc^s 

fs*^'^ 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(12):233 



AREAS YOU HAVE COLLECTED FROM: 



(For the statements below cross out AM or AM NOT as prefered): 

I AM AM NOT INTERESTED IN FREAK SHELLS. 

I AM AM NOT INTERESTED IN COLOR SLIDES OF UNUSUAL SPECIMENS. 
I AM AM NOT INTERESTED IN COLOR PRINTS OF UNUSUAL SPECIMENS. 
I AM AM NOT INTERESTED IN SPECIMENS FROM UNUSUAL LOCATIONS. 



A big THANK YOU to Ray andDelores Pease, who gotme started, and toGreg CurrySr. whohas beena 
big help along the way. 



Happy Shelling, 



J>, 



^-P**"^ 











SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(12):234 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 



OCCURRENCE 



COMMON NAME 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 



COMMON NAME 



Conus stearnsl Conrad, 1869 A dusky cone 

Con us stimpsoni Dal I, 1902 A yellow cone 

Conus vllleplni P. Fischer and Bernardi, 1857 A Vlllepln cone 

Terebridae 

Hastula cinerea (Born, 1778) A gray auger 

Has tula hastata (Gmelin, 1791) A shiny auger 

Hastula oiaryleeae (R.D. Burch, 1965) A Marylee auger 

Hastula salleana (Deshsyes , 1859). .. A. . Salle auger 

Terebra acrlor Pall, 1889 A 

Terebra areas Abbott, 1954 



A Areas Cays auger 



Terebra benthalis Dall, 1899 A. 

Terebra concava Say, 1827 A concave auger 

Terebra crenlf era Deshayes , 1859 P western crenate auger 

Terebra danal S.S. Berry, 1958 P Dana auger 

Terebra dlslocata (Say, 1822) A eastern auger 

Terebra florldana Dall, 1889 A yellow auger 

Terebra glossema Schwengel , 1940 A tongue auger 

Terebra hemphim Vanatta, 1924 P Hemphill auger 

Terebra nassula Dall, 1889 A 

Terebra onslowensls Petuch, 1972 ..A Onslow Bay auger 

Terebra pedroana Dall, 1908 .P San Pedro auger 

Terebra protexta (Conrad, 1845) A fine-ribbed auger 

Terebra rushii Dall , 1889 A porcelain auger 

Terebra t au r 1 nu is Lightfoot, 1786 A flame auger 

Terebra texana Dall, 1898 A Texas auger 

...lilac auger 



Terebra vlnosa Dall, 1889 A. 



Turridae 



Aforla clrcinata (Dall, 1873) 

Agathotoma stellata (MSrch, i860). 

Antlplanes abarbarea Dall, 1919 P. 

Antlplanes" brlseis ~D~all , 1919 P. 

Antlplanes bullmoldes Dall, 1919 P. 

Antlplanes catallnae (Raymond, 1904) P. 

Antlplanes dlaulax (Dall, 1908) P. 

Antlplanes hyperla Dall, 1919 P. 

Antlplanes litus Dall, 1919 P. 

Antlplanes major Bartsch, 1944... 
Antlplanes perversa (Gabb, 1865). 

Antlplanes s ant aro Sana (Dall, 1902) P. 

Antlplanes voyi- (Gabb, 1866) P. 

Antlplanes wlllettl S.S. Berry, 1953 P. 

Bactrocythara asarca (Dall and Simpson, 1901).,. ..A. 

Bathytoma vlabrunnea (Dall, 1889) A. 

Bellaspira grlppl (Dall, 1908) P. 

Bellaspira pentagonalls (Dall, 1889) A. 

Borsonella bartschl (Arnold, 1903) P. 

Borsonella civitella Dall, 1919 P. 

Borsonella coronadol (Dall, 1908) P. 

Borsonella diegensls (Dall, 1908) P. 

Borsonella nlcoli Dall, 1919 P. 

Borsonella nychia Dall, 1919 P. 



.P keeled afor 

.P 



• P large perverse turrld 

• P. perverse turrld 



.left-handed turrld 



.brown-band turrld 



.pentagonal drlllia 



Borsonella omphale Dall, 1919 P 

Borsonella plnosensis Bartsch, 1944 P 

Brachycythara barbarae Lyons , 1972 A 

Brachycythara biconlca (C.B. Adams, 1850) A 

Cerodrillla beallana Schwengel and McGinty, 1942.. A 

Cerodrillia clappl Bartsch and Rehder, 1939 A 

Cerodrillla girardi Lyons, 1972 A 

Cerodrillla perryae Bartsch and Rehder, 1939 A Perry drillia 

Cerodrillla schroederl Bartsch and Rehder, 1939. ..A 

Cerodrillla simpsonl TDall in Simpson, 1887) A 

Cerodrillla thea (Dall, 1883) A 

Cerodrillla verrilli 



.thea drillia 



(Dall, 1881, p. 68, non p. 57). ..A 

Clathromangelia fuscollgata (Dall, 1871) P 

Clathromangella interfossa (Carpenter, 1864) P cliff-dwelling turrld 

Clathurella canfieldi (Dall, 1871) P 

Clathurella capaniola Dall, 1919 P 

Clathurella castianlra Dall, 1919 P 

Clathurella conradlana Gabb, 1869 P 

Clathurella crystallina Gabb, 1865 P 

Clathurella rava (Hinds, 1843) P 

Clathurella rlgida (Hinds, 1843) P 

Cochlespira elegans (Dall, 1881) A elegant star turrld 

Cochlespira radiata (Dall, 1889) A lesser star turrld 

Compsodrlllia eucosmia (Dall, 1889) A eucosmia drillia 

Compsodrillia hallostrephls (Dall, 1889) A 

Crasslspira cubana Melvill, 1923 A Cuban turrld 

Crasslsplra montereyensls Stearns, 1871 P Monterey turrld 

Crasslspira phasma Schwengel, 1940 A 

Crasslsplra rhythmlca Melvill, 1927 A 

Crasslspira sanlbelensls 

Bartsch and Rehder, 1939.. .A Sanihel turrld 

Crasslspira semiinf lata (Grant and Gale, 1931).. . .P 

Cryoturrls cerinella (Dall, 1889) A little waxy mangelia 

Cryoturris cltronella (Dall, 1889) A little yellow mangelia 

Cryoturrls fargoi McGinty, 1955 A Fargo mangelia 

Cryoturris filifera (Dall, 1881) A 

Cryoturrls quadrillneata (C.B. Adams, 1850) A 

Cymakra aspera (Carpenter, 1864) p beaded turrld 

Cymakra gracilior (Tryon, 1884) P 

Cymatosyrlnx hemphllli (Stearns , 1871) P 

Cymatosyrlnx johnsoni Arnold, 1903 P 

Cymatosyrlnx pagodula (Dall, 1889) A. 




40). 



a clathrata (Gabb, 1865) P. 

a_ corbicula Dall, 1889 A. 

a lymneiformls (Kiener, 18 
a_ margaretae Lyons, 1972. 

a morra (Dall, 1881) 

reticulosa Dall, 1889.. 
1889.... 



volute turrld 



•Morro turrld 



Daphne 11a ret If era Dall, 



Daphnella stegeri McGinty, 1955 A.,., Steger turrid 

Drillia acurugata (Dall, 1890) A..... roughed drillia 

Drillia albicoma (Dall, 1889) A 

Drillia canna (Dall, 1889) A .....!!!!!!!! 

Drillia cydia (Bartsch, 1943) A glorious drillia 

Drllliola loprestiana (Calcara, 1841) A 

Elaeocyma empyrosla (Dall, 1899) P \\\ 

Eubela macgintyi Schwengel, 1943 A 

Fenlmorea fucata (Reeve, 1845) A 

Fenlmorea halidorema (Schwengel, 1940) A 

Fenlmorea janetae Bartsch, 1934 A 

Gemmula hlndslana S.S. Berry, 1958 P Hinds gem turrld 

Gemmula periscelida (Dall, 1889) A Atlantic gem turrld 

Glyphostoma adria Dall, 1919 P 

Glyphostoma cymodoce Dall, 1919 P 

Ulyphostoma dentifera Gabb, 187 2 A 

Glyphostoma elsae Bartsch, 1934 A 

Glyphostoma gabbii Dall, 1889 A Gabb mangelia 

Glyphostoma golf oyaquensis Maury, 1917 A 

Glyphostoma hesione (Dall, 1919) P 

Glyphostoma pilsbryl Schwengel, 1940 A 

Glyphostomops hendersoni Bartsch, 1934 A 

Glyphoturris quadrata (Reeve, 1845) A 

Glyphoturrls dimlnuta (C.B. Adams, 1850) A 

Glyphoturris erltlma (Bush, 1885) A 

Glyphoturrls ruglrlma (DaLL, 1889) A 

Granoturris presleyl Lyons, 1972 A 

Gymnobela a gassizil 

(A.E. Verrill and S.I. Smith, 1880) A 

Hlndslclava alesldota (Dall, 1889) A 

Inodrlllla acova Bartsch, 1943 A 

Inodrlllla aepynota (Dall, 1889) A tall-spired drillia 

Inodrlllla avira Bartsch, 1943 A 

Inodrlllla carpenter! (A.E. Verrill and 

S.I. Smith 1880, non DeFolin, 1867).. .A 

Inodrillia dalll (A.E. Verrill and S.I. Smith, 

1882) A 

Inodrlllla dido Bartsch, 1943 A 

Inodrlllla gibba Bartsch, 1943 A 

Inodrlllla hatterasensls Bartsch, 194 3 A 

Inodrillia ino Bartsch, 1943 A 

Inodrlllla martha Bartsch, 194 3 A 

Inodrillia miamla Bartsch, 1943 A 

Inodrlllla vetula Bartsch, 1943 A 

Ithycythara cymella (Dall, 1889) A 

Ithycythara lanceolata (C.B. Adams, 1850) A spear mangelia 

Ithycythara parkeri Abbott , 1958 A Parker mangelia 

Ithycythara pentagonalls (Reeve, 1845) A 

Ithycythara psila (Bush, 1885) A 

Kurtzia arteaga (Dall and Bartsch, 1910) .....P beaded mangelia 

Kurtziella accincta (Montagu , 1808) A 

Kurtzielia atrostyla (Tryon, 1884) A brown-tip mangelia 

Kurtziella cerina (Kurtz and Stlrapson, 1851)... ...A 

Kurtzielia diomedea Bartsch and Rehder, 1939 A 

Kurtziella limonltella (Dall, 1883) A punctate mangelia 

Kurtzielia newcombeFTDall , 1919) P 

Kurtziella perryae Bartsch and Rehder, 1939 A 

Kurtziella plumbea (Hinds, 1843) P violet-band mangelia 

Kurtziella rubella (Kurtz and Stlmpson, 1851) A reddish mangelia 

Kurtziella serga (Dall, 1881) A 

Kurtziella varlegata (Carpenter, 1864) P tan mangelia 

Kylix halocydne (Dall, 1919) P 

Leptadrlllla cookel (E.A. Smith, 1882) A 

Leptadrlllia splendlda (Bartsch, 1934) A 

Leucosyrlnx kincaidi Dall, 1919 P 

Mangelia aculea (Dall, 1919) P 

Mangelia amatula (Dall, 1919) P 

Mangelia astricta Reeve , 1846 A 

Mangelia bandella (Dall, 1881) A 

Mangelia ceroplasta Bush, 1885 A 

Mangelia cesta Dall, 1919 P 

Mangelia constrlcta Gabb, 1865 P 

Mangelia densllineata (Dall, 1921) P 

Mangelia erlphyle Dall, 1919 P 

Mangelia evadne Pall, 1919 P 

Mangelia hexagona Gabb, 1865 , P......... 

Mangelia hoover! Arnold, 1903 P 

Mangelia louisa (Dall, 1919) P 

Mangelia merita Hinds , 1843 P 

Saccharotu rrls monocingulata (Dall, 1889) A 

Mangelia palnei Arnold, 1903 P 

Mangelia perattenuata Dall, 1905 P 

Mangelia philodlce Dall, 1919 P 

Mangelia pomara (Dall, 1919) P 

Mangelia victorlana (Dall, 1897) P 

Megasurcu la carpenteriana (Gabb, 1865) P .Carpenter turrid 

Megasurcula remondii (Gabb, 1866) P 

Megasurcu la stearnslana (Raymond , 1904) P Stearns turrid 

Miraclathurella herminea (Bartsch, 1934) A 

Mitrolumna biplicata (Dall, 1889) A 

Mitromorpha carpenterl Gilbert, 1954 P , filose turrid 

Nannodlella" melanitica (Bush, 1885) A 

Nannodlella oxia (Bush, 1885) A 

Nannodlella vespuciana (d 'Orbigny , 1842) A 

Nototoma impressa (Morch, 1869) (A),P,Ac 

Obesotoma arctica (A. Adams, 1855) P 

Obesotoma lawrenciana (Dall, 1919) P 

Oenopota alaskensls (Dall, 1871) P Alaska turrid 

Oenopota albrechti (Krause, 1885) = .P 

Oenopota aleutica (Pall, 1871) P,Ac Aleut turrid 

Oenopota alitakensis (Dall, 1919) P 

Oenopota althorpensis (Dall, 1919) P 

Oenopota althorpi TDall, 1919) P 

Oenopota amianta (Dall, 1919) P 

Oenopota angulosa (G.O. Sars, 1878) A 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(12):235 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 



OCCURRENCE 



COMMON NAME 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 



OCCURRENCE 



COMMON NAME 



Oenopota babylonia (Dall, 1919) P 

Oenopota beckll (MSller, 1842) Ac 

Oenopota blcarinata (Couthuoy, 1833) A two-keel turrid 

Oenopota blaneyl (Bush, 1909) A 

Oenopota cancellata 

TMighels and C.B. Adams, 1842).. .A cancellate turrid 

Oenopota chlachlana (Dall, 1919) P 

Oenopota conclnnula (A.E. VerrlU, 1882) A 

Oenopota decussata (Couthouy, 1839) A, Ac decussate turrid 

Oenopota elegans poller, 1842) A,P elegant turrid 

Oenopota erlopls (Dall, 1919) P 

Oenopota exarata (Holler, 1842) A 

Oenopota excurvata (Carpenter, 1865) P squat turrid 

Oenopota fldlcula (Gould, 1849) P 

Oenopota flora (Dall, 1919) P 

Oenopota galgana (Dall, 1919) P 

Oenopota gouldli (A.E. Verrlll, 1882) A Gould northern turrid 

Oenopota grantica (Dall, 1919) P 

Oenopota harpa (Dall, 1885) P.Ac harp turrid 

Oenopota harpularla (Couthouy, 1838) A,P,Ac. ., big harp turrid 

Oenopota healyl (Dall, 1919) P 

Oenopota hebes (A.E. Verrill, 1880) A 

Oenopota lnclsula (A.E. Verrill, 1882) A, Ac. .Incised northern turrid 

Oenopota inequlta (Dall, 1919) P 

Oenopota krausel (Dall, 1886) P 

Oenopota kyskana (Dall, 1919) P 

Oenopota laevigata (Dall, 187 1) P 

Oenopota levldenBls (Carpenter, 1864) P violet turrid 

Oenopota lotta (Dall, 1919) P 

Oenopota luetkenl (Dall, 191 9) P 

Oenopota lutkeana (Krause, 1885) P 

Oenopota maurellei (Dall and Bartsch, 1910) P 

Oenopota tnetschlgmensls (Krause, 1885) P 

Oenopota mltrata (Dall, 1919) P 

Oenopota morchl (Leche, 1878) P.Ac 

Oenopota murdochiana (Dall, 1885) P.Ac 

Oenopota nazanensls (Dall, 1919) P 

Oenopota nodulosa (Krause , 1885) P. 

Oenopota novajaseml jensls (Leche, 1878) P.Ac 

Oenopota nunlvakensls (Dall, 1919) P Nunivak turrid 

Oenopota pavlova (Dall, 1919) P 

Oenopota plngelll (Holler, 1842) A 

Oenopota pleurotomarls (Couthuoy, 1838) A 

Oenopota popovia (Dai I, 1919) P 

Oenopota prlbllova (Dall, 1919) P,Ac Priblloff turrid 

Oenopota pyramldalls (Strrfm, 1 788) A,P, Ac pyramid turrid 

Oenopota rasslna (Dall, 1919) P 

Oenopota regulus (Dall, 1919) P 

Oenopota reticulata (Brown, 1827) A,P,Ac reticulate turrid 

Oenopota rosea (Lovgn, 1846) P pink turrid 

Oenopota rosea (G.O. Sars, 1878) A 

Oenopota sarsll (A.E. Verrill, 1880) A 

Oenopota sea larls (Holler, 1842) A, Ac 

Oenopota sculpturata (Dall, 1886) P 

Oenopota simplex (Hlddendorf f , 1849) P.Ac 

Oenopota solida (Dall. 1887) .P 

Oenopota subvltrea (A.E. Verrill, 1884) A 

Oenopota tabulata (Carpenter, 1865) P tabulate turrid 

Oenopota tenuillrata cymata (Dall, 1919) P 

Oenopota tenulsslma (Dall, 1919) P 

Oenopota turrlcula (Montagu, 1803) A.P.Ac turriculate turrid 

Oenopota vlolacea (Mlghels and C.B. Adams, 1842). A, P.Ac two-cord turrid 

Oenopota woodlana (Holler, 1842) A, P, Ac 

Ophiodermella cancellata (Carpenter, 1864) P. ...little cancellate turrid 

Ophiodermella lnermls (Hinds , 184 3) P gray snakeskin turrid 

Ophlodermel la montereyensls Bartsch, 1944 P 

Pllsbrysplra albomaculata (d 'Orblgny, 1842) A white-band drillla 

Pilsbrysplra leucocyma (Dall, 1883) A white-knob drillla 

Pllsbrysplra inonills (Bartsch and Rehder, 1939).. .A 

Pleurotomella blakeana (Dall, 1889) A Blake turrid 

Pleurotomella packardll (A.E. Verrill, 1872) A 

Polystlra alblda (G. Perry, 1811) A white giant turrid 

Polystlra tellea (Dall, 1889) A delicate giant turrid 

Polystlra vlbex (Dall, 1889) A 

Pseudomelatoma grlppl (Dall, 1919) P 

Pseudomelatoma penlclllata (Carpenter, 1864) P 

Pseudome l at oma stlcta S.S. Berry, 1956 P 

Pseudomelatoma torosa (Carpenter, 1865) ■?■■■■ 

Pyrgocythara balteata (Reeve, 1846) A balteate mangella 

Pyrgocythara candldlsslma (C.B. Adams, 1845) A Cox mangella 

Pyrgocythara f tlosa Rehder, 1943 A Eilose mangella 

Pyrgocythara hemphllll Bartsch and Rehder, 1939. ..A Hemphill mangella 

Pyrgocythara pllcosa (C.B. Adams, 1850) A plicate mangella 

Pyrgospira ostrearum (Stearns, 1872) A oyster turrid 

Pyrgosplra tampaensls (Bartsch and Rehder, 1939). .A 

Rhodopetoma rhodope~ T n all , 1919) P 

Saccharoturrls monoclngulata (Dall, 1889) A 

Splendrlllla llssotropls (Dall, 1881) A 

Splendrlllla moserl (Dall, 1889) A 

Splendrlllla moserl brunnescens Rehder, 1943 A 

Splendrlllla woodringl (Bartsch, 1934) A 

Stellatoma stellata jStearns, 1872) A 

Strlctlsplra sollda (C.B. Adams, 1850) A solid drillla 

Suavodrlilla kennlcottii (Dall, 1871) P 

Suavodrlllla wlllettl Dall, 1919 P small suavodrlllia 

1889) A 

P 



Tenaturrls bartlettl (Dall, 

Tenaturrla janlra (Dall, 1919) 

Typhlomangel la nivalis (Loven, 1846) A. 

Viridrlllla cervlna Bartsch, 194 3 A. 

Vlrldrlllla hendersoni Bartsch, 1943 A. 

Viridrlllla wllllaml Bartsch, 194 3 A. 

Vltrlcythata elata TDall, 1889) A. 

Vltrlcythara metrla (Dall, 1903) A. 



.Bartlett turrid 



Pyraraidellidae 

Boonea bisuturalls (Say, 1822) A two-groove odostome 

Boonea impressa (Say, 1822) A Impressed odostome 

Boonea semlnuda (C.B. Adams, 1839) A half-smooth odostome 

Cyclostremella callfornlca Bartsch, 1907 P 

Cyclostremella conradla Bartsch, 1920 P 

Cyclostremella hutnllls Bush, 1897 A 

Fargoa bartschl (winkley, 1909) A * 

Fargoa bushlana (Bartsch, 1909) A Bush odostome 

Fargoa dlanthophila 

(H. Hells and M.J. Wells, 1961) A serpulld odostome 

Fargoa glbbosa (Bush, 1909) A 

Isellca anomala (C.B. Adams, 1850) A anomalous fossarus 

Isellca obtusa (Carpenter, 1864) P obtuse fossarus 

Isellca ovoldea (Gould, 1853) P 

Kleinella cedrosa (Dall, 1884) A 

Hiralda havanensls (Pllsbry and Aguayo, 1933) A 

all and Bartsch, 1909 P 



OdoBtoml 
Odostom 



0~do 



Odostom 
Odostom 



epyno 



a_ aequlsculpta Carpenter, 1864. 



altina 



a aleutica Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P. 

1909 P. 

1904 P. 

a amianta Dall and Bartsch, 1907 P. 

a amllda Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P. 

1907 P. 



11 and Bartsch, 
a americana Dall and Bartsch, 



angularis Dall and Bartsch, 



a arctlca Dall and Bartsch, 1909.. 
a astricta Dall and Bartsch, 1907. 



,P lattice odostome 



a atossa Dall, 1908. 



£ bachia Bartsch, 1927 P. 

_ baldrldgae Bartsch, 1912 P. 

a barkleyensls Dall and Bartsch, 1910 P. 

£ beringi Dall, 1871 P. 

£ calcarella Bartsch, 1912 P. 

a calllmene Bartsch, 1912 P. 

a callimorpha Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P. 

a calliope Bartsch, 1912 P.. 



1842 A. 

P. 

capl tana Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P. 



cancellata d'Orblgny, 
1908. 



nfieldi Dall, 



a cas6andra Bartsch, 1912 P. 



catalinensls Bartsch, 1927 P. 



a chlnooki Bartsch, 1927. 



a churchi A.G. Smith and Gordon, 1948. 



a clncta (Carpenter, 1864) P. 



a clementensls Bartsch, 1927. 



a Clementina Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P. 

Columbians Dall and Bartsch, 1907 P. 



a cookeana Bartsch, 1912. 



a cumshewaensls Bartsch, 



1921... 
yprla Dall and Bartsch, 1912. 

11a Bartsch, 1912 

1909. 



a dlcella Bartsch, 1912 P. 



a dlnella Dall and Bartsch 
a edmondl E. Jordan, 1920. 

7 eldorana Bartsch, 1912 P. 

a elsa Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P. 



• P dlnella odosto 

.P 



£ enbergl Bartsch, 1920 

a engonla Bush, 1885 

a enora Dall and Bartsch, 1909.... 
a esllda Dall and Bartsch, 1909... 
£ eucosmla Dall and Bartsch, 1909. 
a eugena Dall and Bartsch, 1909... 



a_ euglypta E. Jordan, 1920 

a exara Dall and Bartsch, 1907. 
a exclsa Bartsch, 1912 



.P graceful odostome 

.P 

.P 



eyerdaml Bartsch, 1927. 



a farallonensis Dall and Bartsch, 1909. 



£ fartna Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P 

fetella Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P fetella odostome 

f ranclscana Bartsch, 1917 P 

glorlosa Bartsch, 1912 P 



a gravida Gould. 1852. 



£ gripplana Bartsch, 1912. 



a hartfordensls Dall and Bartsch, 1907. 



a heathl A.G. Smith and Gordon, 1948 P 

£ helena Bartsch, 1912 P 

a helga Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P Helga odostome 

a hemphllll Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P 

£ hendersoni Bartsch, 1909 A 

a herilda Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P 



a heterocincta Bartsch, 1912. 



a hypatla Bartsch, 1912. 



a hypocurta Dall and Bartsch, 1909 

a lllullukensls Dall and Bartsch, 1909.. 

a inf lata Carpenter, 1864 

a" kelseyl Bartsch, 1912 

a kennerleyi Dall and Bartsch, 1907 

a klllisnooensls Dall and Bartsch, 1909. 
a krausel Clessin, 1900 



l_ae_v_lga_ta (d'Orblgny, 1842) A ovoid odostome 

a lastra Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P 

a laxa Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P lax odostome 

a martensl Dall and Bartsch, 1906 P 



lsa odostome 



a moratora Dall and Bartsch, 1909 

a iwvlH .i Hall and Bartsch, IMU9 

navlsa Dall and Bartsch, 1907 

£ nemo Dall and Bartsch, 1909 

a nota Dall and Bartsch, 1909 

a nuclformls Carpenter, 1865 

a" nunlvakensls Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P 

a oregonensls Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P Oregon odostome 

a ornatlsslma (Haas, 1943) P 

a phanella Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P 



.P... nut-shaped odostome 



a pharclda Dall and Bartsch, 1907. 



pocahontasae 



Henderson and Bartsch, 1914. 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(12):236 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 



OCCURRENCE 



COMMON NAME 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 



COMMON NAME 



Odostomia pratoma Pall and Bartsch, 1909 P 

Odostomia producta (C.B. Adams, 1840) A produced 'odostome 

Odostomia profundicola Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P 

Odostomia pulcherrima Pall and Bartsch, 1909 P *] 

Odostomia pulcla Pali and Bartsch, 1909 P .!!!! 

Odostomia quadrae Pall and Bartsch, 1910 P .'!!."."." !.*.".' 

Odostomia reslna Pall and Bartsch, 1909 P 

Odostomia rlchl Pali and Bartsch, 1909 P ..."!." .*." ","*" 

Odostomia rltterl Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P !.'..!! 

Odostomia sanjuanensls Bartsch, 1920 P 

Odostomia sapla Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P 

Odostomia satura Carpenter, 1865 P full 'odostome 

Odostomia septentrlonalls Dall and Bartsch, 1909. .P 

Odostomia sillana Pall and Bartsch, 1909 P 

Odostomia skldegatensis Bartsch, 1912 p !!!!!!! 

Odostomia smlthll A.E. Verrlll, 1880 A ,. 

Odostomia spreadboroughi Dall and Bartsch, 1910. ..P 

Odostomia strongl Bartsch, 1927 p .,"..'. 

Odostomia subglobosa Bartsch, 1912 P , 

Odostomia subturrlta Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P .'.'!.'.'!.*!! 

Odostomia snlcosa (Mighels, 1843) A 

Odostomia tacomaensls Dall and Bartsch, 1907 P 

Odostomia tenuisculpta Carpenter. 1864 P fine-sculpted odostom* 

Odostomia teres Bush, 1885 A 

Odostomia thalla Bartsch, 1912 p 

Odostomia thea Bartsch, 1912 P 

Odostomia tornata A.E. Verrlll, 1884 A 

Odostomia trachis Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P !.'!!!!.".".'.*.'.'.'." 

Odostomia tremperi Bartsch, 1927 p ( _ 

Odostomia turrlcula Dall and Bartsch, 1903 P ."!!!!!!!!! 

Odostomia unalaskensls Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P 

Odostomia unidentata Fleming, 1813 A ."."!!!!.'!.".".'.'."."! 

Odostomia vancouverensis Dall and Bartsch, 1910...P 

Odostomia vlcola Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P „ , . 

Odostomia vincta Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P 

Odostomia virginalis Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P ." .'Cirginal "odostome 

Odostomia virginlca Henderson and Bartsch, 1914. ..A Virginia odostome 

Odostomia washingtonia Bartsch. 1920 P Washington odostome 

Odostomia whitel Bartsch, 1927 P __ 

Odostomia willetti Bartsch, 1917 p ][' ti 

Odostomia wlnkleyi Bartsch, 1909 A 

Odostomia young l Dall and Bartsch, 1910 P '.'.*.'.', 

Perlstichla agria Dall, 1889 A 

Perlstichla pedroana (Pall and Bartsch, 1909) p!.' .' .\"."s fln 'pedro'corded'pyrlra 

P erlstichla toreta Dall. 1889 A 

Pyramldella adamsl Carpenter, 1864 .'. p! .'!.".'.'!.'!.'.*.* .'.".* ,'.*AdIml "ovrlm 

Pyramldella Candida Morch, 1875 A briUlant pyram 

Pyramldella crassula Forbes, 1843 A 

Pyramldella crenulata (Holmes, 1859) A....!!"!!!"!!!!""""!" 

Pyramldella dolabrata (Linnaeus, 1758) A .giant* Atlantic'pyra™ 

Pyramldella mazatlanticus Dall and Bartsch, 1909.. P 

Pyramldella mexicana Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P 

Pyramldella restlcula (Dall, 1889) A ..!!",.",'!.**.**"" 

Pyramldella unlfasclata Forbes, 184 3 A..!"!"!""""!!!"!!!"! 

Pyramldella ventricosa Forbes , 1843 A *""" ""i*" "■,'*,! " """ 

Sayella chesapeakea Morrison, 1939 A „ 

Sayella crosseana (Dall, 1885) a. .".'.".*.''.".".'.'.*."".".".' \\ 

Sayella fusca (C.B. Adams, 1839) A. .!!!'.!..'..'! lorow sayella 

Sayella hemphllli (Dall. 1889) A 

Sayella llvida Rehder, 1935 A \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \\'u'iA s'ayVlU 

Trlptychus nlveus Morch, 1875 A three-cord pyram 

Turbonllla acra Dall and Bartsch, 1909 p acra turbonille 

Turbonilla adusta Dall and Bartsch, 1909 p 

Turbonllla aepynota Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P. , . . 

Turbonilla avails (Say, 1827) K. . .. . ///////e'q^l ^rbontUB 

Turbonllla alaskana Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P 

Turbonllla almo Dall and Bartsch, 1909 p ."!!!*.',*!.*.*] ' 

Turbonllla antestriata Dall and Bartsch, 1907 P !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"!! 

Turbonllla aragonl Dall and Bartsch, 1909 p .".."".'.'.*.'""., 

Turbonllla aresta Dall and Bartsch, 1909 p 

Turbonllla attrlta Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P attrita turbonille 

Turbonilla aurantla (Carpenter, 1865) P golden turbonille 

Turbonilla auricoma Dall and Bartsch, 1903 P , 

Turbonllla baker! Bartsch, 1912 p ..!!"!!!!!!"] 

Turbonilla barcleyensis Bartsch, 1917 p 

Turbonilla belotheca Dall, 1889 A belotheca" turbonille 

Turbonilla burchl Gordon, 1938 p 

Turbonilla callia Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P !.!""!!!!""""'*".".'.*.*] 

Turbonilla callimene Bartsch, 1912 p 

Turbonilla canadensis Bartsch, 1917 p '!'.'.'!! !"!*.'] 

Turbonilla canfieldl Dall and Bartsch, 1907 P ...!!! 

Turbonllla carpenterl Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P !."."!".*.*!.' 

Turbonilla castanea Keep, 1888 p 

Turbonllla castanella Dall , 1908 P....."!!!!!!.'."!.".".'."!!!.'.".'.*.'.'.' 

Turbonllla chocolata (Carpenter, 1865) P chocolate turbonillp 

Turbonilla clarlnda Bartsch, 1912 p 

Turbonilla Clementina Bartsch, 1927 p 

Turbonllla conradl Bush , 1899 A Conrad * tu rboni' lie 

Turbonilla curta Dall, 1889 A short turbonille 

Turbonllla dalll Bush, 1899 A Pali turbonille 

Turbonilla delmontana Bartsch, 1937 p 

Turbonllla dlegensls Pall and Bartsch, 1909 P .' .'san'piego* turbonl lie 

Turbonllla dlnora Bartsch, 1912 p , 

Turbonilla dora Bartsch, 1917 p !.' .'.'*!" ! 

Turbonllla dracona Bartsch, 1912 p , 

Turbonilla edwardensis Bartsch, 1909 P 

Turbonilla elegantula A.E. Verrlll, 1882 A 

Turbonilla elegantula branf ordensls 

Bartsch, 1909... A 

Turbonllla encella Bartsch, 1912 p 

Turbonilla engbergl Bartsch, 1920 p !!"!.*.".".".".'.*.*.*.".. 

Turbonllla enna Bartsch, 1927 p 

Turbonllla eschscholtzi Dall and Bartsch, 1907 P. .. **!".\\\\"" "! **"*.""""] ! 

Turbonllla eucosmobasls Dall and Bartsch, 1907. .. ,P 

Turbonilla eva Bartsch, 1917 P... . . . . . . ' * '■■••-■■■ 



Turbonilla exllis (C.B. Adams, 1850) a, 

Turbonllla eyerdami Bartsch, 1927 !*!p]" 

Turbonilla f ackenthallae 

A.G. Smith and Gordon, 1948. ..P 

Turbonilla f ranciscana Bartsch, 1917 p. p m 

Turbonllla gabbiana Cooper, 1870 '"."'p*. .* ," ." "] 

Turbonllla gllll Dall and Bartsch, 1907 p 

Turbonilla gllll delmontensis 

Dall and Bartsch, 1907.. .P 

Turbonilla gloriosa Bartsch, 1912 p 

Turbonllla" grlppl Bartsch, 1912 P !.**"*.*..*. . ',[ 

Turbonilla halibrecta Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P ,.] 

Turbonllla halistrepta Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P. ...!.'!!!!!!!**]." ,' 

Turbonilla hecuba Dall and Bartsch, 1913 A ],,[ 

Turbonilla hemphllli Bush, 1899 A Hemphll i ' turbonille 

Turbonilla hypollspa Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P 

Turbonllla Ufa Bartsch, 1927 p ."."!.!. 

Turbonilla ina Bartsch, 1917 p 

Turbonilla inclsa Bush, 1899 a .."!"!!"]!! '.".'. ',",' 

Turbonilla inclsa constrlcta Bush, 1899 A ...!!!"■"*,!*,", 

Turbonilla interrupta (Totten. 1835) A interrupted 'turbonille 

Turbonilla ista Bartsch, 1917 p 

Turbonllla jewettl Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P ..""!""!!"""! 

Turbonllla kelseyi Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P Kelsey turbonille 

Turbonllla klncaldi Bartsch. 1921 p r 

Turbonilla kurtzli Mazyck, 1913 A ] 

Turbonllla laevis (C.B. Adams , 1850) A 

Turbonllla lamlnata (Carpenter, 1865) P .'laminate ' turbonille 

Turbonllla lituyana Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P 

Turbonilla lordl (E.A. Smith, 1880) P 

Turbonllla louiseae A.H. Clarke, 1954 A 

Turbonllla lyalli Dall and Bartsch, 1907 P "!"""** .\"." ." ."'.""*"," *, 

Turbonllla macouni Dall and Bartsch, 1910 P 

Turbonllla mlddendorf f 1 Bartsch, 1927 p !!!!!"*""!! 

Turbonilla mlghelsi Bartsch, 1909 A . . . , 

Turbonllla morchi Dall and Bartsch, 1907 p 

Turbonilla multicostata (C.B. Adams, 1850) A. !! !!"!"!!!*, i!****'*'.' " "" 

Turbonllla muricatoides Dall and Bartsch, 1907. ...P , 

Turbonilla nereia Dall and Bartsch, 1909 p. . . ].'.'.]'.',',.[ []','.]"."" 

Turbonilla newcombei Dall and Bartsch, 1907.... P 

Turbonllla KT7irTSFl„pson , 1851) ^.//"///".'.Mky'l^oku'll 

lurbonllla nuttingl Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P 

Turbonllla obellscus (C.B. Adams, 1850) a! ",!!"!*!** „',', '.'. ].'. [ \ 

Turbonllla obesa Pall and Bartsch, 1909 P.!!!!!!!!!! '.]".["" 

Turbonllla oregonensis Dall and Bartsch, 1907 P ','*] 

Turbonllla pauli A.G. Smith and Gordon, 1958 P I!!!!!!! 

Turbonilla pentalopha Dall and Bartsch, 1903 P ..!!!!!"""*,. '**•♦* 

Turbonilla perleplda A.E. Verrlll, 1885 a >••-•• 

TurbonilTa* pesa Dall and Bartsch, 1910 [ ,p[ ',]]*.][['.*/,"/. ° 

Turbonllla pluto Dall and Bartsch, 1909 p ,, ° 

Turbonllla pocahontasae 

Henderson and Bartsch, 1914. ..A 

Turbonllla polita (A.E. Verrlll, 1872) a 

Turbonllla powhatanl Henderson and Bartsch, 1914. .A. 

Turbonllla protracta Dall, 1892 * .drain^uc'turbonmi; 

Turbonilla pugetensls Bartsch, 1917 p 

Turbonilla puncta (C.B. Adams, 1850) A ",!."..!*,! 

Turbonilla punicea Dal 1 , 1 884 A. ...","."".' ".',"" ' ••••••••• 

Turbonilla pusilla (C.B. Adams, 1850) , , ,\\.', !",",!!! V.Y, ',[', ", 

Turbonllla rathbunl 

A.t. Verrlll and S.l. Smith, 1880 A 

Turbonllla rajrmondl^ Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P Raymond" turboniiH 

Turbonllla recta Pall and Bartsch, 1909 p 

Turbonllla reticulata (C.B. Adams, 1850) A ...!*."■!!!!!!!!".",",!!, 

Turbonllla rldgwayl Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P ...!!!!!!"!! 

Turbonllla rinella Dall and Bartsch, 1910 P 

Turbonllla santarosana Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P '!.'."."!'.".**.*"**!' .' 

Turbonllla serrae Dall and Bartsch, 1907 p ..!!". . . ".".'.["",'" 

Turbonilla shuyakensis Bartsch, 1927 p ."!I!J!""!"„"* 

Turbonilla signae Dall and Bartsch, 1909 p ( 

TurbonilTa simpsonl Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P ."."!!!!!!!.'!.*."!!*!, 

Turbonllla stelleri Bartsch, 1927 p .!!"" 

Turbonlll a stlllmanl A.G. Smith and Gordon, 1948. .P.. .. '.'.'.[ "."."."." ".""".".""""."."""." 

Turbonilla stimpsoni Bush, 1899 a „ 

Turbonilla strong! Wlllett, 1931 P.'.'.'!.'!!!"!!!.'.'.'.'.'.*.*."".*.'.'.'.'! 

Turbonilla styliformis Morch, 1875 A. . . . 

Turbonllla styllna (Carpenter, 1865) !p! ! ! ! ! ! !many-nlmed "urboniiie 

Turbonilla subulata (C.B. Adams, 1850) A 

Turbonilla sumneri Bartsch, 1909 a 

Turbonilla swanl Dall and Bartsch, 1909 ••?-----!"!"!"**"*""" 

Turbonilla talma Dall and Bartsch, 1910 P 

Turbonllla taylori Dall and Bartsch, 1907 p !.!'!!!."!.'!!!.*.'."."' 

Turbonllla tenulcula (Gould, 1853) P. .....!.! iisllght 'turbonille 

Turbonllla textills (Kurtz, 1860) A 

Turbonllla torguata (Gould, 1852) '.?, "'.'.]'. Vancouver' turbonille 

lurbonllla toyatanl Henderson and Bartsch, 1914.. .A 

Turbonilla tremperi Bartsch, 1917 p 

Turbonllla tridentata (Carpenter, 1864) .*P. .'.*.'.* .'three-tooth 'tu'rboni lie 

Turbonilla unillrata Bush, 1899 a 

Turbonllla verrillii Bartsch, 1909 A. . .' . .".'.*!."!!!!!!!!!."." '.'. .* .* *] 

Turbonilla vexatlya Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P 

Turbonill a vlrga Dal 1 , 1884 a .".".".".".'!.*.*! 

Turbonilla vlrgata Dall, 1892 A !.!!.' 

Turbonllla virglnica Henderson and Bartsch, 1914. .A !!!!!." ."!.".".*." .*.*.* .*.*.* 

Turbonllla virgo (Carpenter, 1864) p 

Turbonilla vlridaria Dall, 1884 A ."J.*!.*.".*.*.' 

Turbonllla weldi Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P... 

Turbonllla whlteavesl Bartsch, 1909 A !!.*.*.*.*.*! 

Turbonilla wjekhami Dall and Bartsch, 1909 P K ...!"!!! 

Turbonllla willetti A.G. Smith and Gordon, 1948. ..P 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(12):237 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 



COMMON NAME 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 



COMMON NAME 



ORDER CEPHALASPIDEA 



Acteonidae 



Acteon candens Rehder, 1939 A Rehder baby-bubble 

Acteon flnlayl McGinty. 1955 A Finlay baby-bubble 

Acteon traskll Stearns, 1898 P Trask baby-bubble 

Japonacteon puslllus (Forbes, 1843) A miniature baby-bubble 

Mlcroglyphls brevlculus (Pall, 1902) P shore baby-bubble 

Hieroglyph!? estuarlnus (Pall, 1908) P estuarlne baby-bubble 

Mysouffa cumingli (A. Adams, 1854) A Cuming baby-bubble 

Rlctaxis palnel Dall, 1903 P ?aine baby-bubble 

Rictaxls punctocaelatus (Carpenter, 1864) P Carpenter baby-bubble 

Rlctaxis punctostriatus (C.B. Adams, 1840) A pitted baby-bubble 

Bulllnidae 

Bulllna exqulslta McGinty, 1955 A exquisite bubble 

Hydatlnldae 

Hydatlna physls (Linnaeus, 1758) A, (P) .brown-line paper-bubble 

Hlcromelo undata (Brugulere, 1792) A,(P) miniature roelo 

Rlnglculidae 

Rlnglcula nltlda A.E. Verrlll, 1873 A VerrlVl helmet-bubble 

Ringlcula semlstrlata d'Orblgny, 1842 A striate helmet-bubble 

* Scaphandridae 

Acteoclna atrata Mlkkelsen and Mlkkelsen, 1984. ...A hlackbaek barrel- 

Acteoclna bldentata (d'Orblgny, 1841) A two-tooth barrel- 

Acteoclna bullata ~T*lener, 1834) A striate barrel' 

Acteoclna canallculata (Say, 1826) A channeled barrel' 

Acteoclna candel (d'Orblgny, 184 1) A 

Acteoclna cerealls (Gould, 1853) P grain barrel 

Acteoclna culcltella (Gould, 1853) P pillow barrel 

Acteoclna eburnea A.E. Verrlll, 1885 A Ivory barrel 

Acteoclna Inculta (Gould, 1855) P rude barrel 

Acteoclna lnfrequens (C.B. Adams, 1852) P.. . .Infrequent barrel 

Acteoclna Intermedia Wlllett, 1928 P. . Intermediate barrel 

Acteoclna magdalenensls Dall, 1919 P.Magdalena Bay barrel 

Acteoclna oldroydi Dall, 1925 P 



bubhle 
bu bb 1 e 
bubble 
bubble 



bubble 
bubble 
bubble 
bubble 
bubble 
bubble 
■bubble 



bubble 
bubble 
bubble 
bubble 
bubble 
■bubble 
bubble 



Acteoclna oryza (Totten, 1835) A rice barrel- 

Acteoclna recta (d'Orblgny, 1841) A straight barrel- 

Acteoclna smlrna Dall, 1919 P Smirna barrel- 

Scaphander pilsbryl McGinty, 1955 A Pllsbry canoe- 

ScaphandeT punctostriatus (Mlghels, 1841) A, Ac giant canoe- 
Scaphander^ watsonl Dall, 1881 A Watson canoe- 

Scaphander wlllettl Dall. 1919 P WlUett canoe- 

Cyllchnldae 

Cyllchna alba (Brown, 1827) A.P.Ac white chalice-bubble 

Cyllchna attonsa (Carpenter, 1864) P. deep trouble chalice-bubble 

Cyllchna dlegensls (Pall, 1919) P.... San Diego chalice-bubble 

Cyllchna eburnea A.E. Verrlll, 1885 A Ivory chalice-bubble 

Cyllchna gouldll (Couthouy, 1839) A.Ac Gould chalice-bubble 

Cyllchna linearis Jeffreys, 1867 A lined chalice-bubble 

Cyllchna nucleola (Reeve, 1855) P, Ac. .. .kernel chalice-bubble 

Cyllchna occulta (Mighels and C.B. Adams, 1842). A, P, Ac. concealed chalice-bubble 

Cyllchna verrlllll Dall, 1889 A 



Aglajldae 



,P eyespot aglaja 



Aglaja ocelllgera (Bergh, 1894) 

Chelldonura hlrundlnlna (Quoy and Calmard, 1833), 
Chelldonura sabina 

Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1970 A Sabine Island aglaja 

Melanochlamys dlomedea (Bergh, 1894) P albatross aglaja 

Navanax aentgmacicus (Bergh, 1893) A,P mysterious aglaja 

Navanax Inermls (Cooper. 1863) P California aglaja 

Phi llnopsls pusa 

(Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1967) A pusa aglaja 

Phlllnldae 

Phlllne alba Mattox, 1958 A.P white paper-bubble 

Phlllne angulata Jeffreys, 1867 A angled paper-bubble 

Phlllne bakeri Dall, 1919 P Baker paper-bubhle 

1944 P California paper -bubble 

1378 A girdled paper-bubble 

~ ' ' ie" Hnmarchi a H. Sars In G.O. Sars, 1878 A Flnmark paper-bubble 

CO. Sars, 1878 A fragile paper-bubble 

A, Ac file paper -bubble 

: lllne poTaris Aurivllllus, 1885 P.Ac axial paper -bubble 

Phlllne quadrata (S. Wood, 1839) A, Ac. .. .quadrate paper-bubble 

Phlllne sagra (d'Orblgny, 1841) A crenulate paper-bubble 

Phlllne slnuata (Stlmpson, 1850) A,P sinuate paper-bubble 

Phlllne tlncta A.E. Verrlll, 1882 A tinted paper-bubble 

Gastropteridae 

Gastropteron clnereum , Dall, 1925 P gray batwlng seaslug 

Gastropteron paclflcum Bergh, 1894 P Pacific batwlng seaslug 

Gastropteron rubrum (Raf lnesque, 1814) A batwlng seaslug 



Phlllne callfornlca Willett, 
Phlllne cingulata G.O. Sars, 

march ' 

gills 
Phlllne lima (Brown, 1825). 



Phlllne fr 



Gastropteron vespertillum 

Gosllne 



and Armes, 1984. 



Diaphanldae 



.A flapping dingbat 



Dlaphana brunnea Dall, 1919 P brown paper -bubhle 

Dlaphana callfornlca Dall, 1919 P California paper-bubble 

Dlaphana "debills (Gould, 1839) A weak paper-bubble 



Dlaphana mlnuta (Brown, 1827) A.P, Ac Arctic paper-bubble 

Woodbrldgea polystrigma (Dall, 1908) P furrowed paper-bubble 

Riincinidae 

Runcina dlvae (Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1963). ..A 

Bullldae 

Bulla clausa Dall, 1889 A imperforate bubble 

Bulla gemma A.E. Verrlll, 1880 A jewel bubble 

Bulla gouldlana Pllsbry, 1895 P California bubble 

Bulla sollda Gmelin, 1791 A solid bubble 

Bulla striata Brugulere, 1792 A striata bubble 

Atyidae 

Atys caribaeus (d 'Orbigny , 1841) A Caribbean glassy-bubble 

Atys castus Carpenter, 1864 P clean glassy -bubble 

Atys nonscrlptus (A. Adams, 1850) P.. .clean slate glassy -bubble 

Atys obscuratus Dall, 1896 A obscure glassy -bubble 

Atys rllseanus Morch, 1875 A Rilse glassy -bubble 

Atys sandersonl Dall, 1881 A Sanderson glassy-bubble 

Hamlnoea antlllarum (d'Orblgny, 1841) A Antilles glassy-bubble 

Hamlnoea elegans (Gray , 1825) .A elegant glassy -bubble 

Hamlnoea petltll (d'Orblgny, 1841) A straight glassy-bubble 

Hamlnoea solltaria (Say, 1822) A solitary glassy-bubble 

Hamlnoea succlnea (Conrad, 1846),. A.. amber glassy— bubble 

Hamlnoea vealcula Gould, 1855 P blister glassy -bubble 

Hamlnoea v Ire seen 8 (Sowerby, 1833) P green glassy-bubble 

Retusldae 

Coleophysis carinatus (Carpenter, 1857) P keeled barrel-bubble 

Coleophysls harpa (Dall, 1871) P harp barrel-bubble 

Pyrunculus caelatus (Bush, 1885) A engraved barrel-bubble 

Pyrunculus ovatus (Jeffreys, 1870) A ovate barrel-bubble 

Retusa mayol (Dall, 1889) A 

Retusa montereyensls A.G. Smith and Gordon, 1948. .P Monterey barrel-bubble 

Retusa obtusa (Montagu, 1803) A,P,Ac. ...Arctic barrel -bubble 

Retusa sulcata (d 'Orbigny, 1841) A sulcate barrel-bubble 

Sulcoretusa xystrum (Dall, 1919) P polished barrel-bubble 

Volvulella callfornlca Dall, 1919 P. . .Calif ornia spindle-bubble 

Volvulella cyllndrlca (Carpenter, 1864) P. .cylindrical spindle-bubble 

Volvulella" panamtca Dall, 1919 P Panamlc spindle-bubble 

Volvulella paupercula (Watson, 1883) A. .. .spineless spindle-bubble 

Volvulella persimllls (Morch, 1875) A southern spindle-bubble 

Volvulella recta (Morch, 1875) A spined spindle-bubble 

Volvulella texaslana Harry, 1967 A ..Texas spindle-bubble 

ORDER ACOCHLlDIOtDEA 

Mlcrohedylldae 

Unela remanel Er. Marcus, 1953 .A Remane sand nudl branch 



ORDER THEC0S0MATA 



Limaclnldae 



Llmaclna bullmoldes (d'Orblgny, 1836) A,(P) bull mo Id pteropod 

Limaclna helicina (Phipps, 1774) A.P.Ac hellcid pteropod 

Llmaclna lnflata (d'Orblgny, 1836) A,(P) planorbid pteropod 

Llmaclna lesueurll (d'Orblgny, 1836) A,(P) Lesueur pteropod 

Llmaclna retroversa (Fleming, 1823) A, Ac retrovert pteropod 

Limaclna trochlformls (d'Orblgny, 1836) , 



,(P) trochlform pteropod 



Cavolinlldae 



1836) A.P glbbose cavollne 

B13) A,P inf lexed cavollne 

Cavollna longlrostris (Blalnvllle, 1821) A,P long-snout cavollne 



Cavollna glbbosa (d'Orblgny, 
Cavollna lnflexa (Lesueur, 1 



Cavollna trldentata (Niebuhr, 1775). 
Cavollna unclnata TRang, 1829). 

Clio chaptalli Gray, 1850 

Clio cuspldata (Bosc, 1802).... 
riTo' polita (Pelseneer, 1888). 



A.P three -tooth cavollne 

A, (P) uncinate cavollne 

A,(P) Chaptal cllo 

A,(P) cuspidate cllo 

A,(P) two-keel cllo 

Cllo pyraroldata Linnaeus , 1767 A.P pyramid cllo 

Cllo recurva (Children, 1823) A,P wavy cllo 

Cresels aclcula (Rang, 1828) A, P. ..straight needle-pteropod 

Cresels vlrgula (Rang, 1828) A,P curved needle-pteropod 

Cuvierlna columnella (Rang, 1827) A,P cigar pteropod 

Dlacrla quadrldentata (Blalnvllle, 1821) A,P four-tooth cavollne 

Diacrla trlsplnosa (Blalnvllle, 1821) A.P thrce-splne cavollne 

Hyalocylls striata (Rang, 1828) A,(P) striate cllo 

Styliola subula (Quoy and Galmard, 1827) A.P keeled cllo 



Peraclldldae 



acle 



1906. 



aplclfu lva Melsenhelmer 
Perac le blsplnosa Pelseneer, 1888... 
Peracle reticulata (d'Orblgny, 1836) 
Peracle trlcantha P. Fischer, 1882.. 



.A,(P) two-splne pteropod 

,A,P reticulate pteropod 



Cymbullldae 



Corolla calceola A.E. Verrlll, 1880. 
Corolla spectabllls Dall, 1871 



.A Atlantic corolla 

. P spectacular corolla 



Desmopteridac 



Desmopterus paclf leus Essenberg, 1919. 
Desmopterus paplllo Chu n , 1 889 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(12):238 



DEALING WITH DEALERS: 

ON RETURNING SHELLS 
by David DeLucia 

Sooner or later it happens to everyone. The 
"super fabulous beauty" you ordered turns out to 
be a "super fabulous dog". Unless you want to 
swallow your pride and use the specimen as a 
paperweight, your only recourse is tosend it back. 
But how? Like trading, returning shells is an art 
that must be learned by anyone hoping to receive 
a significant portion of their specimen shells via 
mail order. 

The first problem is finding the right box. 
Whenever possible, use the original parcel. In 
case this has been damaged through your enthusi- 
asm, choose the sturdiest container possible, 
preferably one that is resistant to crushing. The 
object is to keep the shell from moving around en 
route. A delicate lip or spine can chip very easily 
if the specimen is able to roll back and forth 
within a small plastic box, for example. I would 
put the shell in a zip-lock bag, then wrap it care- 
fully in kleenex. For further protection, the 
whole affair can then be wrapped in newspaper 
which should be taped as tightly as possible. Use 
styrof oam "peanuts" to line the box as these keep 
the shell in place. Bubble wrap is also useful, 
either as a final covering or in place of the styro- 
foam as a cushioning agent. 

Another dilemma is deciding how soon to 
return the shells without incurring the dealer's 



wrath. Policies differ across the board — most 
parties like the shells back within 7-10 days of 
receipt of the package, but 15 days is not that 
uncommon and I have even seen 20 days! In gen- 
eral, try to get the package in the mail within two 
weeks of receipt. If more time is needed, send a 
postcard explaining why the delay is necessary. 
Ship all boxes first class or air mail, insuring the 
contents when appropriate. 

Which shells should be returned? I would send 
back all misidentif ied specimens, juveniles sent 
as adults, damaged material, and any shell that is 
graded incorrectly. In addition, species with 
questionable data should be returned, as such 
material has little scientific value. Moreover, if 
you ever use these shells for trading, you will be 
perpetuating misinformation. Finally, it's O.K. 
to send back something if it wasn't what you had 
expected. Not all the species you get will resem- 
ble the picture in the book! 

If you're still reluctant to return shells at this 
point, remember you may actually be helping the 
dealer by pointing out misidentification, incor- 
rect data, etc. Moreover, a returned specimen 
indicates that you're a very discriminating col- 
lector that won't put up with any old shell. Send 
back a few items now and then and you'll be sur- 
prised at some of the replacements. Many happy 
returns! 

David DeLucia, 7 Sunset Hill Drive, Branford,CT 
06405. 




PHILLIP W. CLOVER C 

COLLECTOR & DEALER IN WORLDWIDE 

SPECIMEN SEA SHELLS 

CURRENT AND OUT OF PRINT SHELL BOOKS 

FREE PRICE LISTS UPON REQUEST 

P.O. Box 83, Glen Ellen, CA 95442 




<JL eAteaj 



Sfi 



zcLmsn 



SkdU 



P.O. Box 3010 

Santa Barbara, CA 93105 

(805) 963-3228 



Over 3,000 species regularly in stock! 
We will select your shells as if they 
were for our own collection ... and 
we're very, very picky! 

Bob Foster & Charles Glass 




One of the largest selections of outstanding specimen 
shells to be found anywhere! Complete stocks of 

Cypraea, Conus, Murex, Pectens, Miters, etc. for the 
beginning as well as the most advanced 
discriminating collector. 

Send for FREE Price List. 



Bev & Al Deynzer 
(813)472-1971 



Heart of The Island Plaza 

1614 Periwinkle Way 

Sanibel, FL 33957 




'Trial de C Wler : > ^nterpriae* 

P.O. Box 482: Dept. S 
West Hempstead. NY 11552, USA 
Outstanding quality and personal service on 
worldwide specimen shells. Rarities are our spe- 
cialty. Free price list on request. 

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SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(12):239 



A MARGINELLID DILEMMA 

by David W. Behrens 

Numerous changes in the taxonomy of the 
family Marginellidae, particularly concerning 
those species of west America, are carefully 
chronicled in Coan (1965) and Coan & Roth 
(1966). Of particular interest to malacologists 
studying central California marginellids are the 
genera Cystiscus Stimpson, 1865 and Granulina 
Jousseaume, 1888. During a study of the 
ecological associations of invertebrates in turf- 
building intertidal seaweeds (see Shells and Sea 
Life, June, 1984, pages 106-108) a problem in 
identification of preserved specimens of the two 
genera arose. Specimens representing various 
stages of shell development from the bubble-shell 
stage to mature shell shared characteristics of 
both Cystiscus jewettii (Carpenter, 1857) and 
Granulina margaritula. Live specimens of all 
stages were sought from the study area, a difficult 
task in itself as all specimens were less than 1.5 
mm long. Mantle and radula were closely 
examined. After careful scrutiny, all specimens 
were determined to be G. margaritula. 

Coincidentally, while collecting opistho- 
branchs at my favorite "secret" spot several miles 
south, I stumbled on a somewhat larger 
marginellid-like beast climbing surf grass in quiet 
tidepools. A dozen of so specimens were 
collected and subjected to similar mantle and 
radular examination. Lo and behold, Cystiscus 
jewettii, but not without a caveat: lateral teeth on 
the radula. 

Excluding the type-species of the genus 
Marginella {M. glabella), all other members of the 
family Marginellidae haverachiglossate radula(a 
single series of rachidian teeth). M. glabella has 
no radula at all. The rachidian tooth varies in its 
morphology, bearing various numbers and shapes 
of denticular cusps. This radular characteristic 
has held consistent until now. 

Early in the century however, one malacologist 
speculated otherwise. Some may wonder at his 
wisdom or reasoning, but on November 11, 1921, 
Rev. Dr. A.H. Cooke while reading a paper to the 
Malacological Society of London, on the radula of 
the Volutidae, a gastropod group whose radula 
consists of rachidian and paired lateral teeth, 
stated "Someday a Marginella with laterals will 
turn up." The marginellid species Cystiscus 
jewettii appears to have lateral teeth on the 
radula. 

Excited with my new information, I telephoned 
Dr. Barry Roth at the California Academy of 
Sciences in San Francisco to report my find. 



Barry, in his wonderfully polite and respectful 
manner, was excited to learn that someone else 
had also observed this morphological incon- 
sistency. As it turns out, Dr. Roth previously had 
reported on such lateral teeth during a 
presentation to the Western Society of Mala- 
cologists in 1972 (see Echo 5:24-25). Because no 
detailed description of the radula, with or 
without laterals, or details on the exquisite 
morphology of the mantle of either Granulina 
margaritula or Cystiscus jewettii exist, the 
following observations are presented to sup- 
plement information on the shells. 

Granulina margaritula 

(=Cypraeolina margaritula fide McLean, 1978) 
Mantle: When extended, almost entirely covers 
shell (Figure 1). Tuberculate, with largest 
tubercles near edge of mantle and laterally along 
foot. Ground color brown with a black edge 
along margin. Mantle variously covered with 
blue spots interspersed with smaller orange spots. 
Tubercles white to yellow apically. Cephalic 
tentacles and siphon transparent with yellow 
spots. The tail is also transparent with a broad 
medial splash of yellow pigmentation. 




Figure 1. Drawing of 

Granulina margaritula 



a living specimen of 



Radula: A single series of rachidian teeth up to 
159 teeth in length. The rachidian tooth is 
arched, extremely small, with 5 denticles to each 
side of a large central cusp (Figure 2). The 
outermost denticles are slightly longer than the 
central cusp. 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(12):240 




Orang* ilr.ikn 



Figure 2. Radular tooth of Granulina margaritula 




Living Cystiscus jewettii photographed in shallow 
tide pool near Avila Beach, Calif ornia. Specimen 
is approximately 2.0 mm in length. All photos by 
George D. Lepp (Bio-Tech Images), Los Osos, 
California. 

Cystiscus jewetti 

(=Marginella jewettii) 
Mantle: Greatly reduced, not covering shell. 
Because the shell is nearly transparent, body 
organs show through, giving a mottled appear- 
ance (Figure 3). Foot corners triangular, with a 
labial fold juxtaposed along the frontal margin. 
This portion of the foot, and the broad, blunt tail, 
bear large white-yellow patches. Those on the 
tail may have streaks of orange pigment. The 
cephalic tentacles are transparent with white- 
yellow spots. The siphon is yellow with orange 
streaks. 





Figure 3. Drawing of a living specimenof Cysticus 
jewettii 

Radula: Triseriate (Figure 4), with 66-102 rowsof 
teeth. The rachidian is arched and bears three 
large denticles. The lateral teeth are faintly 
discernable triangular plates. 




Figure 4. Radular teeth of Cystiscus jewettii 




SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(12):241 



Simply stated, the radula of Cystiscus jewettii is 
nearly identical to those of Volutocorbis abyssi- 
cola and Ternivoluta studeri, both species of 
Volutidae, another family in which most taxa are 
typified by uniserial rachiglossate radula 
(Weaver & duPont, 1970). Further examination 
of the minute marginellid species is certainly 
required before the phylogenetic significance of 
this observation is fully understood. This 
information should help indicate the systematic 
position of the genus Cystiscus in the family 
Marginellidae. More importantly, the presence 
of lateral teeth, as vestigial as they appear, may 
indicate a common volutid-marginellid ancestral 
stock and could have implications concerning the 
origin of the marginellids. 



Literature Cited 

Coan, Eugene. 1965. A Proposed Reclassification of the Family 

Marginellidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda). The Veliger, 7(3):184- 

194. 
Coan, Eugene & Barry Roth. 1966. The West American 

Marginellidae. The Veliger, 8(4):276-299. 
Cooke, A.H. 1921. The Radula of the Volutidae. Proc. Malac.Soc. 

Lond., 15(1):6-12. 
McLean, James H. 1978. Marine Shells of Southern California. Nat. 

Hist. Mus. Los Angeles County, Science Series 24, Revised Ed., 

104pp. 
Weaver, Clifton Stokes & John Eleuthere duPont. 1970. Living 

Volutes: a Monography of the Recent Volutidae of the World. 

Monographic Ser. No. 1, Delaware Mus. Nat. Hist., Greenville, 

Delaware, 

David W. Behrens, Route 1 Box 70-A, Templeton, 
CA 93465 




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YOUR COLLECTION -- A HOW- 
TO COLUMN: 

No. 5. KEEPING A FIELD NOTE BOOK 
by Susan J. Hewitt 



Buy yourself a nice, pocket-sized hardbound 
notebook. You can cover it with plastic if you 
like. Get yourself a waterproof pen. Then make 
it a routine to take them with you on any field 
trip, along with your hand lens and collecting 
equipment. 

Don't be intimidated by the grand idea of writ- 
ing! Just jot down the date and where you vis- 
ited, and then make notes of anything you see 
which seems interesting. Details of appearance 
and behavior of live animals are always worth 
recording. Habitat, changes in local distribu- 
tion, appearances and disappearances of groups 
of animals; you will soon get a feel for what is 
worth recording. 

It is sometimes much easier to draw something 
rapidly than to try to describe it. Again, don't be 



self-conscious about your drawing ability— this is 
not for artistic purposes, it is simply to record a 
point that you want to be able to remember later. 

You will find as time goes by, that your note 
book becomes a little treasury of information, fun 
to read over, and extremely useful as a memory 
aid. If you ever want to start a small research 
project it will be an invaluable resource. 

Your field notebook is a valuable addition to 
your collection, as it gives extra information 
about the trips and visits on which your collecting 
was done. If you make arrangements to donate 
your collection to a museum or an educational 
institution, your field note books should be 
included — they make your collection more valu- 
able and useful. 

A field notebook is fun, and if it makes you feel 
like a real live scientist — so much the better! 

Next month - Why make a catalog? 

Susan J. Hewitt, 75 Leonard St. #4 NE, New York, 
NY 10013 



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SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(12):243 



CLASSIFIED ADS 

Rates: $6.00 per line, prepaid. We reserve 
the right to modify copy to fit paid lines. 

For Sale - Retail 

WORLDWIDE SHELLS - While in 
Cincinnati visit the Shell Corner in Kay's 
Key West Aloe Shop - Markets Interna- 
tional, 123 Merchant St.; Cincinnati, OH- 
45246. Phone: (513)772-5638. 

SPECIMEN SEASHELLS. Exchanges 
required worldwide. Common to rare. 
Afrasian Imports; Steeple Morden, Roys- 
ton, Herts. England. 

CYPRAEA FULTONI . C. barclayi , C. 
mappa , (niger), Conus gauguini & C. 
eumitus available. Breaking up personal 
collection. Write for list. A.Gaspard; 9 Rue 
Sauvage; 2514 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy 
of Luxembourg. 

WORLD WIDE SEA SHELLS for col- 
lectors. Free price list. Sea Gems; 2002 
Margaret Drive; Wichita Falls, TX76306. 
SHELLS ON STAMPS. Send self-ad- 
dressed stamped envelope for current price 
list. World Stamps; Box 20041; Houston, 
TX77225. 

BEAUTIFUL WORLDWIDE landshells, 
freshwater, marines. Free list. Trades, Pete 
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44067. 

SHELLOAK SPECIMEN SHELLS; Rt.8, 
Box 480; Crossville, TN38555. Buy - 
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LARGEST SELECTION of worldwide 
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price list. The Shell Store; 440 75th Ave.; St. 
Petersburg Beach, FL33706. Phone: 813- 
360-0586. Visit ourshop when you're in the 
area! 

THE GREEN LION'S PAW, Edgar C. 
Haviland. 312 No. Osceola Ave., Clear- 
water, FL33515. I buy and shell the finest 
quality specimen shells. Please send stamp 
for new list. 

AUSTRALIAN it. WORLDWIDE spec- 
imen shells. Free price lists. Keith Hooke; 16 
Baldwin Ave.; Noble Park 3164, Victoria, 
Australia. 

FOSSILS / ARTIFACTS. Buying, Ex- 
changing, Selling. Large inventory. Catalog 
is available ($4.00 net). Malick's Fossils, 
Inc., 5514 Plymouth Rd.; Baltimore, 
MD21214. 

FOSSILS: Shark teeth 1/2" to 5+"; fish; 
alligator - dinosaur parts; trilobites; insects; 
amber; mammal teeth - bones; crinoid 
calyxes; echinoids; starfish; brachiopods; 
ammonites - other mollusks; protozoans; 
corals; bryozoans; plants; modern marine 
items and more. Illustrated Catalog $1 ($2 
overseas). J.F. Ray's Fossils; P.O. Box 1364; 
Ocala, FL32678. Mail orders only please. 
Also buy fossils. Dealer inquiries invited. 

SOME GOOD SHELLS from British 
Columbia, including chitons. Retail only. 
Free list. G.B. Jeffrey; 3820 Bowen Dr.; 
Richmond, B.C.; Canada V7C 4E. 

COMMON SHELLS - great low prices! 
Free list w/SASE. Timbers; 4636 Arrow- 
head Dr.; Apex, NC27502. 



For Sale - Wholesale 

RICK GREGORY; 1219 South Banana 
RiverDr.;Merritt Island, FL32952. Whole- 
sale distributor of Florida seashells Pecten 
nodosuB , Spondylus americanus. 

SEASHELLS BY MARIA OF CAPE 
COD; 290 W. Main St.; Hyannis,MA02601. 
Large quantities Atlantic Bay Scallops - 
other indigenous species available. Retail & 
wholesale. Free lists. 

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Shell Jewelry. U.S. largest conch shell 
dealer. Over one acre of items to choose 
from. Atlantic Coral Enterprise; 2280 S.W. 
66 Terr.; Fort Lauderdale, FL33317 (305) 
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can specimen shells Wholesale only. R. Le 
Maitre; 14 PicardyAve.; Nature's Valley, 
Somerset West 7130, Republic of South 
Africa. 

EXPORTER OF BUTTERFLY, insect, 
beetles, scorpion, dry-flower& leaves. Also 
Buy & Exchange. Bililand Enterprises; 28 
Hala Taman TambunSatu, Tambun, Ipoh, 
Perak, Malaysia. 

Rentals 

SHELLING & FISHING from Marco 
Island. Reasonable rates and good accomo- 
dations. Bianchi's Pink House Eff. Motel; 
1380 Pear Tree Ave.; Goodland, FL33933. 
Telephone (813)394-3498. 

CAPTIVA, FLORIDA. 2 bedroom house, 
completely furnished. $1200/month; $850 
May through November, Minimum 1 
month; references please. Harriet Harburn; 
4611 Lake Washington Bl. S.; Seattle, 
WA98118. Telephone: (206)725-1095. 

Wanted 

COMMERCIAL & SPECIMEN shells, 
prepared marine life, insects, curio items 
wanted. Price lists requested. Diana Pierre; 
Groentenmarkt, 1; Oostende B.8400, 
Belgium. 

WANTED - 5 PERSONS, each willingto 
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Used Books 

Available from Seashell Treasures Books, 
505 E. Pasadena, Phoenix, AZ85012. Phone 
(602) 274-3615 

600VELIGER,Vol.l4(1971-1972) in parts, 
GD $23.00 

607 VELIGER, Vol. 25 (1982-1983) in 
parts, EX $35.00 

621 VELIGER, Vol. 23(1) (Jul. 1980) issue, 
EX $22.00 

622 VELIGER, Vol. 23(3) (Jan. 1981) issue, 
EX $16.00. 

623 VELIGER, Vol. 23(4) (Apr. 1981) issue, 
EX $16.00. 

629 THE TABULATA, Vol. 1-7+ suppl.fc 
index., 6 parts in photocopy. $40.00. 

630 THE TABULATA, Vol. 4(4) (Oct. 
1971) good $3.00. 



631 THE TABULATA, Vol. 6-7 + index, 
good $17.50. 

637 HICKMAN, C.P. 1955. Integrated 
Principles of Zoology, 956 pp. fair $7.50. 
639 THE WESTERN SOC. MALACOLO- 
GISTS ANNUAL REPORT, Vol. 15, 
excellent $6.00. 

642 INDO-PACIFIC MOLLUSCA, 
Cassidae, good $16.00. 

643 INDO-PACIFIC MOLLUSCA, 
Littorinidae, Pt. II., GD $3.50. 

644 WARMKE & ABBOTT, 1961. 
Caribbean Seashells, HC GD $7.50. 

645 WEBB, W.F. 1959 [14th Edition] 
Handbook for shell collectors, revised 
edition, 264 pp., front board split, fair $6.50. 

648 FEINBERG, H.S. [ed.] 1979. Simon & 
Schuster's guide to Shells. 512 pp., SB EX 
$8.00. 

649 SHELL COLLECTOR, Premier Issue, 
excellent, $3.50. 

650 THE NAUTILUS, Vol. 83-85 (Jul. 
1969-Apr. 1972), EX $22.50. 

652 SHELL COLLECTOR, No. 1, good 
$3.50. 

653 HANNA, G.D. 1963. West American 
Mollusks. ..Genus Conus - II. GB $5.00. 
655 EVANS, I.O., 1964. The Observer's 
Book of Sea and Seashore, HB GD $4.50. 
657 KEEN, A.M. 1968. West Amer. Mollusk 
Types at the British Museum (Natural 
History) IV. Carpenter's Mazatlan 
Collection. 51 pp., good $5.00. 

658 KEEN, A.M. 1966. Moerch's W. Central 
Amer. Molluscan Types. ..Semele. Occ.Pap. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., (59):33 pp., good, $2.50. 
659HABE.T. 1971. Shells of Japan. 139 pp., 
GD $4.50 

661 BRAUN, E. 1975. Tideline. Viking 
Press, 144 pp., HB GD $12.50. 

662 SWAINSON'S EXOTIC CONCH- 
OLOGY, 1968, 48 pp., RPT GD $12.50. 

663 THE NAUTILUS, Vol. 1-98 used sets 
available occasionally $3000.00. 

664 VELIGER, Vol.13-15 (1970-1973) in 
parts, GD $75. 

665 VELIGER, Vol.9-19 (1966-1977) in 
parts, GD $375. 

666 VELIGER, Vol. 12-16 (1969-1974) in 
parts GD $130. 

667 VELIGER, Vol. 19(3) (Jan. 1977) issue, 
EX $23. 

668 VELIGER, Vol. 3(Supp. pt. 2) (May 
1968), EX $5.00 

669 OF SEA&SHORE Vol.l-13(2)(all 
published) GD $105. 

670 OF SEA&SHORE Vol.l-13(2) all 
issues, some RPT GD $95. 

671 OF SEA & SHORE About 25 issues, 
many pages removed. Good for cut-up $15. 

672 HERTLEIN & STRONG 1955. Marine 
Mollusks Collected during the "Askoy" 
Exp. to Panama, Colombia, & Ecuador in 
1941. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 107 art. 
2:159-318, pis. 1-3. good $15.00. 

673 ABBOTT 1954. American Seashells. 1st 
edition. 541 pp., 40 pis. good $27. 

674 EMERSON & JACOBSON 1976. The 
American Museum of Natural History 
Guide to Shells. 482 +xvii pp., 47 pis. good. 
6.50. 

675 SHELL COLLECTOR, No. 2, good 
$4.00. 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(12):244 



676 THE COWRY, 1961, vol. 1(2) good. 
$2.50. 

677 EMERSON, W.K. 1958. 
Results/Puritan-Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
Expedition to Western Mexico. 1. General 
Account, good $3.00. 

678 JACOBSON, M.K. 1958. 
Results/Puritan-Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
Expedition to Western Mexico. 3. The 
Terrestrial Mollusks. $2.50. 

679 HERTLEIN & EMERSON 1959. 
Results/Puritan-Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
Expedition to Western Mexico. 5. Pliocene 
and Pleistocene Megafossils from the Tres 
Marias Islands, good $2.50. 

680 EMERSON, W.K. 1964. 
Results/Puritan-Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
Expedition to Western Mexico. 20. The 
Recent Mollusks: Gastropoda: Harpidae, 
Vasidae, and Volutidae. good $3.50. 

681 EMERSON & OLD 1963. 
Results/Puritan-Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
Expedition to Western Mexico. 17. The 
Recent Mollusks: Gastropoda, Cypraeacea 
$3.50. 

682 EMERSON & OLD 1963. 
Results/Puritan-Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
Expedition to Western Mexico. 19. The 
Recent Mollusks: Gastropoda, Strombacea, 
Tonnacea, and Cymatiacea. good $3.50. 

683 HAWAIIAN SHELL NEWS 1976-1978. 
good $45.00. 

684 ABBOTT, R.T. 1979. Kingdom of the 
Seashell. 256 pp. good $9.75. 






»' 



NUDIBRANCHS 

1985 CALENDAR 






Jeff Hamann 



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SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(12):245 



NOTES FROM HANS BERTSCH: 

GORGONIANS: THE OCEAN'S FANCIFUL 
MENORAHS AND CHRISTMAS TREES. 

The fanciful resemblance of gorgonians to 
menorahs and Christmas trees allows me to dis- 
cuss these sea dwellers as an imaginative season's 
greetings to you! Gorgonians are a group of 
coelenterates (members of the phylum Cnidaria); 
their relatives include jellyfish, the Portugese 
man-of-war, sea anemones, true corals, hydroids, 
etc. Some careful taxonomic explanations are 
necessary to understand just what these animals 
are (Table I). 

Table I. Abbreviated Classification of Gorgonians 

*PHYLUM CNIDARIA: Internal space for digestion (only 
one opening) called gastrovascular cavity; body wall of 
three layers, the middle called mesoglea; radially sym- 
metrical; unique explosive stinging cells called cnidocytes. 
"CLASS HYDROZOA: Both polypoid and medusoid; 
acellular mesoglea; cnidocytes restricted to epidermis; - 
gametes develop in epidermis. Hydroids, Portugese 
man-of-war, stinging or fire coral. 
"CLASS SCYPHOZOA: Medusoid dominant; gonads gas- 

trodermal; lack velum. Jellyfish. 
"CLASS CUBOZOA: Bell with four flattened sides and 
simple margins; extremely virulent sting. Cubo- 
medusae. 
"CLASS ANTHOZOA: Exclusively polypoid; cnidocytes 
epidermal and on gastric filaments; gonads gastroder- 
mal. Corals, anemones, soft corals. 
"Subclass ZOANTHARIA: Polyps with more than 8 
tentacles, usually not pinnate. Anemones, true 
coral, black coral. 
"Subclass ALCYONARIA or OCTOCORALLIA: 
Polyps with 8 pinnate tentacles. Gorgonians, 
sea pens, soft coral. 
"Order TELESTACEA: Telesto. 
"Order ALCYONACEA: Anthelia, soft corals. 
"Order GORGONACEA: Gorgonians, seafans, 
sea whips. 

Cnidarians are a primitive group of animals 
that exhibit two major body types: polyp and 
medusa. Polyps are bag-like, cylindrical ani- 
mals, attached by tentacles. This is the familiar 
shape of sea anemones. Medusae are floating 
bells, with tentacles dangling down from around 
the margin of the bell. Both polyp and medusa 
shapes are radially symmetrical -- they have acir- 
cular body shape that is similar all around thecir- 
cumference. Cnidarians have only a single body 
space (the single-opening gastrovascular cavity) 
and the middle of the three tissue layers is a 
gelatinous mass called mesoglea. 

Unique to this phylum is the stinging cell 
cnidocyte, which fires harpoon-like nematocysts 
at potential prey or enemies. 

Taxonomically, cnidarians are divided into 4 
classes, each of which is subdivided further into 
orders, families, genera, and species. Of concern 



to us is the division of one class, the Anthozoa. 
As can be seen from Table I, there are two phylo- 
genetic lineages within Anthozoa. 

Zoantharia include the solitary sea anemones, 
colonial reef-building corals, black corals, and 
other forms. Their polyps have numeroussmooth 
tentacles. 

By contrast, the Octocorallia (or Alcyonaria) 
have 8 pinnate (feather-like) tentacles on each 
polyp. Examine Figures 1 and 3, the close-up 
photographs of Telesto and Anthelia; note that the 
tentacles are always 8 in number and each tenta- 
cle has numerousside branchesextending fromits 
main axis. 

One of the common names for members of this 
group is sea fan. That name implies a functional 
shape. Octocorals are sessile, or attached, 
animals, often spread out fan-like to face ocean 
currents. Filter feeders, they exist by trapping 
small nutrient material from the water. The pin- 
nate shape of the tentacles provides a dense net- 
work that has a much greater food trapping effi- 
ciency — an obvious evolutionary advantage. 



Non-pinnate 




Pinnate 



Gorgonians, then, are one kind of Octocorallia. 
Table I lists 3 of the half-dozen orders of 
octocorals. These animals are not the true 
stony corals that build massive reefs. They 
belong to a different subclass of Anthozoa and 
have numerous anatomical differences, even 
though both are loosely (and incorrectly) called 
"corals." 

The Octocorals are colonial. Numerous polyps 
grow out of an internal skeletal matrix that may 
be composed of separate or fused calcareous spic- 
ules or of a horny material. The pictures of 
Muricea (Figure 2) and Psammogorgia (Figures 5& 
7) clearly indicate the colonial arrangement of 
the polyps. 

What are the important characteristics of the 
different orders of Octocorallia? 

The order Telestacea consists of members that 
have basally connected polyps which formlateral 
buds and erect colonies. Telesto riisei (Figure 1) 
occurs in the west Atlantic, from Florida to 
Brazil. It has recently been reported from 
Hawaii, probably an unwitting recent introduc- 
tion by human activities (Devaney, 1977:122). 

Members of the order Alcyonacea are called 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(12):246 



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Z07 ZOOL. REC. MOLLUSCA 1966 (for 
1964). 101(9):1-187. [Paperbound (back 
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Z08 SCHENCK, H.G. 1928. A New Echinoid 
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$1.95] 

Z09 SCHENCK, H.G. 1929. Diacocvclina in 
California. Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist., 
5(l4):211-240, pis. 27-30, figs. 1-10. [GD 
$6.50] 

Z10 SMITH, A.G . 1943. Mollusks of the Clear- 
water Mountains, Idaho. Proc. Cal. Acad. 
Sci., 28(36):537-554, pi. 48. [GD $3.50] 
Zll ECLOGAE GEOLOGICAE HELVET- 
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Z14BINNEY.W.G. 1864-1864. Bibliography 
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[Bound in one volume; minor damage to bind- 
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Z15 STEPHENSON, L.W.1927. Additions to 
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1-9. [GD 7.75] 

Z16 STEWART, R.B. 1930. Gabb's Califor- 
nia Cretaceous and Tertiary Type Lamelli- 
branchs. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Spec. 
Pub. No. 3, 314pp., 17 pis. [SB GD $42.50] 
Z17 STRONG , A.M. 1930. Notes on some Spe- 
cies of Epitonium . Subgenus Nitidiscala . from 
the West Coast of North America., Trans. San 
Diego Soc. Nat. Hist., 6(7):183-196, pi. 10. 
[GD $2.50] 

Z18 WHEELER, H.E. 1935. New Trilobite 
Species from the Anthracolithic of Northern 
California. Griffithides conwayensis . a new 
Name for a Trilobite Species from the Atoka 
Formation of Arkansas. Trans. San Diego Soc. 
Nat. Hist., 8(8):47-58, pi. 6. 
[GD $2.15] 

Z19 HANNA, G.D. 1929. Fossil Diatoms 
Dredged from Bering Sea. Trans. San Diego 
Soc. Nat. Hist., 5(2):287-296, pi. 34. [GD 
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Z20 HANNA, G.D. & A.G. SMITH. 1939. 
Notes on some Forms of Oreohelix strigosa . 
Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 28(25):381-392, pls.33- 
36. [GD $3.65] 

Z20 HOWELL, B.F. 1951. The Vogdes Col- 
lection of Trilobites. Trans. San Diego Soc. 
Nat. Hist., ll(ll):257-328, pis. 1-13. [AV 
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Z26 ALLEN, W.E. 1923. XXIII Expedition of 
the California Academy of Sciences to the 
Gulf of California in 1921. Observations on 
Surface Distribution of Marine Diatoms of 
Lower California in 1921. Proc. Cal. Acad. 
Sci., 12(23):437-442. [GD $1.25] 
Z27 ANDERSON, F.M. 1928. I. Notes on 
Lower Tertiary Deposits of Colombia and 
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Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 17(l):l-29, 1 pi. [GD 
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Z28BAKER.F.& V.D.P.SPICER 1935.New 
Species of Mollusks of the Genus Triphora . 
Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist.,8(7):35-46, 
pi. 5. [GD $2.15] 

Z29 BAKER, F. 1925. IV. A New Species of 
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Z30 BAKER, H.B. 1925. VIII. Anatomy of 
Lanx . a Limpet-Like Lymnaeid Mollusk. 
Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 14(8):143-169, pis. 11- 
14. [GD $5.75] 

Z31 BAKER, F. 1926. VI. Expedition of the 
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California in 1921. Mollusca of the Family 
Triphoridae. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 15(6):223- 
239, pi. 24. [GD $3.05] 

Z32 BARTSCH, P. 1906. The Urocoptid 
Mollusks from the Mainland of America in the 
Collection of theU.S.Nat.Mus., Proc. USNM, 
31:109-160, pis. 3-5. [GD $10.00] 
Z33 BARTSCH, P. 1907. PhilippineMollusks 
of the Genus Planorbis . Proc. USNM, 32:83- 
85, figs. [GD $1.00] 

Z34 BARTSCH, P. 1932. Philippine Land 
Mollusks of the Genus Opisthoporus . USNM 
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Z35 BARTSCH, P. 1932. Philippine Land 
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Z36 BARTSCH, P. 1933. Land Shells of the 
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Z37 BERRY, S.S. 1920. Notes on Some 
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Z38 BERRY, S.S. 1929. Loliolopsischiroctes . 
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Z39 CAHN, A.R. 1922. Chlamvtherium 
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702 REEVE, L. 1854-55. Monograph of the 
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703 REEVE, L. 1851. Conchologica Iconica 
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705 PILSBRY, H.A. Volume XHI - Acmae- 
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706 HOWARD, F.B. 1963. New Name for a 
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707MAGRUDER& HUNT 1979. Seaweeds of 
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708 STEWART, R.B. 1930. Gabb's California 
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713 JACOBSON, M.K. 1971. Index "Revista 
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714 OLIVER, A. 1975. Shells of the World. 
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716 MORRIS, PA. 1966. Field Guide Shells, 
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717 TINKER, S.W. 1965. Pacific SeaShells., 
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718 BARRETT, R. [ed.] 1970. Shell & Shelling 
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719 MURRAY, S. 1969. Shell Life & Shell 
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720 CERNOHORSKY, W.O. 1978. Tropical 
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soft corals; the hard skeleton is replaced by a 
fleshy, rubbery mass. These tropical organisms 
are common in Palau and throughout the heart of 
the Indo-Pacific. One of the two known 
alcyonaceans in the Hawaiian Islands is the 
endemic Anthelia edmondsoni (Figure 3). This 
gorgeous soft coral is a delicate turquoise color, 
and forms sheets or mats in the shallow subtidal 
region. It is usually found in embayments or in 
quieter water. I have found it at Pupukea, on the 
north shore of Oahu, where it grows as a horizon- 
tal band just below the low tide mark. The 
dendronotid nudibranch Tritonia hawaiiensis (also 
an endemic Hawaiian species) feeds on Anthelia 
edmondsoni. The nudibranch's lateral branchial 
tufts and coloration camouflage it well when it is 
on its prey (Bertsch & Johnson, 1981). 

The order Gorgonacea comprises the gorgon- 
ians, properly speaking. The name is derived 
from those three snaky-haired sisters of Greek 
mythology, the Gorgons, the very sight of whom 
turned a man to stone. The one mortal sister, 
Medusa, was slain by Perseus; it is her name which 
is applied to the jellyfish shapeof hydrozoansand 
scyphozoans. 

Muricea californica (Figure 2) is a common 
gorgonian from southern California. Sometimes 
the ovulid snail Simnia vidleri can be found eating 
this gorgonian. As the colonies grow, they form 
annual growth rings in the skeleton. The colonies 
grow as separate sexes, requiring 5-10 years to 
reach sexual maturity. 

Based on the identification keys in Brusca 
(1980), Figures 5 and 7 are Psammogorgia 
arbuscula. This bright red gorgonian grows with 
the stalks all straight upward, and may reach 
heights of 30 to 40 cm. It occurs in the Gulf of 
California, Mexico. This species has been identi- 
fied recently as they prey of the small white 
dendrontoid nudibranch Tritonia pickensi (see 
Bertsch & Gosliner, 1984). 

The brilliant orange-yellow Eugorgia aurantica 
(Figures 6 to 8) is one of my favorites in the Gulf 
of California. I have seen forests of this species 
and several other gorgonian species while scuba 
diving at Bahia de los Angeles in Baja California. 
The Spanish name for gorgonian is "arbolitosdel 
mar" — little trees of the sea. 

In Figure 9, the two gray-white branching 
structures in the foreground are staghorn coral, 
Janaria mirabilis. These hydrocorals (they 
belong to the class Hydrozoa) housea hermitcrab, 
Pylopagurus varians, inside them. This living 
protection has replaced the typical dead gastro- 
pod shell within which a hermit crab normally 
hides. Pylopagurus starts inside a gastropod shell, 



then the hydrocoral begins growing on it, and in 
time chemically erodes away the original gastro- 
pod shell. 

Another common invertebrate at Bahia de los 
Angeles is the large round pink sponge, Pseudo- 
suberites pseudos (Figure 4). Looking carefully at 
the right side of Eugorgia (in Figure 4), where it 
touches the sponge, you can see how the gorgonian 
has grown around the edge of the sponge. 

Often the Eugorgia is covered with one or more 
specimens of the anemone Antiparactis (Figure 6). 
Because there are so many sessile (attached) 
animals in the ocean, space can be a very valuable 
commodity. If there is no room at the inn, or on a 
local rock, one can always settle down on top of 
another organism! 

The anemone just uses the gorgonian for living 
space. Other animalsliving on the gorgonianseat 
their host. I have already mentioned Tritonia and 
the sea shells Simnia (see also my recent columns 
on Cyphoma). Another possible predator is the 
basket star Astrodictyum panamense (Figure 8). 
Brusca (1980:410) has written, "Many basket stars 
are known to feed on gorgonian corals and several 
of the smaller species, in the size range of A. 
panamense, may spend their entire life on a single 
organism." The biology of Gulf gorgonians and 
of most of their associated organisms is virtually 
unknown. 

We have looked briefly at just a few species of 
gorgonians. These animals spend their entire 
adult lives spread out, exposed to the currents of 
the oceans. Animals grow on them, some animals 
eat them, and other animals are eaten by them. 
There are many complex biological interactions 
that need to be studied. Season's greetings! 

References 

Bertsch, Hans & Terrence M. Gosliner, 1984. Tritonia pickensi 

(Nudibranchia: Tritoniidae) from Baja California, Mexico. 

Shells & Sea Life, 16(9):138-139. 
Bertsch, Hans & Scott Johnson, 1981. Hawaiian Nudibranchs. 

Oriental Publ. Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 112 pp. 
Brusca, Richard C. 1980. Common Intertidal Invertebrates of 

the Gulf of California. 2nd edition. Univ. of Arizona Press, 

Tucson, Arizona, 513 pp. 
Devaney, Dennis M. 1977. Subclass Octocorallia. In: Reef and 

Shore Fauna of Hawaii. Section 1: Protozoa through Cteno- 

phora. B.P. Bishop Museum Spec. Publ. 64 (l):119-129. 

Dr. Hans Bertsch, 4444 W. Pt. Loma Blvd. #83, 
San Diego, CA 92107 



Richard E. Petit 

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Major Library Acquisitions 
P.O. Box 30 North Myrtle Beach, South Carolina 
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Send tor new iist 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 16(12):247 




Figure 1. Telesto riisei , Magic Island, Hawaii. 



Figure 2. Muricea californica . 16 m depth, Pt. Loma, San 
Diego, California. 




Figure 3. Anthelia edmondsoni . alongside Hexabranehus 
sanguineus eggs, Pupukea, Oahu, Hawaii. 



Figure 4. Eugorgia , with pink sponge Pseudosuberites 
pseudos . Bahia de los Angeles, Mexico. 




Figure 5. Psammogorgia polyps, Bahia de los Angeles. 



Figure 6. Anemone Antiparactis on Eugorgia , Bahia de 
los Angeles. 



Figure 7. Psammogorgia polypB, Bahfa de Figure 8. Basket star, Astrodictvum 
los Angeles. 



Figure 9. Gorgonian Eugorgia aurantica 



panamense on gorgonian Lophogorgia with J an aria mirabilis hydrocoral, 8 m 

alba , 13 m depth, Bahia de los Angeles. depth, Bahia de los Angeles. 




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